Greek Achievements

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Transcript Greek Achievements

Greek Achievements
Chapter 9: Section 4
Art, Philosophy, & Science
Debra Fisher-Nichols
Elmore Park Middle School
Statues and Paintings
People were portrayed in
their ideal form, paying
close attention to details.
 Marble and stone were
realistically carved,
showing muscle and
details of the fabric, many
Greek statues look as
though they could come to
life at any moment.
Painting on pottery was
usually only done in two
colors (red and black)
architecture had
three styles:
Doric, Ionic,
Each of these
styles is clear
when you look at
the building’s
Were designed using columns on the exterior
The Parthenon is the most impressive of
temples that is still standing. The exterior and
interior were decorated with carvings.
Phidias, considered the greatest sculptor in
all of Greece, created a magnificent statue of
Athena on the inside of the Parthenon.
Greeks created new forms
of writing including:
DRAMA (plays about
tragedies and comedies)
HISTORY-written accounts
of actual events
DRAMA: Tragedies and
Drama (plays) was part of religious
Scenes were performed by actors
and singers to honor the gods.
Attending these plays became one
of the most popular form of
entertainment, especially in Athens.
One form of Drama was the
Tragedy. Tragedies described
faced by Greek heroes
Famous writers of tragedies
Aeschylus –considered the father
of tragic drama
Sophocles-wrote the famous play
“Oedipus the King,” (429 BC) about
a man who unknowingly kills his
Euripides-wrote “Heracles” first
performed in 416 BC
Another form of Drama is the
Comedies made fun of
people and ideas
Aristophanes - used
comedy to make serious
points about war, courts of
law, and famous people
Herodontus-considered the
father of history, however, his
accounts were mostly second hand and
included references to gods and goddesses.
Thucydides-An Athenian and the father of
“scientific history” because of his strict
standards of evidence gathering without
reference to the intervention by the gods. He
wrote about the Peloponnesian War.
He tried to keep his account unbiased or
A group of people who
began to question the
explanations about life that
Greek mythology gave
Believed in the power of the
human mind to think,
explain, and understand life.
Considered the greatest philosopher
Socratic method - would teach by presenting a
question and then challenging the answer
He encouraged students to question their own
This made leaders angry and he was tried and
found guilty of corrupting the youth
His friends and students watched as Socrates
was given hemlock, a poison, drank it, and died
Was a student of Socrates
Started a school - The Academy, where
students, philosophers and scientists
could come to discuss ideas.
His most famous writing was The
The Republic talked about Plato’s idea for
an ideal society based on justice and
fairness, and run by philosophers
A student of Plato
Believed everything should be done in
moderation (in balance-not too greedy nor too
Believed moderation was based on reason
(clear and ordered thinking)
Made great advances in logic. He argued
that you could use facts to figure out new
Aristotle inspired Greek scientists to look
closely at the world we live in.
Euclid - was a mathematician who taught in
Alexandria, Egypt who focused on geometry
Many of the geometry rules you study in math
comes from him
Pythagoras-made influential contributions to
philosophy and mathematics.
The Pythagorean theorem (the square of the
hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares
of the other two sides) is named for him.
Thales -Many consider
him the first Greek
philosopher of science
because he paved the way
to the scientific method.
Thales attempted to
explain natural
phenomena without
reference to mythology
and was tremendously
influential in this respect.
Thales of Miletus
624 BC – 546 BC
Doctors studied the human body to
understand how it worked.
Hippocrates - wanted to find ways to
cure disease.
Best known for the Hippocratic Oath how doctors should behave.
Made discoveries that we still use today.
(especially the methods in which we build
large structures)
Archimedes - a scientist who invented the
water screw still used by farmers to bring
water from a lower level to a higher one to
water crops.
Some inventors even came up with
mechanical toys.
Other achievements to
Lyceum- a gymnasium and before that a public
meeting place in a grove of trees in Classical Athens.
The Royal Library of Alexandria, or Ancient
Library of Alexandria, in Alexandria Egypt-one of
the largest and most significant libraries of the
ancient world. It was dedicated to the Muses, the
nine goddesses of the arts.
Acropolis-the location of The Parthenon and
other temples in ancient Greece
Temple of Apollo-an ancient temple in Delphi
built in the 6th century BC
What were the two main types of art?
What were the three styles of
Who were the three main philosophers?
Who were Euclid and Pythagora?
What discoveries were made in