Halkier Barnaul 1 Oct 2011

download report

Transcript Halkier Barnaul 1 Oct 2011

TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Making three ends meet
Henrik Halkier
Professor of Regional and Tourism Studies
Aalborg University
Denmark
[email protected]
http://www2.ihis.aau.dk/~halkier/
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Making three ends meet
Henrik Halkier
Aalborg University
Denmark
[email protected]
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Making three ends meet
Henrik Halkier
Aalborg University
Denmark
[email protected]
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Making three ends meet
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Introduction: Actors in tourism development
Reasons to go / 1: Destination attractiveness
Reasons to go / 2: Image and experiences
Alternative strategies
Nothing special? Extending the season in a cool location
http://www2.ihis.aau.dk/~halkier/
Tourists and tourism:
WHAT’S IN A NAME ?
“someone who moves away from home on a
temporary or short-term basis for at least 24
hours, whether travelling in his or her own
country (domestic tourism) or going to another
country (international tourism)”
(Law, 1994 p.4).
Tourists and tourism:
WHAT’S IN A NAME ?
”Tourism may be defined as the sum of the
processes, activities, and outcomes arising from
the interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers,
host governments, host communities, origin
governments, universities, community colleges,
and non-governmental organisations, in the
process of attracting, transporting, hosting and
managing these tourists and other visitors”.
(Weaver & Lawton 2006, p.3).
Tourism development
MAPPING A TRIANGLE
Public
facilitators/
regulators
Private
providers
Tourists
Source: H. Halkier: Regional turismeudvikling mellem udbud og efterspørgsel, in Halkier et al. (eds.):
Regional turismeudvikling mellem udbud og efterspørgsel, Aalborg: Aalborg Universitetsforlag, 2002, p 120
Reasons to go / 1
DESTINATION PULL FACTORS
Geographical proximity to markets
 Accessibility to markets
 Availability of attractions
 Availability of services
 Affordability
 Peace, stability & safety
 Cultural links
 Positive market image
 Pro-tourism policies

Reasons to go / 1
NORTHERN CHALLENGES ?
Turkey
Spain
Slovenia
Portugal
M alta
Italy
Greece
Cyprus
Slovakia
Romania
Poland
Lithuania
Latvia
Hungary
Estonia
Czech
Bulgaria
Switzerland
Netherlands
Germany
France
Belgium
Austria
UK
Sweden
Norway
Ireland
Finland
Denmark
0,0
Expenditure/GDP (%)
Receipts/GDP (%)
International
tourism in Europe.
Source: Calculated on
the basis of World
Tourism Organisation
2005.
2,0
4,0
6,0
8,0
10,0
12,0
14,0
Reasons to go / 1
NORTHERN CHALLENGES ?
Expenditure above EU average (% of GDP)
4,0
3,0
2,0
1,0
0,0
-4,0
-2,0
0,0
2,0
4,0
6,0
8,0
-1,0
-2,0
Receipts above EU average (% of GDP)
10,0
12,0
14,0
Reasons to go / 2
IMAGES OF OTHERS
+
-
=
Friendly images
Investor appeal
Dull images
Indifference?

Exotic images
Tourist appeal
Hostile images
Enemy-making
Reasons to go / 2
COMPLEX EXPERIENCES
Attraction
Cultural
Organisation
Individual Ruhr heritage
Visiting relatives
Collective Antalya football
Corporate incentives
Natural
Achterhoek rural
North DK coastal
Antalya coastal
Alpine skiing
Attractions more/less possible to develop
 Organisation creates different ways to approach
potential visitors

ALTERNATIVE
STRATEGIES?
NEW
EXPERIENCES?
NEW
COMMUNIKATION?
No
Yes
No Better
service
Yes
Hospitality
 Convenient/cheap transport
 Mouth-to-mouth information

ALTERNATIVE
STRATEGIES?
NEW
EXPERIENCES?
NEW
COMMUNIKATION?
No
Yes
No Better
More
service
promotion
Yes
Existing/new markets
 Digital convenience
 Analysis of competition?

ALTERNATIVE
STRATEGIES?
NEW
EXPERIENCES?
NEW
COMMUNIKATION?
No
Yes
No Better
More
service
promotion
Yes More
innovation
New products/attractions/services
 Destination development, coordination
 Analysis of trends in demand?

ALTERNATIVE
STRATEGIES?
NEW
EXPERIENCES?
NEW
COMMUNIKATION?
No
Yes
No Better
More
service
promotion
Yes More
innovation
Stronger
brand
Authentic and unique experiences
 Existing image as a challenge
 Relevance for all types of tourism?

NOTHING SPECIAL?
Extending the season in a cool location
NOTHING SPECIAL?
Extending the season in a cool location
Conceptualising
FOOD TOURISM
RDA
DMO
F
T
T
F
F
T
Exchange
to be
increased
INTER/NATIONAL
CONTEXT
NOTHING SPECIAL?
Extending the season in a cool location