Chapter 4 - Pequannock Township High School

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Transcript Chapter 4 - Pequannock Township High School

Ancient Greece
 Consists of a mountainous peninsula and numerous islands
that make up area of land about size of Louisiana
 2 peninsulas make up much of landmass
 Isthmus of Corinth connects Peloponnese peninsula to
 80% of Greece is mountainous- Pindus Mountains divides
 Mount Olympus is highest peak
 Small plains & river valleys are surrounded by high mountain
 Mountains isolated Greeks from one other
 Different communities formed different ways of life
 Became fiercely independent: people became more involved in
political affairs but also led to rivalries btwn communities
 Aegean, Mediterranean & Ionian seas make up borders
 Coastline dotted with bays and inlets- many harbors
 No part of Greek mainland is more than 60 miles from a
body of water
 Ancient Greeks also lived on number of islands- became
strong seafarers
 Minoan civilization: Bronze Age on the island of Crete-2700
BC- 1450 BC
 Not Greek BUT influenced people of Greek mainland
 Named after Minos- legendary king of Crete
 Palace complex at Knossos- once found revealed rich culture
and center of far-ranging sea empire based on trade
 Traded pottery & gold/silver jewelry
 Trade also helped Minoans improve their goods-drew
inspiration and techniques from other cultures
 Knossos royal seat of the kings- elaborate building with
private living rooms, workshops & bathrooms with elaborate
 Rooms brightly decorated and storerooms held gigantic jars
of oil, wine and grain paid as taxes to king
The Bull-Leaping Fresco, as
it has come to be called, is
the most completely
restored of several stucco
panels originally sited on
the upper-story portion of
the east wall of the palace at
Knossos in Crete.
 Civilization suddenly and catastrophically collapsed around
1450 BC
 Some historians think a volcanic eruption triggered a tidal wave
 Most believe destruction was a result of invasion by the
 1600 BC- 1100 BC
 Name comes from Mycenae- fortified site on Greek
 Part of the Indo-European family- made up of powerful
monarchies that lived in fortified palaces
 Built on hills surrounded by stone walls
 Royal family inside- civilians scattered outside
 Monarchies probably formed a loose alliance of indep
 Important part of city
centers were tombs-tholos
 Built into hillsides- for
royal family
 Resembled a beehive
 Warriors who prided themselves on their heroic deeds
in battle
 Murals often show war and hunting scenes
 Monarchies developed extensive commercial networks
 Pottery found throughout Mediterranean
 Conquerors: took over Crete and some of the Aegean
 Greatest tale told by Homer: Mycenaeans, led by
Agamemnon, sacked city of Troy
 Late 13th century BC- showing signs of trouble
 States fought one another & earthquakes caused major
 By 12th century BC new waves of Greek-speaking
invaders moved in from the north
 1100 BC: Mycenaean civilization collapsed
 After collapse of Mycenaean civilization, Greece entered
period where population declined and food production
 1100 BC- 750 BC: Dark Ages
 Many Greeks left mainland and sailed across Aegean to
various islands
 Popular destination: Ionia (modern day Turkey)
 Iron replaced bronze in weaponry- making weapons more
 Iron farming tools helped reverse decline in food production
 Aeolian Greeks
colonized large
island of Lesbos
and territory near
 Dorians Greeks
established in
 Peloponnese,
Aegean islands
& Crete
 Epic poem: long poem that tells the deeds of a great
 Illiad and the Odyssey were the first great epic poems-
based on stories passed on through generations
 Based on stories of the Trojan War
 Homer was important to Greeks- felt he did not record
history but created it
 Gave Greeks ideal past with many heroes
 Epics came to be used as basic texts to educate
generations of Greek males
 Values Homer taught were courage and honor
 Hero strives for excellence (arete)
 Arete won in struggle or contest- model of heroism
and honor
 Through willingness to fight hero protects family and
friends, preserves his own honor and earns his
 Polis: Greek city-state
 Main gathering place was usually a hill- at the top a
fortified areas called acropolis
 Served as place of refuge during attack
 Sometimes religious center where temples and public
buildings built
 Below acropolis was agora- open area where people
could assemble and as a market
 City-states differed in size and population
 Polis was a community of people who shared common
identity and goals
 Variety of citizens with…
 Political rights (adult males)
 No political rights (women and children)
 Noncitizens (laborers, slaves)
 Citizens had rights but also responsibilities to the state
 Loyalty citizens had to their states also had negative side
 States distrusted each other and division led to its demise
 As polis developed so did a new military system
 By 700 BC system based on hoplites-heavily armed
foot soldiers
 Went into battle as unit marching shoulder to
shoulder in rectangle formation known as phalanx
 Close formation created wall of shields to protect
 As long as kept order- hard to harm them
 New colonies formed along Mediterranean
 Southern Italy and France, eastern Spain & northern Africa
 Also formed along Black Sea-Hellespont and Bosporus
 Most famous- Byzantium (now Istanbul)
 Establishing colonies
 Spread culture and political ideas
 Gave great economic advantages: trade and industry
 Mainland Greek exported pottery, wine & olive oil- in
return received grains, metals, fish, timber, wheat and
 Expansion of trade and industry created new group of
