Transcript Lecture 13

Chapter 13: Primative Fishes...
• Primitive Traits
Ganoid Scales
Lung-like gas bladder –gulp air & survive in low O2
Spiral Valve
Heterocercal Tail
• Unique Traits
– “Lobed” Fins – coelocanths or lungfishes
– Dorsal fins – 5 – 18 separate dorsal fins
• Restricted to Africa; aquarium fish; “birchirs”
Polypteriformes- coelocanth, ancient fish??
Polypteriformes- lungfish
• Cartilaginous skeletons lacking central
• Strongly heterocercal tail
• Anus and urogenital openings at base of pelvic
• Spiracle present in some species
• Conus arteriosus with multiple valves
• Spiral valve present in intestine
• Sturgeons:
– Bony scutes
– Sensory barbels
– Mostly freshwater —few marine and anadromous
– Prized for eggs = cavier
– Caspian and Black Seas of western Asia
– Stock collapsing (Asian)
– Shovelnose sturgeon and pallid sturgeon
– Very fecund; mature at a late age
• Paddlefish:
– Lack bony scutes; long rostrum
– 2 genera : American (Polyodon spathula)
Chinese Paddlefish (Psepherus gladius)
– American: “Spoonbill cat”
– Mississippi, Ohio, and Missouri Rivers
– Planktivore; Long, narrow gill rakers
– Up to 2m long; 75 kg
– Rostrum: electrosensory function?
-- rooting through sediment?
• Paddlefish:
–Chinese (Psepherus gladius) :
– Yangtze River system
– Smaller rostrum
– Presumed piscivorous
– Danger of extinction:
» Dam construction
» overfishing
Semionotiformes: Gars
• Thick ganoid scales
• Bony head and snout
• Long jaws with strong sharp teeth
• Spiral valve intestine
• Gas bladder divided internally
• Dorsal an anal fins set far back on
Semionotiformes: Gars
Primitive predators
N. America
1 species in Cuba
All but one freshwater
– Alligator gar occasionally enters SW
• Gas bladder divided internally
• Dorsal an anal fins set far back on body
Order Ammiiformes
• One species, the bowfin (Amia
• Heterocercal tail
• Rudimentary spiral valve intestine
• Cycloid scales
• Physostomous gas bladder
• Bowfin:
Order Ammiformes
– Predatory species
– Sucks prey into its mouth (canine teeth)
– Swims via undulations of long dorsal fin
– Gulping air for surviving low O2 waters
– Males build and defend nests
– Defends young until
they are 10 cm long
– Edible? …depends!
Not as primative, but still “old”
Division Teleostei
• Cycloid or ctenoid scales (when
• Lack of spiral valve intestine
• three or four lower jaw bones per
Primitive vs. Advanced Traits
Elongated bodies with 50-60 vertebrae
Deeper bodies with 20-30 vertebrae
Single dorsal fin towards
middle or posterior of body
Multiple dorsal fins beginning
more anterior
Fins with soft rays only
Fins with spines and soft rays
Pectoral fins ventral
Pectoral fins high on sides of body
Pelvic fins towards posterior
Pelvic fins below pectorals
Premaxilla and maxilla involved
in gape of jaw and bare teeth
Maxilla limited to angle of jaw,
does not bare teeth
Non-protrusible jaw
Protrusible Jaw
Physostomous gas bladder
Physoclistous gas bladder
Separate Liver and Pancreas
Cycloid scales
Ctenoid Scales
Division Teleostei
• Divided into 4 groups:
• Osteoglossomorpha – bonytongues, mooneyes
• Elopomorpha – tarpons and eels
• Clupeomorpha – herrings
• Euteleostei – everything else
Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha
• Mostly tropical species of Africa, Asia, and South
• Some have enhanced electrosensory abilities
(REM: elephantfish and knifefish...same group)
• Used as food & some angling
• Many aquarium species
• Examples:
• Arawanas – popular aquarium fish
• Mooneye – herring-like fish from the Great Lakes Region.
Some value as sport and food fish
Hiodon tergisus
• O. Elopiformes – tarpon, ladyfish, bonefish
- important recreational species
- No market for meat
- Sought for large size and active fighting habits
• Order Anguilliformes – eels
20 families of eels
Elongated bodies with large number of vertebrae
Pectoral fins reduced in size
Pelvic fins absent
Scales: small or absent
Orders Anguiliformes
Suborder Anguilloidei
Suborder Muranoidei
Suborder Congroidei
- American, European and Japanese eels (Anguilla)
- Catadromous – spawn in SW, mature in FW
- American and European eels:
Spawn in deep waters in central N. Atlantic
Leptocephali drift with current
Transform into threadlike elvers
Ascend rivers and spend several years there
• Order Saccopharyngiformes – eels
- Group of bizarre deep-sea fishes
- Includes:
- Gulper eels
- Snipe eels
• Herrings and anchovies
• Important food fishes
• Large silvery scales
• Soft rays only
• Large easily shed cycloid scales
Basically, this gizzard shad is a freshwater menhaden!
