Philosophy of Science 1 Science, Projects and the

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Transcript Philosophy of Science 1 Science, Projects and the

TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Making three ends meet
Henrik Halkier
Professor of Regional and Tourism Studies
Aalborg University
Denmark
[email protected]
http://www2.ihis.aau.dk/~halkier/
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Making three ends meet
Henrik Halkier
Aalborg University
Denmark
[email protected]
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Making three ends meet
Henrik Halkier
Aalborg University
Denmark
[email protected]
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Making three ends meet
1.
2.
3.
4.
Introduction: Actors in tourism development
Reasons to go / 1: Destination attractiveness
Reasons to go / 2: Image and experiences
Nothing special? Architectural heritage tourism
http://www2.ihis.aau.dk/~halkier/
Tourists and tourism:
WHAT’S IN A NAME ?
“someone who moves away from home on a
temporary or short-term basis for at least 24
hours, whether travelling in his or her own
country (domestic tourism) or going to another
country (international tourism)”
(Law, 1994 p.4).
Tourists and tourism:
WHAT’S IN A NAME ?
”Tourism may be defined as the sum of the
processes, activities, and outcomes arising from
the interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers,
host governments, host communities, origin
governments, universities, community colleges,
and non-governmental organisations, in the
process of attracting, transporting, hosting and
managing these tourists and other visitors”.
(Weaver & Lawton 2006, p.3).
Tourism development
MAPPING A TRIANGLE
Public
facilitators/
regulators
Private
providers
Tourists
Source: H. Halkier: Regional turismeudvikling mellem udbud og efterspørgsel, in Halkier et al. (eds.):
Regional turismeudvikling mellem udbud og efterspørgsel, Aalborg: Aalborg Universitetsforlag, 2002, p 120
Reasons to go / 1
DESTINATION PULL FACTORS
Geographical proximity to markets
 Accessibility to markets
 Availability of attractions
 Availability of services
 Affordability
 Peace, stability & safety
 Cultural links
 Positive market image
 Pro-tourism policies

Reasons to go / 1
NORTHERN CHALLENGES ?
Turkey
Spain
Slovenia
Portugal
M alta
Italy
Greece
Cyprus
Slovakia
Romania
Poland
Lithuania
Latvia
Hungary
Estonia
Czech
Bulgaria
Switzerland
Netherlands
Germany
France
Belgium
Austria
UK
Sweden
Norway
Ireland
Finland
Denmark
0,0
Expenditure/GDP (%)
Receipts/GDP (%)
International
tourism in Europe.
Source: Calculated on
the basis of World
Tourism Organisation
2005.
2,0
4,0
6,0
8,0
10,0
12,0
14,0
Reasons to go / 1
NORTHERN CHALLENGES ?
Expenditure above EU average (% of GDP)
4,0
3,0
2,0
1,0
0,0
-4,0
-2,0
0,0
2,0
4,0
6,0
8,0
-1,0
-2,0
Receipts above EU average (% of GDP)
10,0
12,0
14,0
Reasons to go / 2
IMAGES OF OTHERS
+
-
=
Friendly images
Investor appeal
Dull images
Indifference?

Exotic images
Tourist appeal
Hostile images
Enemy-making
Reasons to go / 2
COMPLEX EXPERIENCES
Absorption
Entertainment
Educational
Passive
Participation
Active
Participation
Esthetic
Escapist
(Pine & Gilmore, 1999 p.30)
Immersion
NOTHING SPECIAL?
Architectural heritage tourism
Ebeltoft, www.visitdjursland.dk
NOTHING SPECIAL?
Architectural heritage tourism
The Old Town, Aarhus - http://www.dengamleby.dk/ - www.visitaarhus.dk