Diseases of the Digestive System

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Transcript Diseases of the Digestive System

Digestive System
Saimah Ali • Abby Daitol • Gulshan
What is the digestive system?
 The human digestive system is a complex
series of organs and glands that processes
food to nourish and provide energy.
 In order to use the food we eat, our body has
to break the food down into smaller molecules
that it can process.
 It also has to excrete waste.
known as the
digestive tract
Pathway by which food
enters the body and solid
wastes are expelled
Large intestine
 The first part of the digestive tract
where food enters the body
 Function: Chewing breaks the food into
pieces that are more easily digested,
while saliva mixes with food to begin
the process of breaking it down into a
form your body can absorb and use.
Cone shaped passageway leading from
the oral and nasal cavity in the head to
the esophagus and larynx
 Also known as the throat
 Function: receives the food from the
 The act of swallowing takes place in the
• The Epiglottis is the flap of elastic cartilage
that protects food from entering the larynx
when swallowing.
 The
esophagus is a
muscular tube extending
from the pharynx and
behind the trachea
(windpipe) to the
 Function:
receives the
food from the mouth
when you swallow and
delivers it to the stomach
 The
stomach is a hollow organ, or
"container," that holds food
 Function:
The stomach secretes acid
and powerful enzymes that continue the
process of breaking the food down and
changing it to a consistency of liquid.
there, food
moves to the small
When full, the
average adult
stomach can hold
approximately four
liters of food.
Long, thin winding tube
that food goes through
after it leaves the
 The small intestine is
responsible for absorbing
most of the nutrients
found within your food
 Digestion of fats, proteins
and carbohydrates
contained in the foods
you consume, is
completed within the
small intestine.
 Long muscular tube that
connects the small intestine
to the rectum
 Function: reabsorbs water
and maintains the fluid
balance of the body
 absorbs certain vitamins
 processes undigested
 stores waste before it is
the lower part of the large
It is the rectum's job to receive stool
(feces) from the colon, to let the person
know that there is stool to be evacuated,
and to hold the stool until evacuation
Abdominal cavity
• The stomach, liver,
intestines and rectum
are in the abdominal
• The abdominal cavity is
shown in yellow- the top
is the thoracic the
middle is the abdominal
and the end is the
anus is the opening
through which stools/feces
(the waste products of
digestion) pass out of the
rectum and are eliminated
from the body
it stores and releases bile
(a digestive chemical which is produced
in the liver) into the small intestine
Liver- filters toxins from blood and
makes bile and some blood proteins
Pancreas- enzymes from the pancreas
help in the digestion of carbohydrates,
fats, and proteins in the small intestine
Diseases of the Digestive
Cirrhosis of the Liver
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver slowly
deteriorates and malfunctions due to chronic
injury. Scar tissue replaces healthy liver
tissue, partially blocking the flow of blood
through the liver. Scarring also impairs the
liver’s ability to:
• control infections
• remove bacteria and toxins from the blood
• process nutrients, hormones, and drugs
• make proteins that regulate blood clotting
• produce bile to help absorb fats—including
cholesterol—and fat-soluble vitamins
A healthy liver is able to regenerate most of its
own cells when they become damaged. With
end-stage cirrhosis, the liver can no longer
effectively replace damaged cells. A healthy
liver is necessary for survival.
Your symptoms, a
examination, and
certain tests can
help your doctor
cirrhosis. Some
tests are:
•Blood tests
•Liver Biopsy
In a liver biopsy, a
needle is used to
take a small piece
of liver tissue. That
sample is then
examined under a
microscope. ->
How is cirrhosis diagnosed?
What causes cirrhosis?
Some causes are:
• Cirrhosis has many causes, including
• alcohol abuse (alcoholic liver disease)
• autoimmune hepatitis, which is
destruction of liver cells by the body’s
immune system
• nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or nonalcoholic
steatohepatitis (NASH), which is fat deposits and
inflammation in the liver
• some drugs, toxins, and infections
• blocked bile ducts, the tubes that
carry bile from the liver
How can you treat liver cirrhosis?
• Once you have scar
tissue in your liver,
nothing will make it
go away. But,
treatment will
prevent it from
getting worse.
If too much scar tissue forms, your liver could fail. At
this point you would need to consider a liver
transplant to return you to good health.
Complications of Liver Cirrhosis
• Bruising and bleeding.
When the liver slows or
stops producing the
proteins needed for blood
clotting, a person will bruise
or bleed easily.
• Jaundice: yellowing of the
skin and whites of the eyes
and darkening of the urine.
• Liver cancer. Hepatocellular
carcinoma is a type of liver
cancer that can occur in
people with cirrhosis.
Hepatocellular carcinoma
has a high mortality rate,
but several treatment
options are available.
What is your
appendix and
where is it?
• The appendix is a
fingerlike pouch attached
to the large intestine and
located in the lower right
area of the abdomen.
• Scientists are not sure
what the appendix does,
if anything, but removing
it does not appear to
affect a person’s health.
• Appendicitis is a painful
swelling and infection
of the appendix.
Who gets appendicitis?
• Anyone can get it, but
it is more common in
people between the
ages 10 – 30 years old.
Some symptoms may
loss of appetite
• nausea
• vomiting
• constipation or diarrhea
The main symptom is abdominal pain. The abdominal pain
• occurs suddenly, often causing a person to wake up at night
• occurs before other symptoms
• begins near the belly button and then moves lower and to
the right
• is new and unlike any pain felt before
disease causes inflammation
(irritation and swelling) of parts of the
digestive tract. The inflammation, mostly
caused by sores called ulcers, can cause
pain and diarrhea.
Swelling in the
digestive tract makes
the passage narrow.
 The
digestive tract is the
pathway food travels through
in the body. This pathway is
also called the gastrointestinal,
or GI, tract. It goes from the
mouth to the anus.
How is Crohn’s disease diagnosed?
• A detailed personal history, a
physical exam, and tests are
needed to diagnose Crohn’s
disease. During your visit the
doctor will ask about your
symptoms and health.
• Blood tests can uncover
anemia. Anemia can mean you
have bleeding in your
intestines. Blood tests can also
show a high white blood cell
count, a sign of inflammation
in the body.
• X rays may be needed. The
doctor may also do an upper
GI series and small bowel
follow-through to look at your
small intestine.
 Treatment
may include
 drugs
 minerals
and vitamins
 surgery
 nutritional
Goals of the treatment:
•help the inflammation
•correct nutritional problems
•relieve symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and
rectal bleeding
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ea7LtEZ