Transcript File

Age of
By: Colette Spencer
Reasons for Exploration
1. search for resources
2. establish sea trade routes to Asia
3. desire to expand Christianity
“God, Gold and Glory”
Why did Exploration Begin at This Time?
• 1. National gov’ts encouraged it
– Only ones rich enough to afford it
• 2. Wanted spices, silks, cotton, gems, etc.
– Middleman was expensive
• 3. Renaissance encouraged improvement & curiosity
• 4. New inventions helped navigation
– Triangular sails, rudder, magnetic compass,
• 5. New knowledge of winds and currents
• 6. Rediscovered Ptolemy’s map -1409
– Had believed the earth was round
The Explorers
Portugal was first
Prince Henry the Navigator – 1394-1460
Sent explorers along coast of Africa
Found several islands where they built sugar
• Got slaves from Africa to work on them
• Set up trading posts in Africa
• Bartholomeu Diaz – 1487 –
first to make it around Cape
of Good Hope (Africa)
• Vasco Da Gama – 1497 –
first to reach India (used
Indian pilot)
– Lost pilot, men and several
ships on way back
– Brought back cinnamon and
– Cargo profit still was 60 times
the cost of the expedition
• Portuguese then built trading posts in India
• By late 15th cent. England and the Netherlands
had sent mariners into Indian Ocean
• Columbus – 1492 – sailed for Spain
Located all major islands in Caribbean
Encountered the Taino – he called them “Indians”
Spaniards very brutal with natives – slaves
Diseases devastated natives
• Hundreds of Spanish, Dutch, French and English
mariners followed over the next 100 yrs.
• All searching for passage to India
• Instead found a place for new economic
• Balboa – 1513 – crossed isthmus of Panama
• First to sight the Pacific
• Ferdinand Magellan – 1519 – first to
circumnavigate the globe
– He was killed in Philippines
– Only one ship – 18 men returned to Spain
• Sir Francis Drake – west coast of NA
• Many searching for NW Passage
• 1700’s James Cook – Australia, New Zealand,
Sandwich Islands
Trading Post Empires
• Mid 16th cent. – Portugal had 50 trading posts b/w
Africa & Asia
– Controlled much of the Indian Ocean
– But not able to control for long
• English and Dutch got in the game
• Eng. more interested in posts in India
• Dutch in S. Africa and islands of Malaysia
• Both used joint stock companies to maximize profit
– English East India Comp.
– United East India Comp. (VOC)
• Funded by rich private merchants but supported by
• Both companies made great profits bringing back
• Both contributed to the creation of a global trading
Europe in SE Asia
• FR, ENG, NETH, SP and POR conquered native peoples
Mostly in the islands
Also built empires
Established colonies
Set up gov’ts.
• Didn’t conquer big, powerful states like China & India
• Spain conquered the Philippines
– Manila quickly b/c busy trading port
– Asian goods shipped out to the New World and gold came
– Eventually converted the land to one of the most Roman
Catholic places in the world
• Dutch conquered the islands of Indonesia –
including Java
Controlled most of the spice trade out of the islands
Controlled islands by making alliances with locals
Less concerned with ruling
More concerned with spice trade
• Exploration & expansion led to conflict b/w European
• Competed for trade and markets in Indian Ocean and
SE Asia
• Also had conflict in Caribbean & Americas
• English pirate & privateers often attacked Spanish
Columbian Exchange
• Global diffusion of plants, foods, animals, humans and
• Involved lands w/drastically different items
• Eur exploration began biological exchange that
permanently altered humans and nature
• Disease brought huge losses to indigenous people in
• Smallpox, measles, influenza, etc.
• People had no immunity
• Smallpox usually only affected kids in Eur
• No threat to Eur society b/c it didn’t kill many adults
• In 1519 – smallpox killed as much as 90% of Aztec
empire – 17 mill down to 1.3 mill
• By this time SP conquerors had imposed their rule
• Politics, society and culture of Mexico’s people gone
or under SP control
• Sometimes diseases attacked distant societies
even when they had no contact with Eur
• Pacific islands hit as hard as Americas
• These epidemics were the worst demographic
disaster in history
• More than 100 million may have died
Food & Animals
• In long run, the CE increased rather than
decreased pop b/c of spread of food & animals
• From Old World to New World:
– Coffee beans, wheat, citrus fruit, cows, horses,
sugarcane, honey bees, bananas, chickens, disease
• From New World to Old World:
– Potatoes, beans, maize, tomatoes, peanuts,
pineapples, cacao, tobacco, vanilla
– maize & potatoes increased calories
– Tomatoes and peppers increased vitamins
– Beans added protein
• CE created surge in population around world
• By 1500 – Eur was recovering from plague – 425
• By 1600 – pop increased by 25%
• Increased slower in next 100 yrs.
• But 1700’s increased faster than ever – 900 million
• CE also involved spread of humans by transoceanic
• Voluntary and forced (slavery)
• 1800’s saw largest migration of Europeans ever
• To Americas, S. Africa, Australia and Pac. Islands
Origins of Global Trade
• Eur merchant mariners
created a global trading
• Eur countries est. colonies
in Americas & Caribbean
• Eur manufactured goods
traveled to the NW in
exchange for silver, gold,
sugar & tobacco
• Manila galleons (SP), from 1565 to 1815, carried
Asian luxury goods across Pacific to Mexico
• Exchanged them for silver to take back to
• Most of silver went to
China to meet growing
• Some luxury goods to the
New World were sold to
the Spanish ruling elite
• Most though crossed
Central America, then the
Atlantic to Spain
Environmental Effects
• As result of global trade, some animals became
• Fur-bearing animals, esp. the beaver
• Some almost driven to extinction
• Also harvested many deer, cod, whales, etc.
• By late 16th cent. there was the never ending
human exploitation of world’s natural and agr.
• Mass markets around the world competed for the
most precious commodities – coffee, tea, sugar &