Unit # 2 – Foundations of Civilization - pamelalewis

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Transcript Unit # 2 – Foundations of Civilization - pamelalewis

Unit # 2 – Foundations
of Civilization
Lesson # 4 – Day 1
Objective and Bell Ringer-Greece
 Bell Ringer: How are people best represented in government?
What does democracy mean to you?
Essential Question(s): How did Greek city-states work
together? Why were they often separate?
◦ Objectives:
 Describe how Ancient Greece contributed to modern forms of society
and government
 Describe the ways in which acceptable and unacceptable behavior
was enforced.
◦ Homework: Rate Me Bar Graph (complete on blank separate
Types of Government Review
For each slide, copy the term and the
Theocracy – a government ruled by
religious leaders who claim gods authority
 List one advantage of this government
 List one disadvantage of this government
Theocracy- a
government ruled by
religious by religious
leaders who claim
gods or appointed by
a god
Rule centered around
the religious
Example Vatican City
Iran Islamic Republic
of Iran(theocratic
state Islam)
Dynasty hereditary
rulers Egypt also Ming
Dynasty China
Religion is use as a
justification for laws.
We have a Separation
of Church and State
1st amendment
Pharoah Ancient Egpyt
Oligarchy – A small group of people
having control of a country, organization,
or institution
 List one advantage of this government
 List one disadvantage of this government
Rule by a small
group of people
 Example: Soviet
Rule by the noble
class or Aristocracy
Monarchy – a form of government in
which supreme authority is vested in a
single figure, such as a king, and whose
powers can vary.
 List one advantage of this government
 List one disadvantage of this government
Rule by one
individually who
has absolute power
 One needs a
powerful military to
gain control and
retain power
Example: Cuba
The Persian Empire
wanted the region
called Ionia (Modern
day Turkey)
King Darius led
Persian forces to
retain their control
over Ionia
Son Xerxes ten years
later set out to
conquer Greece's
main land
Greece's Conflict with Persia
Direct Democracy
Direct Democracy – the type of governing
system where all people vote directly on
an issue.
 List one advantage of this government
 List one disadvantage of this government
Representative Democracy
Representative Democracy – a form of
government in which officials are elected
to represent community. These
representatives then vote on issue.
 List one advantage of this government
 List one disadvantage of this government
Types of Government - Review
See if you can find an example of each type
of government in your textbook
1.Representative Democracy
2. Direct Democracy
3. Theocracy
4. Monarchy
Write a one-sentence thesis answering the
following question:
◦ Which system of government is the most
 Remember 1 claim, and three supporting reasons.
Greece occupies a small area in the
Mediterranean and Aegean Seas
 Made up of the mainland and numerous
 Two geographic features played a
significant role in developing Greece:
◦ Mountains
 Isolated Greeks from one another –
different communities develop
 However, rivalries between
communities led to warfare that
devastated Greek society
◦ The Sea
Became seafarers who
established colonies that spread
Greek civilizations
Peninsula = land that is surrounded on
three sides by water
 Archipelago = a chain of islands
Early Greek Civilization
The Minoan civilization (3000-1450 BC)
◦ Established on the island of Crete
◦ Named after King Minos,
legendary king of Crete (the
Minotaur story)
◦ Sudden catastrophic collapse
around 1450 BC
Early Greek Civilizations
The Minoan civilization (3000 – 1450 BC)
◦ Established on the island of Crete
◦ Named after King Minos, legendary king of
Crete (the Minotaur story)
◦ Used bronze to make weapons
