Transcript Document

What are three basic teachings of Hinduism?
Everything in the universe is part of the spiritual
force called Brahman. The goal of existence is
achieving moksha (union with Brahman). To do
so, one must be free of selfish desires and obey
the laws of karma and dharma.
According to Buddha, what actions would allow
people to escape worldly suffering?
People escape worldly suffering by
understanding the Four Noble Truths, following
the Eightfold Path, living a moral life, and
How did Buddhism spread to India? Name three
of the lands in Asia to which Buddhism spread.
Missionaries and traders helped Buddhism
spread across Asia.
Sri Lanka, Japan, Tibet are possible answers.
How were Hinduism and Buddhism similar? How
are the two religions different?
Both religions grew from the same traditions
and stressed nonviolence and belief in karma,
dharma, moksha, and a cycle of rebirth.
Hinduism has not single founder or sacred text,
as Buddhism does. Buddhism rejects priests,
formal rituals, the many Hindu gods, and the
caste system. Buddhism stressed enlightenment
through meditation.
How did Asoka bring peace and prosperity to
Asoka turned his back on further conquests. He
rejected violence and resolved to rule by moral
example. He set up stone pillars announcing
laws and promising righteous government. He
build hospitals, Buddhist shrines, roads, and rest
houses. He planted trees for shade and dug
What were some achievements of the kingdoms
of the Deccan?
The kingdoms had a thriving overseas trade,
improved harbors, and produced rich literature.
Why is the Gupta period considered a golden
age of India?
The Gupta’s made great advancements in
mathematics including the Arabic numeral
system and the decimal system. They made
medical advances; built great temples and
shrined, called stupas; painted rich murals; and
added to the rich literary heritage of India.
Describe the development of the caste system after
Aryan times. How did the caste system provide a
sense of order?
The number of caste grew to accommodate new
occupations, religions, and groups of people.
The caste system developed rules that governed
every aspect of life.
Describe the structure of the traditional Indian
family. What were a woman’s responsibilities in
the family?
The structure of the traditional Indian family
was patriarchal (father head of house).
A woman’s main responsibilities were devotion
to her husband and raising children.
Describe the government of an Indian village.
Village government was led by a headsman and
a council who made decisions.
Describe the ethical code of conduct
that Confucius promoted.
Confucius based his ethical code of conduct on
duties and responsibilities. He placed special
emphasis on the duties of filial piety, honesty,
hard work, concern for others, and education.
What kind of government did Legalists favor?
Why did Daoist disagree with Legalist ideas on
Legalists favored a government that passed
strict laws and imposed harsh punishments.
Daoist were not concerned with bringing order
to human affairs. Daoists believed the best
government was one that governed the least.
Why did Buddhism appeal to many people in
Many Chinese people liked the Buddhist idea of
personal salvation. They welcomed the Buddhist
promise that religious devotion could end
suffering and lead to eternal happiness.
Explain how each of these thinkers believed an
orderly society could be achieved: (a) Confucius
(b) Hanfeizi (c) Laozi
Confucius taught that an orderly society was one in
which people accepted their place in society and
properly fulfilled their duties and responsibilities.
Hanfeizi believed that strict laws and harsh
enforcement of those laws brought about an
orderly society.
Laozi advised people to seek harmony with nature
rather than an orderly society.
What were three steps Shi Huangdi took to unify
Shi Huangdi centralized power in a strong
authoritarian government, standardized weights
and measures, and established a uniform
How did Han emperors further economic growth
in China?
The Han improved canals and roads, reorganized
finances, and imposed a government monopoly
on salt.
How did trade contribute to the development of
the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations?
Through trade Minoans and Mycenaeans
learned ideas and technology from Egypt and
What impact did Mycenaean civilization have on
later Greeks?
Mycenaeans passed on writing, legends, and
other cultural features to later Greeks.
What values of the ancient Greeks are found in
the poems of Homer?
Homer’s poems tell of honor, courage, and
Identify two ways that geography influenced
Mountains and water divided the land, the
Greeks formed separate city-states. The need
for fertile land pushed the Greeks to expand
How did noble landowners gain power in Greek citystates? How did the phalanx affect Greek society and
Noble landowners were able to afford costly
weapons, which were used to gain power.
Since ordinary citizens formed the phalanx, class
differences were reduced. The citizens who
worked in a phalanx developed a sense of unity.
Describe the system of education in: (a) Sparta
and (b) Athens.
Spartan boys received strict military training.
Athenian boys learned reading, writing, music,
poetry, public speaking, and military and athletic
What cultural ties united the Greek world?
The Greeks shared the same myths, language,
and religious beliefs.
Describe two effects of the Persian Wars.
Athens became the most powerful city-state.
Greek city-states formed the Delian League
under Athenian leadership.
How did Pericles contribute to
Athenian greatness?
Pericles extended democracy to common
people, encouraged extensive public building of
temples and statues, increased general
prosperity, and fostered the arts and philosophy.
How did the growth of Athenian power lead to
Many Greeks come to resent Athenian
Why did Plato reject democracy as a
form of government?
Plato rejected Athenian democracy because it
had condemned Socrates.
How were Greek plays performed? What were
the topics of Greek poetry and plays?
Plays were performed in large outdoor theaters.
Little scenery was used, but actors wore
elaborate costumes and masks. A chorus
accompanied the action on stage.
Greek poems and plays explored moral and
social issues and the relationship between
people and the gods.
What was the extent of Alexander’s
vast empire?
Alexander’s empire stretched from Greece to
northern India and included Persia, Palestine,
Asia Minor, and Egypt.
How did Alexander’s conquests lead to
a new civilization?
Greeks left their country to settle in newly
conquered lands. Eastern and western cultures
blended, resulting in the new Hellenistic