wealthy individuals
 Men wanted political powers but found it difficult to
gain because of the ruling aristocrats
 Landowners not willing to give up political power to
newly rich merchants
 Creation of new group of rich men fostered the rise of
tyrants: rulers who seized power by force from the
 Supported by those newly rich due to trade and industry
 Poor peasants also supported b/c in debt to aristocrats
 Hungry for social status and political influence
 Tyrants gained power and kept it using hired soldiers
 Once in power tyrants tried to help the poor and launched
public works projects
 Built new marketplaces, temples and walls
 Efforts glorified city and increased tyrants popularity
 Despite achievements tyrants eventually seen as oppressive
 By end of 6th ce BC tyrants no longer favored-was insult to the
rule of law
 Tyrants ended the role of aristocrats in many city-states & people
were able to participate in gov’t
 Some states developed a democracy, others an oligarchy
 Conquered other civilizations when they needed more
 People they conquered were made to work for Spartans
 Known as helots
 800-600 BC rigidly organized and tightly controlled
 Males spent childhood learning military discipline
 Enrolled in army at 20
 Lived in military barracks until 30- after could move
home but stayed in army until 60
 All meals eaten in public dining halls
 While men in the barracks women lived at home
 Because of separation had more freedom and power in
the household
 Expected to remain fit and bear children
 Upheld strict Spartan values expecting husbands and
sons to be brave in war
 Government was oligarchy headed by 2 kings
 5 men known as ephors elected each year and
responsible for education of youth and conduct of
 Council of elders, kings and 28 citizens over 60
decided on issues to be presented to assembly to vote
 To make military secure Spartans turned back on
outside world
 Foreigners discouraged from visiting
 Except for military Spartans not allowed to travel- might
encounter ideas dangerous to stability of state
 Spartan citizens discouraged from studying literature,
philosophy or the arts- the art of war was the most
 Originally ruled by a king but by 7th ce BC became
oligarchy under rule of aristocrats
 Owned best land and controlled politics
 By end of 600 BC economic problems caused political
 Draco, a politician, add harsh penalties- slavery for debt
 Farmers sold into slavery for being in debt
 594 BC full power given to Solon- aristocrat
 Canceled all land debts and freed people who were in slavery
due to debt
 Refused to take land from the rich and give it to the poor
 Despite’s Solon’s reforms aristocrats were still powerful
and poor peasants could not obtain land
 Internal strife eventually led to tyranny
 Peisistratus, aristocrat, seized power in 560 BC
 Aided trade to win support of merchants
 Gave aristocrats land to peasants-gain favor of poor
 Athenians rebelled against Peisistratus’ son and ended
tyranny in 510 BC
 2 yrs later- Cleisthenes, another reformer, gained
upper hand
 Created council that supervised foreign affairs, oversaw
treasury and proposed laws
 Because assembly now had central political role
reforms of Cleisthenes created basis for Athenian
 As Greeks spread, came in contact with Persians to the East
 490 BC, seeking revenge for unsuccessful revolt by Ionian
cities, Persians landed in Marathon (26 mi from Athens)
 Defeated by outnumbered Athenian army
 Legend says news of Persia’s defeat brought by runner names
Pheidippides who ran from Marathon to Athens
 “Victory, we win” before dropping dead
 Although victory at Marathon minor- gave Athenians new
confidence in their city-state that Persians could be
 After Darius’ death in 486 BC Xerxes became new
 Vowed revenge and planned attack
 In preparation Greek city-states came together in
defense under Spartans
 Athenians stayed solo and created a navy- by time
Persians attacked in 480 BC had fleet of 200 vessels
 Xerxes led massive invasion into Greece-180,000
troops, warships and supply vessels
 Despite differences Greeks united by common goal of defeating
Persian invaders
 Greeks tried to delay Persians at Thermopylae- main road into
central Greece
 7,000 held them off for 2 days- esp 300 Spartans
 Traitor told Persians how to use mountain path to outflank the
Greek force
 Near island of Salamis outnumbered Greek fleet defeated
 Few months later (479 BC) Greeks formed largest army to date
and defeated Persians at Plataea to control the Aegean Sea
 After defeating Persians, Greeks divided into 2 main
 Athenian Empire: Athens & Delian League
 Sparta & supporters: Peloponnesian League
 Athens and Sparta had different societies that neither
could tolerate
 Series of disputes led to Great Peloponnesian War in
431 BC
 Athenian strategy: remain behind city’s protective walls
and receive supplies from colonies and navy
 Spartans allies surrounded Athens hoping Athenians
would send out army to fight
 Pericles knew Spartan forces could beat them in open battle
so stayed put
 Second year of war plague broke out in overcrowded
Athens- killed 1/3 of people
 Pericles died following year (429 BC)
 Despite losses Athenians fought on for another 25 years
 405 BC- crushing blow to Athenians when fleet was
destroyed in Aegospotami
 Within next year Athens surrendered
 Walls torn down, navy disbanded, empire destroyed
 Great war over but also age of classical Greek culture and
 Weakened major Greek states and ruined possibility of
cooperation between them
 During next 67 years Sparta, Athens and Thebes struggled
to dominate Greek affairs
Please get your book
off the shelf and take
out your homework.