◦ Large palace at Knossos – had basic plumbing
◦ Sudden and catastrophic collapse around
1450 BC
Greek City-States
The central focus of Greek life and
society was the polis
◦ Polis = Greek city-state
 Greeks were fiercely loyal to their
polis and regarded themselves not as
Greeks, but as members of a
particular city-state
◦ Make-up of a polis:
 Citizens who had political rights =
adult males
 Citizens who had no political rights =
women and children
 Non-citizens = slaves and foreigners
◦ Some cities develop democracy = gov’t by the
people or rule by the many
◦ Other city-states develop an oligarchy = rule
by the few
◦ New military system develops
 Based on hoplites = heavily armed
foot soldiers
 Carried a round shield, short sword,
and a thrusting spear
 Formed a phalanx for protection
◦ Phalanx = a wall of shields created
by foot soldiers marching close
together in rectangular formation
Government structure was a democracy
◦ Direct democracy = vote directly
on the issues
◦ Indirect democracy = elect people
to vote on the issues in your place
Standards for voting = must be a free
male over the age of 20 who has
completed military training and owns
◦ Accounts for 10% of the population
Duties of people allowed to vote:
◦ Vote in all elections and serve in office if
◦ Serve on juries and in the military during war
Athenian democracy consisted of three
main bodies
◦ Council of Five Hundred who proposed laws
that would be voted on by the Assembly and
supervised both foreign affairs and the
◦ Athenian Assembly – composed of all
male citizens who were eligible to
take part in the gov’t
 This assembly voted on and passed
the laws
 Direct democracy = people
participate directly in gov’t decision
making and vote directly on an
◦ Complex series of courts
 Built the Parthenon = a grand temple
dedicated to the goddess Athena
Gender Roles
Women could not own property and
always had a male guardian
◦ Chief obligation was to have children
◦ Were expected to stay at home and out of
sight, unless attending religious festivals or
Like most city-states, Sparta needed
more land, so they conquered
neighboring peoples instead of
starting new colonies
◦ The Spartans turned these
conquered peoples into helots =
state slaves
◦ Spartans were now free to spend all
their time training for war
Spartans decide to create a military state to
keep control over the helots
◦ Helots outnumbered Spartan citizens by 7 to 1
Life in Sparta was rigidly organized
◦ Babies were examined at birth and if they
were found to be weak, they were put to
◦ Men
 Taught physical toughness by parents until
age seven
 They then entered a school system designed
to teach them combat
◦ At the end of their training, boys were sent
into the wilderness and expected to survive
 At age 20 the boys became hoplites in the
Spartan army
 Allowed to marry, but had to live in barracks
until age 30
◦ Could now live their own lives, but
expected to fight with the army when
 Allowed to vote in the assembly at age 30,
retired from the army at age 60
◦ Women
 Expected to exercise and raise healthy
 Had greater freedom and power in the
household due to separation from their
 Could own property
Government structure
◦ Was an oligarchy headed by two kings who
led the army on its campaigns
◦ Ephors – a group of five men elected each
 Responsible for the conduct of all citizens
and education
◦ Council of Elders – composed of the two kings
and 28 citizens over the age of 60
 Decided the issues that would be presented
to the assembly
◦ Assembly of male citizens – voted on the
Foreigners were discouraged from visiting and
Spartans were not allowed to travel abroad
◦ Kept out dangerous ideas and discouraged
new thoughts
Peninsula of
Peninsula of
Gov’t Type
Military State?
Allows foreigners? YES
Who Can Vote?
Free men who
own land
Men in the army
Voting Age?
