#### Transcript BioB4Symbiosis - Darlak4Science

```NG Biology Standard 4B:
Ecology & Ecological Issues
Week 1
Ms. Darlak
Warm-up 5/21

In our mark-recapture activity what would happen if….
 Marked Beans liked being handled so they were jumping in your
hand to be captured? Trap happy.
 Will this cause an Overestimate or an Underestimate
population?
Estimate = ( 100 ) X ( 10 ) = 200
Estimate = ( 100 ) X ( 10 ) = 100
(5)
(10)
Marked Beans DON’T liked being handled so they were jumping
out your hand to be captured? Trap shy.
 Will this cause an Overestimate or an Underestimate
Estimate = ( 100 ) X ( 10 ) = 200
Estimate = ( 100 ) X ( 10 ) = 500
population? (5)

(2)
Agenda 05/21



HW Check: pp. 6-11
Random Sampling Activity
Population Graph Practice pp. 7-14
Population Growth p.7
a)What
is the rabbit
population’s carrying capacity?
________
67 rabbits
b) The population of rabbits
between mid-May and midJune is growing as fast as:
(circle one)

a turtle walking (super slow.)

a student running late to class
(fast!)

you walking to class (slow.)

Ms. Darlak running away from a
mountain lion (super fast!)
c) What about the graph led
you to circle the answer you
chose in letter b?
K
Carrying Capacity p.9

As the number of lynx increases, the number of snowshoe
DECREASES
hares: _____________.

What is the scientific explanation for these results?
Situation
Ms. Darlak has 32 students assigned to her Biology class, but she
only has room for 28. Because the room is so crowded, the extra 4
students leave the room to go to Counseling and have their
schedules changed.
Northern pike (it’s a fish) feed on another fish, the yellow perch.
An increase in the yellow perch population causes an increase in
the northern pike population.
The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has harmed many aquatic
organisms that live in the Gulf region.
A new strain of influenza (the flu) breaks out in New York City.
A population of rabbits and a population of deer are both feeding
off the same plants in the same habitat.
Hurricane Katrina forced thousands of people to leave New
Orleans.
65 million years ago, a large asteroid collided with the Earth. As a
result, large amounts of ash were ejected into Earth’s atmosphere.
Due to humans putting increasing amounts of greenhouse gases
into the atmosphere and cutting down trees that would normally
take up some of those gases, the Earth slowly gets warmer and
changes climates around the globe.
Densityindependent, or
dependent?
densitydependent
Dependent
Limiting
Factor:
emigration
Predation
Human
Impact
Independent
Dependent Disease
Dependent Competition
Independent Weather
Independent Natural
Disaster
Independent
Human
Impact
Carrying Capacity p.11
growth curve
exponential
logistic
shows
unlimited,
unchecked
growth
growth
limited by
extrinsic or
intrinsic
factors
shape
of
curve
(S or J)
J
S
shows
carrying
capacity for a
population.
typical of
short term or
long term
growth
Short
Long
Carrying Capacity p.11
hours
exponential logistic
b. the flea population on a rat is monitored for 5 weeks with
exponential logistic
c. loggerhead turtle populations are tracked for 10 years in
the Atlantic
exponential logistic
d. a lucky yeast cell falls into your glass of grape juice and
reproduces for 3 hours exponential logistic
e. bull frog population in a local pond is monitored for 5
seasons
exponential logistic

Population Density

p.3
Population density is a measurement of the
number of individuals living in a defined space.
Dispersion Pattern
p.3
Population dispersion refers to how a
population is spread in an area.
 There are three types of dispersion
illustrated on the next slides:
Uniform
Evenly spaced
Clumped
clustered together, creating patches
with many individuals and some
patches with no individuals
Random
individuals are arranged
without any apparent pattern
Estimating Population Size
Random Sampling
What if your population doesn’t move?
 Do you need to use Mark/Recapture?
 Then, you can estimate population by random
sampling.

