Basic Chemistry:

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Transcript Basic Chemistry:

II. Water is Polar:
Polar = unequal distribution of
o _______
charge
positive
o Each molecule has a __________
end
negative end.
and a __________
II. Water is Polar:
o Ex: Water (H2O) molecule  Oxygen
is much stronger and therefore has a
negative charge
stronger ________________
than the
hydrogen’s positive charge.
II. Water is Polar:
o Because of water’s polarity, it can
dissolve many ionic compounds
__________
and other polar compounds such as
sugars
________.
II. Water is Polar:
o The water molecules
adhere to each
also ________
other because of
polarity (unequal
__________
distribution of charge)
o The attraction of
opposite charges
weak bond
forms a ______
called a
hydrogen bond
_______________.
together
o This keeps large molecules __________!
o (Ex: proteins)
III. Uniqueness of Water – due to its polarity
Cohesion = the attraction between like molecules
1. _________
Surface tension
• _________________
results from the cohesive
properties of water.
• The polarity of water
causes the surface layer
of water molecules to
act like a stretched film
over the surface of the
water (______________)
surface tension
Ex. Water striders
III. Uniqueness of Water – due to its polarity
2. Creeps up in thin tubes
(capillary action)
________________
• The polarity of water
plants to get
allows _______
water from the
ground
________.
• Water creeps up tubes in
plant roots and stems.
III. Uniqueness of Water – due to its polarity
Expands when it freezes
• _________________________
less dense than water (ice floats)
• Ice is _____
Water is Less Dense as a
Solid
•Which is ice and which is water?
Water is Less Dense as a
Solid
Water
Ice
Carbon Compounds
BIOCHEMISTRY
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I. Role of Carbon in Organisms
Organic compounds = compounds
 ___________________
that contain carbon
 Ex: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins
Inorganic compounds = compounds
 _____________________
that DO NOT contain carbon
 Ex: vitamins, minerals, water
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I. Role of Carbon in Organisms
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 Carbon forms ___ covalent bonds to
become stable.
 Can join with other carbons
chains
to form straight ________,
branches or _______.
rings
 These structures may contain
__________
multiple carbon atoms.
 This makes many ___________
compounds possible
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I. Role of Carbon in Organisms
Methane = the simplest carbon
 _________
compound (CH4)
Hydrocarbon = any molecule made
 _____________
hydrogen and ________
carbon atoms!
ONLY of __________
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II. The Digestive System
 The digestive system
breaks down organic
compounds into their
building blocks
(__________).
monomers
 Body cells take the
monomers and put
them together in the
form the body can use
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II. The Digestive System
 ________________
Macromolecules = extremely large
compounds made of smaller compounds.
 _________
Polymer = large molecule formed when
many smaller molecules (monomers)
long chains.
bond together, usually in ______
 Ex: carbohydrates, proteins,
lipids, nucleic acids
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POLYMERS
MONOMERS
(building blocks)
Carbohydrate
Monosaccharides
_________________
Protein
Amino Acids
_____________
Lipid
3 fatty acids
__________________
&
1 glycerol
__________
Nucleic Acids
_____________
Nucleotides
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What do athletes eat the
day before a big game?
 Carbohydrates:
 Carb loading works because
carbohydrates are used by the cells to
STORE and RELEASE energy.
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III. Carbohydrates
storage and
 Compounds used for _________
energy
release of ________
 Made of C, H, O atoms
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3 types of carbohydrates:
1. ________________
Monosaccharide = C6H12O6
Simple sugar (6 carbons)
________
Ex: _______,
glucose
________,
fructose
galactose
_________
 Only form our
body can use
______
for energy
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3 types of carbohydrates:
2. ________________
Disaccharide
= C12H22O11
Double sugar made of 2 simple sugars
________
lactose (milk sugar), _________,
maltose
Ex: _________
sucrose (table sugar)
_________
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3 types of carbohydrates:
3. ________________
Polysaccharide =
monosaccharides
more than 2 _________________
Ex.
Starch - plant’s energy storing molecule
________
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3 types of carbohydrates:
 __________
Glycogen - Animal’s energy storing
molecule
glucose
 Energy storage in the form of _________
 Found in the liver and skeletal muscle
energy between
 When the body needs ________
meals/physical activity, glycogen is broken
hydrolysis
down into glucose through ____________
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3 types of carbohydrates:
 ________
Cellulose - provides structure in plant cell
walls (cannot be digested by human body)
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What happens to CARBOHYDRATES
in the body?