Order Clupeiformes
• Large scale fisheries exist for marine species
• Some consumed by humans
• Used in animal feeds and fertilizers
• Population dependent on plankton abundance
which is dictated by ocean circulation
• Upwelling of cold nutrient rich water
• Nutrients phytoplankton bloom zooplankton anchovies
• El Niño
Euteleostei: Superorder
• Possess “Webberian Apparatus”
- modified anterior vertebrae and special bony
connections between gas bladder and ear
• Contains:
- minnows
- suckers
- tetras
- catfishes
Euteleostei: Superorder
• Order Gonorhynchiformes
• Order Cypriniformes
– Family Cyprinidae
– Family Catastomidae
• Order Characiformes
• Order Siluriformes
• Order Gymnotiformes
Euteleostei: Superorder
• Order Gonorhynchiformes
- milkfish (Chanos chanos)
- Important aquaculture species in SE Asia
- Raised in earthen ponds
- Important source of animal protein
Euteleostei: Superorder
• Order Cypriniformes:
– Family Cyprinidae:
- Jaw Teeth Absent
- Adipose Fin Absent
- Barbels Present
- N. America and Eurasia
- Base forage
Euteleostei: Superorder
• Order Cypriniformes:
– Family Cyprinidae:
– Grass Carp:
– Introduced species
– Herbivore
– Eradicates vegetation
– Illegal to stock or sell diploids
– Triploids acceptable
Cyprinidae; Minnows
Euteleostei: Superorder
• Order Cypriniformes:
– Family Catastomidae:
– suckers
– Fleshy protrusible lips
– White and spotted suckers
– Buffalo fishes
– Redhorses
– Quillbacks
– carpsuckers
Euteleostei: Superorder
• Order Characiformes:
- Jaw Teeth Present
- Adipose Fin Present
- Barbels Absent
- S. America, C. America, and Africa
Charachidae: Tetras
• Lack Scales, often with bony plates on head
or body
• Teeth present on premaxillary, absent on
• Many have venomous “spines” composed
of fused soft rays
- venom gland at base of spine
Well developed sensory barbels
Usually an adipose fin
Found on all continents except Antartica
Some marine (gafftop and sea catfish)
Greatest diversity in S. America
Important food source
Important game and aquarium fishes
Unusual electrical fishes
South and Central America
Elongated bodies and small eyes
Sometimes called S. American knifefishes
Modified muscle tissue for production of
electrical fields
• Electric eel (produce more than 500 volts)
Minnows, Characins, and
Class Osteichthyes
Infradivision: Euteleostei
True teleosts
Suberorder: Ostariophysi
•6500 species
•Dominant freshwater fishes
•Some of most important aquaculture
Suberorder: Ostariophysi
Six Characteristics of group
Have fright substance (Schreckstoff) released into water
when fish is injured
Swimbladder is present and usually has two chambers
Unculi present: small unicellular projections on body
that may provide rough surface for clinging or scraping
Breeding tubercles well developed
Upper jaw (premaxilla) easily extended for suction
Pelvic fins abdominal in position
Order: Gonorynchiformes
• Toothless mouths
• Epibranchial organs (modified gill
rakers for breaking up ingested food
Family Chanidae
Marine and brackish water species
One of most important food fishes of
Southeast Asia
Adults to 1.8 m
Silvery sides
Deeply forked tails
Milkfish Chanos chanos
Order Cypriniformes
• Dominate freshwter fishes of North
America and Eurasia
• 2700 species
• Most possess protractile mouths without
• Most posses pharyngeal teeth
• Heads lack scales (with few exceptions)
• All lack adipose fins
Family Cyprinidae
Minnow or Carp family
Largest family of fishes
• Minnows
• Danios
• Rasabora
• Barbs
• Goldfish
• Koi
• Loaches
• Ornamental sharks
• carps
• Largest family of fishes
• More than 2,000 species
• The Cyprinidae are scattered throughout most of
the world, and include cold water types as well as
those of tropical waters.