Random Sampling

Perform 2xs




First with grid on p.17
Second with Clumped grid (hand out)
Uniform Population = 228
Clumped = 119
p.15 - 17
Class/Homework


Random Sampling Activity p. 15-17
Population Graph Practice pp. 12-13
Warm-up 05/22


Using the random sampling
method.
Estimate the population of
trees found in this 1 km2
area?
9
9
Average # trees/plot =
9+9+9+8+8= 43/5 = 8.6
Estimate = average #
multiplied by number of
plots
8.6 X 25 = 215
8
9
8
Agenda 05/22
Population Ecology – Graph 1 p.13

In what generation
does this population
reach its’ carrying
capacity?

24-25 generations
Population Ecology – Graph 2 p.13

Limiting Factor

Removal of Limiting
Overshoot

Overshoot =
magnifies density
dependent limiting
factors
Overshoot and Dieback
Population Ecology – Graph 3 p.13

P. caudatum decreasing

P. aurelia outcompetes

K is higher when
bacteria grown alone.

Day 12 – P. auelia
reaches K
Population Ecology – Graph 4 p.14
1.
2.
3.
Moose Population greatest at 2500 in 1995
Wolf population depends on Moose
Canine parvovirus
What is the Carrying capacity of Deer?
Give an example of a density-dependent and density
independent factor controlling the deer population.
Population Ecology

https://darlak4science.wikispaces.com/NG+Standard+4B
More Realistic Curve
K1
K2
Warm-up 05/18
If a Habitat is the Home and a Niche is the Job,
What is the Habitat of the Ants? (Circle)
What is the niche of ants? (Underline)
Habitat vs Niche
Lets see what Reginald the Red Wolf has to say.
What is the niche?
set of conditions
within which an organism
can maintain a viable
population
multi-dimensional
with as many
dimensions as their
are limiting conditions
light intensity
ecological
niche
okay
salinity
temperature
Physical Niche: depends on physical (abiotic)
conditions, general niche. Niche without
competition.
Realized niche depends on biotic as well as abiotic
conditions. Niche because of competition.
Physical Niche
What, when, why……..…. without competition.
Balanus alone
Balanus
fundamental
niche
growth
rate
low
Chthamalus alone
Chthamalus fundamental
niche
middle
high
Location in intertidal zone
Realized niche is with biotic (competition
and predation) and abiotic recourses.
Balanus
and
Chthamalus
growth
rate
Balanus
realized
niche
low
Chthamalu
s realized
niche
middle
high
Location in intertidal zone
Agenda 05/18


Intro to Ecology 4B
Symbiotic Relationships p. 5


Density Dependent or Independent Limiting Factors?
Symbiotic Relationships p.5
“living together”





Commensalism
Mutualism
Parasitism
Predation
Competition
Commensalism +/0
relatively unaffected



Commensalism means "at table together".
One organism consumes the unused food of
another.
Some examples:




The remora and the shark.
Some species of barnacles
Many of the bacteria living in our large intestine.
Epiphytes
Mutualism +/+
Both benefit


Relationships in which each species benefits.
Examples:



Pollinators and Flowers
Clownfish and Anemone
Lichen - fungus & algae
Parasitism +/-
one gains, other loses


One organism gains at the expense of another
Examples:



Tapeworm
Mosquitoes
Parasitoid wasps
Predation

+/-
Interaction where a predator (an organism that is
hunting) feeds on its prey, the organism that is attacked
Competition +/- , -/+



Interaction between two or more organisms, or
groups of organisms, that use a common resource
in short supply.
There can be competition between members of
the same species and competition between
members of different species
Examples:

Lions and Hyenas
Intraspecific vs Interspecific
Intraspecific

competition within the
same species.
 Owls competing among
themselves for the same
food source
Interspecific

competition between two
or more different species.
 Owls and hawks competing
against each other for the
same food source
Warm-up 05/19

What type of symbiotic relationship do you have with


mutualism, parasitism, commensalism, competition, predation
Explain why?