 Broken down by the
digestive system into
monosaccharides
_________________
which are then absorbed
into the body through the
bloodstream where
_____________,
the body cells take the
monosaccharides and
energy
produce ________.
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Lipids & Proteins
BIOCHEMISTRY
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I. Lipids
 Commonly called _______
fats and _______
oils
 Contain ______
more C-H bonds and ______
less
carbohydrates
O atoms than _______________
 Ex. C57H110O6
Nonpolar; therefore
water
repel _______
insoluble
(__________)
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I. Lipids
 ____________________________:
Functions of lipids in your body
 1. ____________
Long term energy storage (used when
carbohydrates are _____
NOT available)
Insulation
 2. __________
 3. _________
Protect
body tissue
(cushioning)
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Which has more energy lipids or carbs?
TWICE as
 One gram of _____
fat contains _______
energy as one gram of
much ________
_______________.
carbohydrates
fats
Therefore, _____
are better _______
storage
compounds!
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Fats vs. Carbs & Energy Storage
 1 gram of Carbs (glycogen) =
4 Kcal of energy
about ___
 A short term rapid
energy source
(sprint events)
 1 gram of Fats =
about 9 Kcal of energy
______________
 A long term energy source
(endurance events – marathons)
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Types and Examples of Lipids:
Sterols - steroids
 1. _______
Waxes - bee, furniture, ear
 2. ______
Cholesterol - in egg yolks
 3. __________
Fats - from animals
 4. _____
Oils - from plants
 5. ____
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Structure of Lipids
 Basic building blocks:
3 fatty acids + ____________
1 glycerol
 _______________
Fatty Acids
 _____________
 Long ________________
carboxyl
chains of carbon with a __________
group at one end.
 Glycerol and each fatty acid are joined to
each other by
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Structure of Lipids
 One fatty acid:
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3 types of fats:
 1. ________________
Saturated fats
= fatty acid chains
single bonds
of carbon with only ________
between the carbon atoms.
Bad Fats – cholesterol (heart disease)
 “__________”
 _______
Solid at room temperature
butter
 Ex: ________
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3 types of fats:
 2. __________________
Unsaturated fats
= fatty acid
double bond
chains of carbon with ONE ________
between the carbon atoms
Good Fats
 “___________”
 ________
liquid at room
temperature
olive oil
 Ex: ___________
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3 types of fats:
 3. ______________________
Polyunsaturated fats
= more than
one double bond between the carbon
atoms in the chain.
 Ex: nuts, seeds, fish, leafy greens.
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Structural formulas for saturated
and polyunsaturated fatty acids:
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What happens to LIPIDS in the body?
 Broken down by the
digestive system into
fatty acids and glycerol
______________________
which are then absorbed
into the body through the
bloodstream, where the
body cells take the fatty
acids and glycerol and
make needed lipids.
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I. Lipids
 _______________
Triglycerides = majority of fat in
organism consist of this type of fat
molecules
foods or made
 Derived from fats eaten in _______
in the body from other energy sources like
carbohydrates.
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I. Lipids
 Calories ingested in a meal and not used
immediately by tissues are converted to
triglycerides and transported to fat cells
to be stored.
energy vs.
 Storage – 3 month supply of ________
glycogen’s 24 hour supply.
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I. Lipids
 Hormones regulate the release of
triglycerides from fat tissue so they meet
the body’s needs for energy between
meals.
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Excess Triglycerides – Life Applications:
 Cause plaque to build up
Arteriosclerosis =
__________________
walls of the arteries
get thick and hard;
fat builds up inside
the walls and slows
blood flow
 blood clots
 heart attacks
 strokes
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Excess Triglycerides – Life Applications:
 ____________
Hypertension
high blood
pressure
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II. Proteins
 Large complex polymer composed of C,
H, O, N and sometimes S
 Monomers (basic building blocks):
amino acids
_____________
20 different
 ___
amino acids
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II. Proteins
 Essential Amino Acids:
10 of the ___
20 amino acids are “essential”
 ___
because they are required by the body but
NOT created by it.
are _____
 As a result, it must be provided buy our
______.
diet If one is missing then proper
growth and repair cannot be maintained
___________.
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Functions of proteins in our body:
Muscle contraction
 1. _______
oxygen
 2. Transport _______
in the bloodstream
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Functions of proteins in our body:
 3. Provide
immunity
_________
(antibodies)
 4. Carry out
chemical
__________
reactions
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What happens to PROTEINS in the body?
