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Transcript Chapter-06-2-with

Conservation of Energy
System
Energy of Gravitational Interaction -Gravitational Potential Energy
If the system contains Earth and an object (or
objects), then the system has gravitational potential
energy.
Gravitational potential energy depends on distance:
greater distance, greater potential energy; less
distance, less potential energy.
if y << Radius of Earth
Earth
Closed and Open Systems
System
closed system
System
open system
Conservation of Mechanical Energy
System
Earth
System is Earth
and the rock;
assume no energy
inputs or outputs.
As the rock falls, the
system loses
gravitational
potential energy,
and the system
gains kinetic
energy.
Conservation of Mechanical Energy
System
Earth
System is Earth
and the rock;
assume no energy
inputs or outputs.
As the ball falls, the
total energy is constant.
Tips on solving conservation of energy
problems
1. Sketch a picture of the situation showing the system
at two different states: 1 and 2.
2. Record any knowns such as y1, y2, v1, and v2.
3. Sketch bar graphs showing kinetic and potential
energy. Note: they should add so that they equal the
total energy.
4. Solve for the unknown.
Example
The Kingda Ka roller
coaster goes to the top of a
139-m tall hill. It drops to a
height of 12 m above the
ground. What is its speed at
the bottom, if its speed at
the top is 1.0 m/s?
Poll
Does your answer to the previous
question depend on whether the roller
coaster is full of people? (In other
words, does your answer depend on
mass?)
1. yes
2. no
Poll
Does the speed of the roller coaster at
the bottom of the hill depend on
whether it is frictionless or not?
1. yes
2. no
Example
Suppose that the mass of the Kingda Ka
rollercoaster, full of people, is 1800 kg. If its speed at
the bottom is 45 m/s, how much mechanical energy
is lost due to friction as it travels down the hill?
Poll
Does your answer to the previous
question depend on whether the roller
coaster is full of people? (In other
words, does your answer depend on
mass?)
1. yes
2. no