Ancient Greece - Class Notes For Mr. Pantano
Transcript Ancient Greece - Class Notes For Mr. Pantano
The tall flat hill is called the Acropolis and
is located in Athens.
In ancient Greece the Acropolis was
used for defence and worship.
The building on top is a temple
dedicated to the goddess Athena, it is
called the Parthenon.
Over the centuries the structure was
used as a temple, cathedral, mosque,
government headquarters and even a
The original structure of the Parthenon
stayed intact for around 2,000 years, until
as a storehouse for gunpowder, it was
blown up by a stray cannonball during a
war in 1687.
Most of the damage has been caused by
humans (e.g. stray cannonballs, pollution
Most of the damage was done in 1687.
The Parthenon is undergoing a major
The restoration team spends hours repairing
fractured stones by incorporating new and
ancient marble pieces.
Lots of public and academic debates on
the extent to which the ruins should be
The Parthenon: Temple to Athena
The Parthenon was a place where the
people of Athens would pray to Athena.
Peoples of Ancient Greece
Created the first settlement in Europe.
Lived on the island of Crete between 19501400 BCE.
These people were sea traders (sea
Appeared in the 14th century BCE (1400 BC)
and quickly took over the mainland of
These people used bronze tools and
Their civilization ended around 1100 BCE.
A war-like group which came from Asia
Minor (modern day Turkey) in 1100 BCE.
The Dorians used iron tools and weapons.
They took much of Greece by force and
enslaved much of the population. Two of
their major cities were Sparta and Corinth.
This group eventually replaced the Dorians
and spread throughout Greece.
The Hellenes are the ancestors of modern
Very advanced society created and
mastered the use of tools.
The Environment of Greece
Greece is made up of the main land as
well as almost 2000 islands.
Hot, dry summers; mild wet winters
The soil is dry and rocky (difficult to farm).
Athens had to import wheat.
Agriculture and food sources
Ate fish, seafood (access to sea)
2 staple crops: Olives and Grapes (grow
well in rocky, dry soil)
Ate goats and Sheep (milk, cheese)
Athens exported* wine, oil, and pottery (*To
sell goods to foreign countries).
Many Greeks had small farms.
They also grew fruits, vegetables and grains
(i.e. figs, pomegranates, onions, cabbage,
sesame seeds etc.).
Most farms produced enough food for one
Some farmers sold & traded their surplus for
money or for other products.
Wealthy farmers shipped their products to
other parts of Greece or Persia and Asia
The ancient Greeks and the Sea
What did the ancient Greeks use the
3. Protection and Military
5. Expansion and Spread culture
It was located in Athens.
It is one of the most significant sites in the
It is where the Athenians came to voice
their opinions on political issues.
It was a popular meeting place.
Many people would come to watch their
fellow citizens speak.
It is the meeting place of the world's first
ever democratic legislature, the Athenian
ekklesia (assembly), and the flat stone
platform is the bema, the "stepping stone"
or speakers' platform.
City States in Ancient Greece
State usually means country.
It was made up of small city states or Polis.
Most city states were separated by
mountains or by the sea.
This made communication difficult among
As a result, the Greek cities developed
Each Polis governed (managed) itself.
Every citizen had a say in government.
This is called democracy.
There was constant fighting between cities
over land, wealth, and power.
Cities had many things in common:
language, religion, military techniques, and
Some of the most famous city states are
Athens, Sparta, Troy, and Corinth.
Types of Government
One person is in charge. This person is
usually called a Despot (king/queen).
Power is passed down from parents to
children, usually father to son.
A small group of people called
aristocrats are in charge.
Aristocrats usually have a common
ancestry and are very wealthy.
In ancient Greece it was very difficult,
almost impossible to become an
aristocrat, if you were born into
Like the monarchy, one person is in charge.
This person is called a Dictator or Tyrant.
The Dictator usually takes power illegally.
His/her rule is above all laws, people have
One person in charge, but elected by all
Elected leader rules in the name of all
Citizens take part in the political process by
voting, protesting and debating issues.
How did Democracy Arise in
Athens Social Groups
Around 432 BC, the Athenian city-states
had approximately 300 000 inhabitants.