 Broken down by the
digestive system into
amino acids which are
___________
then absorbed into the
body through the
bloodstream, where
the body cells take the
amino acids and makes
proteins for muscles.
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Nucleic Acids
BIOCHEMISTRY
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II. Nucleic Acids:
 Complex polymer that stores information
code
in cells in the form of a ______.
 Monomers (basic building blocks):
__________,
nucleotides which consist of C, H, O, N, P
 These elements are arranged in 3 groups:
nitrogen base ______________,
simple sugar and a
_______________,
_________________.
phosphate group
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II. Nucleic Acids:
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II. Nucleic Acids:
 1. _____
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
contains all the instructions for
organisms development . . . AKA
genetic information
 2. _____
RNA (ribonucleic acid) forms
a copy of DNA and is used for
protein synthesis (production)
_________
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Energy of Reactions
IV. Energy of Reactions:
o The key to a
chemical reaction is
energy
________!
o Most compounds in
living things
cannot undergo
________
chemical reactions
without energy.
IV. Energy of Reactions:
Activation Energy =
o ________________
the minimum amount
of energy needed for
reactants to form
products in a chemical
reaction.
Graph A
o Look at Graph A:
the peak in the graph
represents the amount
energy that must be added to the
of ________
system to make the reaction occur.
IV. Energy of Reactions:
o All living things are chemical factories
driven by _________________!
chemical reactions
o Enzymes (catalysts) need to be present
reduce the activation
in order to ________
energy and allow the reaction to
proceed quickly.
IV. Energy of Reactions:
o Look at Graph B:
the enzyme
lowers the
________
activation energy
and the product
will be formed
sooner!
Graph B
IV. Energy of Reactions:
Catalyst = a substance that lowers
o __________
the activation energy needed to start a
chemical reaction.
Enzyme = special proteins that are
o ________
biological catalysts that speed up the
rate of the chemical reaction.
o Essential to life!
Specific to one reaction.
o __________
How do ENZYMES work?
o The reactants that bind to the enzyme
substrates
are called ____________.
o The specific location where a substrate
binds on an enzyme is called the
active site
____________.
How do ENZYMES work?
o The active site and substrate have
complementary shapes (lock-and-key).
_______________
very specific for the
o Enzymes are ______
substrates that will change!
How do ENZYMES work?
o When the enzyme-substrate complex
broken and
forms, chemical bonds are ________
form to produce the
new bonds ______
products.
o Enzyme releases the _________
product and the
enzyme can be used again.
Factors that Affect Enzymes:
pH (how acidic or basic a substance is)
1. ____
2. _____________
Temperature
• Most enzymes in humans cells are
most active at 98.6oF
denature
• pH & temperature will __________
(change the shape) of the enzyme so it
will not be able to bond with the
corresponding substrate!
Examples of Enzymes Working:
digestion
1. Helps with ___________
replication
2. DNA ___________
3. Enzymes in the venom
of a venomous snake
break down the
____________
membranes of a
person’s red blood cells.
Examples of Enzymes Working:
ripen because of
1. Hard green apples _______
the action of enzymes
2. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration
energy for the cell with the
provide ________
help of enzymes
Enzymes
• The human body has over 1,000 types of enzymes.
• Each kind does one specific job.
• Without enzymes, a person could not breathe, see,
move, or digest food.
• IN SIMPLE LANGUAGE, ENZYMES KEEP US ALIVE!
• They regulate the digestion of our food, the
production of energy, the production of hormones
and other important body secretions, and the
destruction of foreign substances.
Examples of Enzymes
In the Human Body:
• Amylases - Amylases break down starch chains
into smaller sugar molecules. Your saliva contains
amylase and so does your small intestine.
• Lactase – break simple sugars down into
individual glucose molecules. (lactose
intolerant people don’t have this enzyme)
• Lipases - Lipases break down fats.
• Cellulases - Cellulases break cellulose
molecules (from plants) down into
simpler sugars. Most animals don’t
have these so we depend on bacteria
in our gut (approximately 3 lbs)
to help us do this.
Examples of Enzymes
Other enzymes:
•Proteases and peptidases Proteases and peptidases
are often found in laundry
detergents -- they help
remove things like blood
stains from cloth by
breaking down the proteins.
Regulation of Enzyme Activity
Temperature, pH, and regulatory molecules
can affect the activity of enzymes.
•Enzymes produced by human cells work
best at 98.6oF with a pH around 7.2.
•Pepsin in the stomach works best under
acidic conditions.
•Most are regulated by molecules that
switch them “on” or “off” as needed.