 Discobolus by Myron
 450 BC
 Greeks viewed Macedonians as barbarians
 Macedonians: rural people of farmers & agricultural
laborers organized into groups
 Leaders focused mostly on defending Northern borders
 By end of 5th ce emerged a powerful kingdom
 Phillip II came to throne in 359 BC
 Turned Macedonia into chief power of Greek World
 Wanted to unite all of Greece under his rule
 Battle of Chaeronea: 338 BC
 Athenians and other Greeks fought Macedonians and
 Phillip quickly gained control of all of Greece
 Before could invade Asia- assassinated and throne
went to son Alexander
 Alexander the Great only 20 when took throne
 Father taught him basics of military leadership
 After father’s death, moved quickly to fulfill father’s
dream- invade Persian Empire
 Motivated by glory and to avenge Persian burning of
Athens in 480 BC
 Spring 334 BC- Alexander entered Asia Minor
 Army of 37,000 (Macedonians & Greeks)
 Cavalry about 5,000
 Next year: Alexander freed Ionian Greek cities from
 Winter 332 BC: Syria, Palestine & Egypt under control
 Built Alexandria as Greek capital of Egypt
 331 BC: battle with Persians and Gaugamela
 Gained control over rest of Persian empire
 Next 3 years: moved as far as Pakistan
 326 BC: reached India but campaigning became hard
 Soldiers refused to move farther
 Led troops back home through desserts of Iran- many
 Returned to Babylon to plan more conquests
 323 BC: died at 32
 Exhaustion from wounds, fever and too much alcohol
 Success explained by his leadership and military skills
 Master of strategy and tactics
 All terrains, all types of opponents
 Brave and reckless- tried to be like Achilles
 Created large empire and legacy
 Brought large quantities of gold and silver into economy
 Cultural legacy
 Greek language, architecture, literature, art and religion
spread through Asia and N. Africa
 Greek culture blended with aspects of Eastern culture
to become a new Hellenistic culture
 Hellenistic comes from Greek word meaning “to imitate
 Describes this era that saw the expansion of Greek
language and ideas
 After Alexander’s death empire fell apart and
Macedonian generals engaged in a struggle for power
 4 Hellenistic Kingdoms emerge:
 In new kingdom Greeks and Macedonians made up
ruling class
 All government business conducted in Greek
 New Hellenistic kingdoms created new cities
 Varied in size: military settlements of few hundred to
cities with thousands
 Encouraged spread of Greek colonists to SW Asia
 Greeks provided new recruits for army, civilian
administrators and workers
 Architects, engineers, dramatists and actors were all in
demand in new Greek city
 Period of cultural accomplishments- esp science and
 Alexandria home to all types of scholars: poets, writers,
philosophers, scientists
 Library in Alexandria became largest in ancient times
 500,000+ scrolls
 Encouraged study of literature and language
 Museum that welcomed scholarly research
 Founding of new cities and rebuilding of old presented new
opportunities for Greek architects and sculptors
 Kings willing to spend money to beautify cities within
 Patrons of sculptors- thousands of statues created
 Hellenistic sculptors moved away from idealism of
earlier classicism to more emotional & realistic art
 Especially evident in numerous statues of old women and
 Time period also produced great quantities of literature
 Hellenistic Age witnessed advances in sciences:
astronomy and mathematics
 Aristarchus: astronomer who developed theory that
sun is at center of universe and Earth rotates around
 Eratosthenes: astronomer who determined Earth was
round and calculated circumference
 Euclid: wrote ‘Elements’- textbook about plane
 Archimedes: worked on geometry of spheres and
cylinders and established value of pi
 Possibly invented machine used to pump water out of
 “Eureka”
 Epicurus: founder of Epicureanism- believed human
beings free to follow own self interest and make
happiness their goal
 Pursuit of pleasure not in physical sense but freedom
from emotional turmoil and worry
 Life complete when centered on the ideal of friendship
 Stoicism: most popular philosophy of Hellenistic
 Created by teacher name Zeno- learned that material
possessions were not necessary to be happy after
losing all his on a sea voyage
 Stoics wanted to find happiness by living in harmony
with will of God
 Public service regarded as noble