Organic Molecules aka Macromolecules

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Transcript Organic Molecules aka Macromolecules

Organic molecules
= all molecules made by/used by biotic organisms
that contain carbon
Basic atoms of organic molecules=
C H O NP
• 4 Categories of organic molecules
=Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids(fats)
Nucleic acids (DNA & RNA…)
dna-sequencing-service.com
Why is carbon required?
• Carbon has a valence of 4 and makes 4 bonds (most
possible)
• This allows for more complex, long chains like
organic molecules (DNA etc)
• Life is carbon based!
Valence of 4
room for 4 more e-
newenergyandfuel.com
Macromolecules are made by linking
together repeated small molecules
ex: simple sugars,
like glucose…..
a MONOMER
…to create complex molecules, like starch
a POLYMER
Monomer/Polymer Analogies
Monomer- a small
building block
molecule
Polymer- a long chain
made of repeatedly
linked subunit molecules
Bonding monomers into polymer
chains releases water
water!
This is DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS
Conversely, water is required to break the
bonds of a polymer into monomers
– this is HYDROLYSIS
water!
Making & Breaking Polymers Animation
Dehydration & Hydrolysis Animation
4 Categories:
Protein Polymers
Nucleic Acid
Polymers
Carbohydrate
Polymers (aka
Polysaccharides)
Lipid Polymers
(Fats)
(aka sugar)
Carbs are for short
term energy
Monosaccharide
Aka simple sugar -ose= sugar
Ex: glucose, fructose
(CH2O)n
1:2:1 Ratio
The monomer of all carbohydrates
Disaccharide,
Aka complex sugar
Ex: sucrose, lactose
Glucose
+
fructose
Polysaccharides
(Complex carbs)
‘many’ sugars
Starch storage (plants)
ex: cellulose fiber (plants)
glycogen (animals)
All di- &
polysaccarides
hydrolysed to
monosaccharides in
digestion
As polymers, all polysaccharides are
complex carbohydrates
Whole grain carbs
contain all the layers
of the grain, and so
are the most
nutritious
Refined grains are
mostly starch
Ex: brown vs white rice
Starch
Protein
Fiber,
Vitamins,
Minerals
Protein
Found in:
Breads
Potatoes
Pastas
Cereals
Lipids Functions
• for long term stored energy,
• cell membranes,
• hormones,
• protective coatings,
• insulation
Found in: meat fat (bacon, sausage)
plant oils (olive oil, corn oil)
bees wax
in TWO monomer types
Glycerol
monomer
Fatty acid
monomers
More C-H bonds
therefore more stored energy
Fats = 9kcal/g vs Carbs = 4kcal/g
Like carbs, built
of C, H, O atoms
Most stored under the
skin (subcutaneous fat)
Saturated fats, every C full with hydrogen (no double bonds)
solid at room temp; BAD fats, animal sources
Warning: body stores these in blood vessels!
Unsaturated (some double bonds-not full of H),
liquid at room temp; oils = GOOD fats, plant sources
Bent ‘tail’ from double bond
Trans Fats are made by hydrogenating unsaturated fats
to break the double bonds
Proteins
Amino acid monomer
Formed into long chains – polypeptides
Folded and coiled into a specific protein
C, H, O, N
dehydration synthesis!
- there are 21 amino acids
- vary in R group
-9 ‘essential’ required from
diet; body cannot make
4kcal/g converted to energy
use when carbs are low
Found in foods like….
Meat (fish, chicken, pork, beef =all muscle)
Beans, eggs & grains (if whole grain)
Proteins are for cellular functions:
• growth & repair
• cell recognition & defense
• molecule transport
• movement (muscle) & structural
support
AND
• to facilitate chemical reactions
via enzymes
the –ase suffix
indicates an
enzyme!
contains lactose
– a disaccharide
Nucleic Acids
5 Nucleotide Monomers
C, H, O, N, P
Nucleotide
Found in all cells
Function to Hold & Process Genetic
Info (Ex. DNA & RNA)
Link by Dehydration
Synthesis!
Can twist into DNA