Life of Women
Stay inside, have
male guardian
More freedom
and power
Located: Peninsula of
 Gov’t type:
 Military state?: NO
 Foreigners?: YES
 Who can vote: Free
men who
 Voting Age: 20
 Women: Expected to
stay inside, must have
a male guardian
Located: Peninsula of
Gov’t type: Oligarchy
Military state?: YES
Foreigners?: NO
Who can vote: Men in
Voting Age: 30
Women: have more
freedom and power
The Persian Wars
(490 BC - 479 BC)
 Persian emperor Darius decides to
invade Greece
 First Persian Invasion – 490 BC
◦ Battle at Marathon – Athenians attack the
Persians while they are unloading and the
Persians retreat
◦ An Athenian messenger runs 26 miles from
Marathon to Athens to announce the victory
 He dies after delivering the message
Second Persian Invasion – 480 BC
◦ Battle at Thermopylae
 Greeks are afraid they won’t have
enough time to prepare
 A group of 300 Spartans decide to
hold off the entire Persian army at the
mountain pass of Thermopylae
 Are successful for several days until a
local shows the Persians an alternate
path through the mountain and they
kill all the Spartans
◦ In 479 BC a large Greek army led by the might
of Sparta crushes the Persians, ending the
The Peloponnesian War
War between Athens and Sparta
◦ Sparta and allies dominate the land
◦ Athens and allies dominate the sea
Spartans surround Athens hoping for an
open battle
◦ Athens avoids any battles on land
◦ Knowing they can’t compete in open battle,
they hide behind their city walls, relying on
supplies from their navy and colonies
Sparta eventually destroys the Athenian
navy and Athens surrenders
◦ The walls of Athens are torn down and the
Empire destroyed
Costs of the war
◦ Weakened major Greek city-states
 Athens nearly destroyed, Sparta
exhausted as well
◦ Struggle for power in Greece led to a long
cycle of warfare that left all of Greece
◦ Ignored the growing power of Macedonia to
the north
◦ Loss of freedom
Greek Culture
Philosophy = the search for wisdom and
◦ Greek word meaning “the love of wisdom”
◦ First of the great Athenian philosophers
◦ Everything known about Socrates comes from
the writings of his students
◦ Interested in broad concepts of human life
◦ Best way to learn is to ask questions
 Use question-and-answer format to
acquire knowledge
 Known as the Socratic method
◦ Socrates was charged with disrespect for
religion and corrupting the city’s children
 Thought he caused children to
question the actions of the gods
 Believed the displeasure of the gods
caused Athens to lose the war
◦ Sentenced to death by drinking a cup of
hemlock, a poison
◦ Student of Socrates
◦ His most famous work was the Republic
 Gov’t should be led by the people
most qualified to make good decisions
- philosophers
◦ Plato founded the Academy, a school where
respected philosophers could teach their
students and hold debates
◦ Questioned reality and believed in ideal Forms
 Every material object in the world was
only the reflection of a perfect ideal
 Aristotle
◦ Student of Plato
◦ Emphasis on reason and logic to study the
natural world
 Reason = clear and ordered thinking
 Logic = the process of making
◦ Aristotle believed in analyzing through
observation and investigation
 People should use reason to learn
about the world by making careful
 Influenced the development of science
in Europe
 History
◦ A systematic analysis of past events, created
by the Greeks
◦ The Greeks were one of the first people to
write about and analyze the past
◦ Herodotus – First historian, wrote about the
Persian Wars
◦ Thucydides – considered to be the greatest
historian of the ancient world
 Included many primary speeches and
looked at his sources critically
◦ Homer
 One of the greatest poets of all times,
wrote epic poems based on the Trojan
War that became the basis for Greek
education system
◦ Epic poem = a long poem that tells
the deeds of a great hero
 Iliad – tale of the Greek hero Achilles
 Odyssey – long journey home of Greek
hero Odysseus
Greek Drama
◦ Used for entertainment, two distinct forms of
 Tragedies – usually focused on
hardships faced by Greek heroes
 Comedies – satires, written to expose
the flaws of society
◦ Several well-known Greek playwrights
◦ Sophocles – concentrated on the suffering
people brought upon themselves
 Many of his characters had fatal flaws
 Famous play = Oedipus Rex, the story
of a king who accidentally kills his
father and marries his mother
Alexander the Great
Macedonia was a powerful kingdom to
the north of the Greek city-states
 Philip II reorganized the Macedonian
army and adopted the phalanx system
◦ Conquered all of the major Greek city-states
except Sparta and became the new leader of
Greece in 338 BC, he was assassinated in 336
◦ After his death, his son Alexander came to the