They were split into 4 social groups.
The four (4) SOCIAL GROUPS:
Citizens (45 000)
The wives and citizens of citizens (105 000)
Metics (40 000)
Slaves (110 000)
1. The Citizens
A) Who they were:
They were free.
They were over 20 years of age.
They were born from a citizen father and
Most of them were peasants.
Some were very rich, but others were poor.
B) Their Rights
To own land
To rule the city
C) Their Responsibilities
To have their sons educated
To do military service
To participate in political life
3. THE METICS
A) Who they were
They were free.
They were Greeks who came from other
cities, or non-Greeks.
They could not own land.
They had to have Athenian sponsor (A
person who agrees to take responsibility
Most metics were merchants or artisans;
others were very rich.
B) Their Rights
To make profits and accumulate riches
C) Their Responsibilities
To pay CITY TAXES
To serve in the army
To participate in religious celebrations
4. The Slaves
A) Who they were
They were usually foreigners.
Some slaves were prisoners of war.
Other slaves were captured and sold by
Greeks thought of them as GOODS or
Children of slaves automatically
B) Their Rights
C) Their Responsibilities
To work and obey their master
Athenian Families and Education
The Sons of Citizens:
An educator taught them reading, writing,
music and arithmetic, wrestling and
gymnastics (8 to 14 yrs old).
They learned the art of reasoning, of
delivering speeches, of arguing and of
convincing ( 15 to 17 yrs old).
They completed military service by 20.
At 20, they became citizens; took part in
Wives and daughters of citizens
They were responsible for:
1. Educating children (citizenship)
2. Managing servants
3. Running the home (ordered slaves to do
household chores etc.)
They rarely left the gynaecium – an
apartment reserved for women in Greek
Girls learned to weave, to accomplish
household tasks and to educate younger
Origins of Democracy in Athens
By the 6th century BCE, a man assumed
power by force, with the support of an
An Athenian named Solon was asked to
reform (change) the political system.
He proposed laws ensured equal justice for
all and to manage the crisis the city was
In 507 BCE, a politician named Cleisthenes
put an end to tyranny.
Using Solons laws, he introduced
democracy – a political system in which
the power belonged to the people.
The Influence of philosophers
The Ancient Greeks believed the Gods
influenced everything and controlled the
working of the universe.
In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks from Asia
Minor began to question this belief.
They based their knowledge on logic and
These thinkers were called “philosophers”
(literally, “who loved wisdom”).
Greek philosophers were interested in
everything: Astronomy, geography, natural
sciences, and mathematics.
Their influence spread throughout Athens.
Athenian philosophers had a major
influence on all Athenians and encouraged
them to use their intelligence.
Direct Democracy in Athens
The ancient Athenians were the first to
establish a system of direct democracy in
the 6th century BCE.
Direct democracy means that every
citizen* could participate in government.
To participate in politics one had to be a
citizen (male, 20+, completed military
training and have two Athenian parents).
Who could vote in Ancient
Athenian Democratic Institutions
1. EKKLESIA (Assembly of 6 000 citizens):
Vote public expenses
Sign peace treaties etc.
2. BOULE (Council of 500 citizens, 30+):
They proposed laws to the assembly.
They managed the city’s day-to-day
Term of office: 1 year, renewable once
3. Heliaia (6 000 citizens, 30+):
They made up the popular court and
judged on Athens judical affairs.
4. Strategists (10 citizens):
1. They ensured that the laws adopted by
the Ekklesia (assembly) were applied.
2. They commanded the army.
5. Archons (10 citizens):
1. They oversaw or were in charge of the
2. They organized religious celebrations.
The Agora in ancient Athens:
The Athenian agora was used as a public
meeting place for Athenian citizens.
This is also the place where merchants set
up their shops.
Ancient Greek houses:
Usually 1 floor
It had a courtyard.
It had few windows (hot climate).
Its walls were painted white, to keep it
They were reserved for men.
The men did most of the shopping.
Wealthy women could leave the home if
accompanied by a male servant.
Life in Sparta
Sparta was governed by an oligarchy.
There was NO voting in Sparta.
They were appointed for life.