Agenda 05/19
 Review

Symbiotic Relationships
Homework Check pp. 5-6
 Limiting
Factors & Population Growth
 Homework pp. 7-11
 Fresh
9:36
What type of Relationship?
Mutualism
What type of Relationship?
Epiphyte Plant
Commensalism
What type of Relationship?
Parasitism
What type of Relationship?
Predation
What type of Relationship?
Mutualism
What type of Relationship?
Commensalism
What type of Relationship?
Parasitism
Each population has a density, a dispersion
pattern, and a reproductive strategy.
Populations grow in predictable patterns.

A limiting factor is something that keeps
the size of a population down.
• Limiting factors can depend on the
density of individuals in the
population or not.
Density-dependent limiting factors p.4

are affected by the number of individuals
in a given area. (BIOTIC)
– Predation
– Competition
– Parasitism
and disease
Density-independent limiting factors p.4

limit a population’s growth
regardless of the density. (ABIOTIC)
• unusual
weather
• natural
disasters
• human
activities
Density Dependent or Independent?

Rainbow smelt and yellow perch attempt to occupy the same
area. The more aggressive smelt survive; the perch do not.

DD - competition between species only occurs at certain
densities
Population Growth
The size of a population is always changing.
 Four factors affect the size of a
population:
1. Births
2. Deaths
3. Immigration

(Moving into an area)
Emigration
4.

(Moving out of an area)
• Carrying capacity is the
maximum number of individuals in
a population that the environment
can support. (K)
• This is due to limited resources
(food, shelter, space)
• A population crash is a dramatic
decline in the size of a population
over a short period of time.
Carrying Capacity p.3
Growth Curves
Logistic




Growth limited by factor
S-shaped
Shows Carrying Capacity
Shows long term growth

Logistic growth is due to a population
facing limited resources.
Growth Curves
Exponential
•
•
•
•
Unlimited growth
J-shaped
No limits to growth
Short term growth
p.3

Exponential growth is a rapid
population increase due to an
abundance (lots of) of resources.
Class/Homework


Limiting Factors and Population Growth p.7-11
Carrying Capacity p.12
RTFD
Warm-up 02/23

List 2 different symbiotic relationships and give an
example of each.
Warm-up 05/20
Density Dependent or Independent?
 Many
fish die due to an increase in water
temperature.

Abiotic = Density Independent - temperature affects
all population densities
A
population is growing quickly when
parasites cause disease to spread quickly.

Biotic = Density Dependent - parasitism only affects
certain population densities
Agenda 5/20




Review of Limiting Factors
Carrying Capacity p. 11
Mark Recapture Activity pp.13-15
HW:


Limiting Factors & Carrying Capacity pp. 6-10
Carrying Capacity p. 11
Summary of Limiting Factors
 Density
Dependent (K = carrying capacity)
A factor whose effects on the size or growth of population
vary with the population density.
 Biotic factors

 Food, Predators, Parasites, Disease, Competition
 Density
Independent
A factor that affects the size of a population independent or
regardless of the population density.
 Abiotic factors

 Air, water, temperature, weather.
Carrying Capacity (K)


Ecosystems can only support a specific amount of
individuals of each population.
They are limited by resources.




Water
Space
Food
Habitat
Carrying Capacity & Growth Curves p.11


Which is logistic? Which is exponential?
Which has no limiting factors?
Estimating Population Size
Mark/Recapture
Estimating Population Size
Rabbit Population Example

http://www.biologycorner.com/flash/mark_recap.swf

# Marked =
10
Trial Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Total:
Number
Captured
4
5
2
3
5
3
4
3
5
3
Number Recaptured
with mark
1
1
1
0
1
1
2
1
1
0
37
9
Estimating Population Size
 # Marked
= 10
 Estimate = (

37) X ( 10 ) =
( 9)
Actual Rabbit Population Size =
41.1
45
Estimating Population Size
Mark/Recapture
Class/Homework

Mark Recapture pp. 13-15

HW

Limiting Factors and Carrying Capacity pp. 6-10
Carrying Capacity p.11
```