• Members distinguished by their pharyngeal teeth
• Most have soft fin rays; however, modified into
spines in common carp and goldfish
Some Images
Sailfin shiner
Notropis hypselopterus
Flagfin shiner
Notropis signipinnis
Taillight shiner
Notropis maculatus
Bluenose shiner
Notripis welaka
Blacktail shiner
Cyprinella venusta
Pugnose shiner
Opsopoeodus emiliae emiliae
Golden shiner
Notemigonus crysoleucas
Rosyface shiner
Notropis rubellus
Central stoneroller
Campostoma anomalum
Rosy barb
Puntius conchonius
Sumatra barb
Puntius tetrazona
Southeast Asia
Pearl danio
Brachydanio albolineatus
Zebra danio
Danio rerio
White cloud mountain minnow
Tanichthys albonubes
China, Vietnam
Three-lined rasbora
Rasbora trilineata
East Asia
Carassius auratus auratus
Central Asia and China
Common carp
Cyprinus carpio carpio
Throughout Europe and Asia
Grass carp
Ctenopharyngodon idella
Asis, former USSR, China
Silver carp
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
Asia, China, and eastern Siberia
Red-Finned Shark
Epalzeorhynchus frenatus
Southeast Asia
Family Catastomidae
• Mainly North American
• 68 species
• Most live in streams
• Mostly bottom browsers with
subterminal mouths
Sonora sucker
Catostomus insignis
Western United States
Family Cobitidae
Loaches, Botia
• Found mostly in streams of Eurasia
• 160 species
• Popular aquarium fishes
• All have subterminal mouths
Clown loach
Botia macracanthus
Sumatra, Borneo
Order Characiformes
• Mexico, Central and South America;
1,350 species
• Africa; 200 species
• In South America charicins (and catfish)
totally dominate fish fauna
• Presently 18 families, but will change
• Most are diurnal predators with large eyes
• No eyes in some cave dwellers
African Characins
• Four families
• More than 200 species
• Some have specialized jaws for snipping
off shunks of fins of other fishes
• Include African tetras (Alestidae),
formally in Characidae - same family as S.
American tetras. These are sold in the
aquarium trade
• Most notable Alestidae are African
Hydrocynus goliath
Giant tigerfish
Congo River basin, Lualaba River, Lake Upemba,
and Lake Tanganyika
• South and Central America
• Approximately 700 species
• One species in N. America
• All have good sets of jaw teeth
• Variety of feeding habits found
• Some species feed largely on scales
of other fishes
Serrasalmus manueli
Amazon Basin Orinoco Basin
Pygocentrus cariba
Black spot piranha
Orinoco Basin
Colossoma macropomum
Amazon and Orinoco Basins
Colossoma teeth
Lie and wait predators; Brazil
Lie and wait predator: S. America
Brazil, northern
S. America
South America
Herbivores or detritivores; S. America
• Active after dark
• 2400 species
• 1- 4 pairs of barbels
• Adipose fin
• No scales but may have armored plates
• Spines on forward edge of pectoral and
dorsal fins
• Pectoral spines lock out
• Have Weberian apparatus
Moderately deep bodied (flattened ventrally
Protected with bony plates and spines
Often live in stagnant water
Able to swallow air and absorb in highly
vascularized portion of hind gut
• Found in S. America and Panama
Spotted corydoras Corydoras ambiacus
Flagtail catfish
Dianema urostriatum
Thorny catfishes
• Found in South America
Megalodoras uranoscopus
Raphael catfish
Platydoras costatus
Ripsaw catfish
Oxydoras niger
Upside-down catfish
All from Africa
Glass catfish and sheatfishes
Ghost Catfish
Kryptopterus minor; SE Asia
Family Loricariidae
Armored catfishes
• Also called suckermouth catfishes
• Adapted for acraping or sucking
algae from bottom in streams
• Mouths adapted for holding onto
rocks in fast water
• Found in Costa Rica, Panama, and
South America
Acanthicus adonis
Bushymouth catfish
Ancistrus dolichopterus
Chocolate-colored catfish
Rineloricaria lanceolata
Hardhead and gafftopsail catfish
• Feed on benthic inverts
• Noisy schools created by clicking of
pectoral spines and vibration of
• Males incubate eggs in mouth
• Primarily marine
Gafftopsail sea catfish
Bagre marinus
• Walking catfish
• Air breathing
• “Walk” using pectoral fins and swinging
from side to side
• Clarius Batrachus (Asia) has become pest in
African catfish
Clarias gariepinus
Walking catfish
Clarius batrachus
North American catfishes
Usually dark in color
Large flattened heads
8 barbels
High degree of parental care; build nests
and guard eggs and young
• Channel catfish #1 aquaculture foodfish in
United States
Channel catfish
Ictalurus punctatus
Blue catfish
Ictalurus furcatus
Shark catfishes
• Endemic to Mekong Basin
• Rare because of overexploitation
• aquaculture species
Giant catfish
Pangasianodon gigas
Max. recorded weight, 350kg
Smelt, Salmon, and Pike
Class – Osteichthyes
Subclass – Actinopterygii
Subdivision – Teleostei
Infradivision – Euteleostei
Superorder - Protacanthopterygii
Superorder Protacanthopterygii
• This group supposed to contain the
presumed ancestors to the spiny-rayed
fishes (Acanthopterygii) that dominate the
world’s oceans
• Contains 310 species in 3 orders
• Lack spines
• Many have adipose fins
• Species in fresh and marine environments
Order Argentiniformes
• Contains more than 160 species from 7
• All small fishes with large eyes
• Live in deep sea environments
• All possess and epibranchial organ
(crumenal) for grinding up small prey.