throne (356-323 BC)
Alexander was a great military leader and
Decided to fulfill his father’s dream of
conquering the Persian Empire
◦ Destroyed the Persian army and emperor
Darius III fled – he was later murdered by
one of his own officers
After this victory, Alexander led his army
deeper into Asia
◦ Went and conquered parts of India
◦ When his army refused to go any further,
Alexander agreed to go home
On his way back home, Alexander fell ill
in the city of Babylon and died a few
days later
◦ He left no heir, so his generals began to fight
for control
◦ In the end the empire was divided among the
three most powerful generals
 Macedonia and Greece, Persian
Empire, and Egypt
 Legacy of Alexander
◦ Created new cities, most of them named
 Built Alexandria as the Greek capital
of Egypt – important city which had a
famous library
◦ Alexander envisioned a world in which many
◦ Made a conscious effort to bring people
and ideas from different places together
 Encouraged Greeks to move to the
Alexandria cities
◦ Created a new type of culture
 Blended elements of Greek civilization
with ideas from Persia, Egypt, and
Central Asia
Created the Hellenistic Era
◦ Hellenistic means “to imitate the Greeks”
◦ Expansion of Greek language and ideas to
other parts of the world
◦ Massive spread of Greek colonists to Asia
Alexander’s empire fell apart soon after his
death, and the different Hellenistic
kingdoms were shortly conquered by the
The Three Branches of
Government in Ancient Athens
Referred to as a tripartite government
The Council
The People’s
Creation of Greece
Greece has citystates created from
Minoan and the
View the timeline on
pages 124 and 125
Map on Page 126
Geography was the
reason Greece
developed into
separate city-states
because the terrain
was rugged and
travel was difficult
between the different
Classical Greece 2100-150 BCE
What is the worlds first example of a citystate?
What age where
boys taken to train
as soldiers?
What mineral was
discovered that led
to increased
military strength?
Hoplites at age 20
Sparta was led by two kings who also
served as a military commanders.
 Elected council of leaders
 Spartan women have more rights
compared with other Greek city-states
 How is this giving citizens more of a voice
in comparison to other forms of
government such as absolute monarchs?
Spartan Government
A democracy is a
form of government
in which people
govern themselves.
(Most common type)
2 types
direct democracy
(People vote on each
democracy (people
vote on
representatives to
vote for them)
What type of
democracy do we
have in our country?
Athenian Democracy 500 BCE
Did the democracy extend to all
Solon and Athenian
Aristocrat Solon mediates crisis
Aristocrats to keep large landholdings
But forgive debts, ban debt slavery
Removed family restrictions against participating
in public life
Instituted paid civil service
Turn to page 135 in the Human
Legacy text…
Read about the Birthplace of Democracy
◦ In your notebook
◦ POV-Create a dialogue between Solon,
Peisistratus and Cleisthenes to show how they
felt about democracy
◦ The dialogue must be at least 12 lines and
include how each person views democracy
After the War The Persians returned to
their homeland and The Golden Age of
Athens began!!!
Movie 300
Rate Me Bar Graph-Homework
Using your textbook pp. 134-141, take
notes on the following leaders in classical
Greek society. You will use this
information for a bar graph described in
next slide.
Rate Me Bar Graph - Homework
Create a bar graph of the leaders
during classical age of Greece
described in your textbook pp. 134141 Using information from the
reading and any additional
information you may have, give each
person a rating of 1-10. 1 will be the
lowest and 10 will be the highest.
Create a bar graph that compares
your rating for each leader.
Unit # 2 – Foundations
of Civilization
Lesson # 4 Day 2
Objective and Bell Ringer Unit 2
Lesson 4
 Bell Ringer: What does democracy mean to you? Does Greece’s
form of government apply to your definition?
◦ Objective: Describe how Ancient Greece contributed to modern
forms of society and government
◦ Gallery Crawl- fill out graphic organizer on Mythology, Literature,
Philosophy, etc. as you go through stations
Greek Culture Gallery Crawl
In your groups, you will be rotating
through six stations
◦ 7:00 per station
◦ Collaboration is encouraged
◦ Test questions come directly from this activity
Greek Philosophy see page 143
Greek Literature( poetry, History, and
drama see page 144
Greek Architecture and Art see page 147
Greek Achievements
See Alexander’s Empire on page 151
What lasting impact did Alexander leave
on the world?
Alexander the Great
Debriefing-Exit Ticket
How did Greek democracy influence
American government?