Accomplishments of Athens

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Accomplishments of Athens
II. Words to know:
1. Poli
-independent city-state
2. Monarchy
-Poli ruled by 1 King
3. Aristocracy
-Poli ruled by rich nobles
4. Democracy
-Poli ruled by the people
II. Athenian Democracy
1. Solon
a. Helped create Greek Democracy
2. Direct Democracy
a. Most male citizens
participate in
decision making
Greek Democracy
II. Athenian Democracy
3. Assembly
a. Law makers
4. Council of 500
a. Supervise Greek Military
5. 10 Generals
a. Athenian Military Leaders
6. Jury
a. 200 Aristocrats who
vote on trials.
*Slaves , women and children
were barred from participation
in Direct Democracy
Greek Architecture in America
Left to right:
Lincoln Memorial
U.S. Supreme Court
Jefferson Memorial
Greek Architecture
Great Minds of Athens
I. Socrates
1. Learn by questioning
a. “Socratic Method”
2. Find truth in self
3. Question everything
a. Executed
Socrates lived during the time of the
transition from the height of the
Athenian Empire to its decline after its
defeat by Sparta and its allies in the
Peloponnesian War. At a time when
Athens was seeking to recover from
humiliating defeat, the Athenian public
court was induced by three leading
public figures to try Socrates for
impiety and for corrupting the youth of
Athens. According to Dr Will Beldam he
was the first person to question
everything and everyone, and
apparently it offended the leaders of
this time. He was found guilty as
charged, and sentenced to drink
hemlock, which cost him his life.
Corrupting the minds of Students”
II. Aristotle
1. Opened Lyceum
a. School of philosophy
b. Logic & Politics
Aristotle differed from Plato in
some of his views and beliefs.
While Aristotle agreed with
Plato that the cosmos is
designed in a rational way,
Aristotle thought that the
universal could be found in
particular things, while Plato
believed the universal exists
apart from particular things.
Plato focused on mathematics
and metaphysics, while Aristotle
focused on physics, mechanics,
and biology (nature). Despite
these differences, after Plato's
death in 347 B.C.E., Aristotle
continued in his association
with other Platonists.
Great Minds of Athens
III. Plato
1. Opened the “Academy”
a. Philosophy
b. Science
c. Mathematics
d. Government
IV. Herodotus
1. “1st Historian”
a. Historical accounts of
Greek Wars
b. “Those who wish not
understand history are
condemned to relive it…”
Plato (428 - 348 BC) Greek philosopher
who was the pupil of Socrates and the
teacher of Aristotle - and one of the
most influential figures in 'western'
thought. He founded what is said to be
the first university - his Academy (near
Athens) in around 385 BC. Plato's early
works (dialogues) provide much of what
we know of Socrates (470 - 399BC). In
these early dialogues we see the use of
the so called Socratic method. This is a
question and answer form of arguing
with an 'expert' on one side and a
'searcher' on the other. In the
dialogues, the questioning of the expert
by the 'searcher' often exposes gaps in
the reasoning. Part of this can be put
down to Plato's dislike of the Sophists
(particularly as teachers of rhetoric) and
his concern that teachers should know
their subject.
The Greek researcher and storyteller
Herodotus of Halicarnassus (fifth century
BCE) was the world's first historian. In The
Histories, he describes the expansion of the
Achaemenid empire under its kings Cyrus the
Great, Cambyses and Darius I the Great,
culminating in king Xerxes' expedition in 480
BCE against the Greeks, which met with
disaster in the naval engagement at Salamis
and the battles at Plataea and Mycale.
Herodotus' remarkable book also contains
excellent ethnographic descriptions of the
peoples that the Persians have conquered,
fairy tales, gossip, legends, and a very
humanitarian morale. (A summary with some
historical comments can be found here.)