• Organ consists of small pouch just behind
fourth gill arch
Order Argentiniformes (con’t)
• Gill rakers on both sides fit into pouch
where they interdigitate to break up food
Family argentinidae
• Herring smelts
• Distribution: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific
• Deep sea smelts
Curious wormfish
Gunnellichthys curiosus
Elegant firefish
Nemateleotris decora
Yellowstripe wormfish
Gunnellichthys viridescens
Blackfin dartfish Ptereleotris evides
Lined dartfish
Ptereleotris grammica
• Deep sea
Order Salmoniformes
• Smelts and salmonids
• Mostly cold water
• Most can easily move between fresh and
salt water
• Smelts and salmonids distantly related
Suborder Osmeroidei
Small elongate fishes
Prey on small invertebrates
Frequently found in large numbers
Favored food fishes
– Northern smelts
– Noodlefishes
– Southern smelts
Northern smelts
Includes Osmeridae (true smelts)
Approximately only 13 species
Generally small (< 20cm)
However, can be enormously abundant in
coastal areas of northern hemisphere
• All are excellent food
• They eat zooplankton and small fish
Atlantic rainbow smelt
Osmerus mordax mordax
noodlefishes or icefishes
11 species
Important fisheries
Found in Japan, China, Southeast Asia
Elongate, scaleless, and nearly transparent
because of poorly ossified skeleton
Southern smelts
• Coastal and fresh waters of Australia and
New Zealand
• Small, trout-like fishes
• Include
– Galaxiidae
– Retropinnidae
– Lepidogalixiidae
• Occur in freshwater on all the southern
continents except Antartica
• Distribution can be explained by plate
tectonics or planktonic , marine larvae
Galaxias maculatus
Shortjaw kokopu
Galaxias postvectis
New Zealand
New Zealand smelts
Retropinna retropinna
New Zealand
salamander fishes
Lepidogalaxias salamandroides
Only found in southwest corner of Australia in pools
and streams
Suborder Salmonoidei
• One family: Salmonidae
• Approximately 70 species
• Dominant fishes of cold-water streams and lakes
of North America and Eurasia
• Most species anadromous
• Three subfamilies
– Salmon and trout
– Graylings
– Whitefishes
Salmon and trout
Coho salmon
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Salmon and trout
Chinook salmon
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Salmon and trout
Sockeye salmon
Oncorhynchus nerka
Salmon and trout
Atlantic salmon
Salmo salar
Salmon and trout
Brown trout
Salmo trutta fario
Salmon and trout
Brook trout
Salvelinus fontinalis
Arctic grayling
Thymallus arcticus arcticus
Common whitefish
Coregonus lavaretus
Order Esociformes
• 10 species
• All freshwater
• Widespreadin North America and northern
• Lie and wait predators
• 2 families
– Esocidae (pikes) can be large
– Umbridae (mudminnows) generally small
(pikes; 5 species)
Northeren pike
Esox lucius
Chain pickerel
Esox niger
Esox masquinongy
(Mudminnows; 5 species)
Central mudminnow
Umbra limi
3. a. Name this fish__________________
b. What is the order this fish belongs too?
a. Name the fish:
b. Genus:_________species:_____________
c. Why is this fish important?
5. What family (order) of fish are represented here?
3. a. Common carp
b. What is the order this fish belongs too?
a. Name the fish:Channel Catfish
b. Genus: Ictalurus species: punctatus
c. Why is this fish important? Food!
5. What family (order) of fish are represented here?
Cyprinidae (cypriniformes)
5. a and b