Ecosystems & Their Components

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Transcript Ecosystems & Their Components

Science 8
___________– change & vary over time
____________is looked at to indicate health
A _________, ___________ _______ that includes:
◦ 1. ___________ components (living)
 Exs: _________, fungi, plants, ____________
◦ 2. ______________components (nonliving,
physical or chemical)
 Exs: _________, oxygen, nitrogen, ________,
pH, soil nutrients & composition,
temperature, sunlight, __________________
____________= same organisms that can
__________ with each other
_______________= small group of ________
_______ in the same location/geographic area
________________ = __________ populations
that interact together within a certain area
_______________= communities of organisms
& their _________ factors living together,
sustained by the continuous flow of _________
_______________= ALL ecosystems on Earth
 ___________
____________at a
predictable rate
 Supply of __________ fluctuates
at a predictable rate
 _____________flows through at
a fairly ____________ rate
___________: the place where an
organism lives. It supplies all the biotic
and abiotic factors the organism needs
to survive.
____________: an organism’s role/”job.”
what it eats, how it eats and what eats it…
If the niche of one organism overlaps the niche
of another organism, you have competition!
What is Reginald’s habitat?
What is Reginald’s niche?
Measures the # of individual organisms
living in a defined space
__________ ____________= the # of
individuals that an environment can
___________ ____________= things that
can change within an ecosystem and will
regulate/change a population (its size,
density, distribution)
1. Density-_______________Factors:
◦ Affect a large population more strongly than small
◦ Triggered by density (crowding)
◦ Ex: ____________________________________________
2. Density-______________________Factors:
◦ Occur regardless of how large the population is
◦ Reduce size of all populations in area by same %age
◦ Ex: _______________________________________
3.Biotic Factors
4. Abiotic Factors
__________________= an interaction between
species in which one species eats the other
Predator eats the Prey!!
Ex: Whale Shark eats _____________ and
small fish
Ex: Red wolf eats __________, swamp
rabbits, etc
As prey population ______________, predator
population ____________ (more food available)
As predator population ___________, prey
population _______________ (prey are easier to
find, more get eaten)
_____________ - ___________ ___________
fluctuates in a predictable cycle  stable
Competition = occurs when 2 or more organisms
need the _________ __________ at the same time
(________, shelter, water)
Can be among members of same or different
Occurs when organisms share same ___________
Ex: Hawks and fox eat ______________
Results in decrease in population of species that is
less adapted to compete
Symbiotic Relationships:
Between organisms of 2 different species that
live together in direct contact
Fluctuations in populations of 1 species will
affect the other
3. ____________________
________________= symbiotic relationship
where one organism (the parasite) benefits at
the expense of the other organism (the host)
Usually parasite ______ ______ ______ ________
Some parasite live _________host – tapeworms
Some parasites feed on __________surface of
host – fleas, aphids
Ex: __________ sucking blood from
______________ = symbiotic relationship in
which both organisms benefit & they help
each other to survive
Ex: plant roots ______ ________ for fungi that
break down nutrients the plant needs
Ex: _____________ can digest wood and live in
digestive tracts of termites
Oxpecker Bird eats _______ and parasites, mammal
gets pest control
Remora sharks have an adhesive disk on their
dorsal surface, with the help of which they attach
themselves to whales and then, __________the
whale’s skin and feed on the remains from the
whale's food
Commensalism = symbiotic relationship
where _________ organism benefits and the
other is __________ affected positively or
Glass shrimp, which are almost completely
see through, will attach to the chocolate chip
sea star and take on its coloration. This
helps the shrimp camouflage itself so it is not
eaten by predators
1. What are the essential components of a
2. What are some of the “limiting factors” that
affect an organism’s survival?
3. Are wildlife populations static, or do they
tend to fluctuate, as part of an overall
“balance of nature”? Explain your answer.
4. Is nature ever really in “balance” or are
ecological systems involved in a process of
constant change?
How does this relationship help maintain balance
& stability in an ecosystem?
Let’s Find Out…
Animal Fight Club – What are they fighting for?
How does this relationship help maintain balance
& stability in an ecosystem?
Let’s Find Out…
Elephants Show Cooperation on Test
You will be going outside IN AN ORDERLY
Describe the school ecosystem
◦ What types of communities do you see?
◦ What populations of organisms do you
◦ For three organisms, describe the habitat
and niche of each organism
What do all living organisms need?
• How might organisms in an ecosystem
• What factors would influence the size of a
Do you think there is a limit to the size of a
population in an ecosystem? Explain.
EQ: How do different factors in an ecosystem affect a population?
Predator: Those that are doing the eating
Prey: Those that are being eaten
How does this predator-prey
relationship help maintain balance
& stability in an ecosystem?
Let’s investigate the answer to
this through the “Lynx Eats the
Hare” Game
You will play with your table group.
Use the big whiteboard as your 15” game
board. The whiteboard represents the area
inhabited by the hare population.
Read the directions and fill in the data table
as you play.
After you finish 20 generations, graph the
results and answer the Post-Lab Questions.
Reader/Leader – Reads ALL of the directions
BEFORE you start the game so you know what
you are in for & ensures the game is being
played correctly.
Supply Manager – retrieves & returns game
board, cards & directions
Data Technician – records data in data table for
others to copy after the game
Data Assistant – helps ensure data is recorded
accurately for each generation
How does the predator-prey relationship help
maintain balance & stability in an ecosystem?
Predators eat prey and maintain health of the
prey populations
Predators eat the old, sick, weak – those “less
fit” to survive the help the evolution of the
Works like a cycle: As the population of prey
increases, then the predator population will
increase as their food source increases – they
are able to eat more prey, and in turn
decrease the prey population once again