They controlled the army.
5 Ephors (overseers):
They ran everyday operations, made laws,
and wrote the constitution.
They were elected annually.
It was comprised of 28 nobles appointed
They advised the kings.
Messenians Enslaved by Spartans
Around 700 BC, Sparta conquered a group
of people living near them, in Messenia.
The Spartans enslaved the Messenians,
whom they called "helots" (HEEL-otts).
The slaves were forced to farm the land.
Spartans treated the helots badly, often
beating/whipping/killing them for no
reason, and not giving them enough food.
Spartan men spent all their time training for
When little Spartan boys turned seven, they
left home to live in dormitories with all the
other Spartan boys their age.
They spent years learning to be good soldiers.
They exercised/learned to use swords and
Teachers never gave them enough food,
clothing or blankets (made them tough).
Spartan girls lived at home with their parents,
but they also learned to be tough, with plenty
The girls also learned to run houses/spin and
The Battle at
Thermopylae was a pass the Greeks tried to
defend in battle against Persians led by
Xerxes, in 480 B.C.
The Persians won the Battle of
The Spartans who led the defense were all
killed, but their courage provided
inspiration to the Greeks, many of whom
otherwise might have willingly become
Persian sympathizers, or so the Spartans
Although the Spartans lost at Thermopylae,
the following year the Greeks did win
battles they fought against the Persians.
Persians Attack the Greeks at
Xerxes' fleet of Persian ships had sailed into the
Gulf of Malia towards the mountains at
The Greeks faced the Persian army at a narrow
Spartan King Leonidas was the general in charge
of the Greek forces.
He tried to restrain the Persian army, to delay
them, and keep them from attacking the rear of
the Greek navy, which was under Athenian
Leonidas may have hoped to block them long
enough that Xerxes would have to sail away for
food and water.
Ephialtes and Anopaia:
After the Carnea festival, more Spartan
soldiers were to arrive and help defend
Thermopylae against the Persians.
Unfortunately for Leonidas, after a couple
of days, a traitor named Ephialtes led the
Persians around the pass running behind
the Greek army, thereby squashing any
chance of Greek victory.
The name of Ephialtes' path is Anopaia.
Greeks Fight the Immortals:
On the third day, Leonidas led his 300
Spartan troops plus their Boeotian allies
against Xerxes and his army, including the
The Spartan-led forces fought this
unstoppable Persian force to their deaths,
blocking the pass long enough to keep
Xerxes and his army occupied while the rest
of the Greek army escaped.
Themistocles was the Athenian in charge of
the Athenian naval fleet.
He had persuaded the Greeks to use the
bounty from a newly discovered vein of
silver at its mines at Laurium to build a naval
fleet of 200 triremes.
When some of the Greek leaders wanted
to leave Artemisium before the battle with
the Persians, Themistocles bribed and
bullied them into staying.
Did they have
At what age did
At what age
leave the army?
The Oracle of Delphi:
It is both a place and a person.
The ancient Greeks appointed a priestess
to communicate with the Gods.
The Greeks believed that Delphi was the
center of the world.
They believed the Oracle would make
predictions, answer questions, and help
leaders make decisions.
Warfare in Ancient Greece
There were many famous wars in ancient
City states and foreign empires would fight
over land, wealth, and power.
Wars would usually last for long periods of
time. Sometimes over ten years!
The Legend of Troy
The Trojan War is the first known account of
ancient Greek warfare, about 1180 BCE.
Many experts believe that this war is just a
myth (did not happen).
The war was fought between Trojans and
The cause of the war was Helen, an
Achaean princess who fled to Troy with one
of the Trojan princes, Paris.
The siege of Troy lasted 10 years until the
Achaeans tricked the Trojans into believing
The Achaeans built a large horse and put a
large number of troops inside and offered it
as a gift of surrender.
Achilles was also inside the Horse.
Achilles was believed to be part god and
the greatest warrior in ancient history.
Once the horse was in Troy, the Achaean
soldiers came out and took over the city.
What did Greek soldiers look like?
All Greek soldiers were free men, there
were no slaves allowed in the army.
All soldiers provided their own armour and
Ancient Greek soldiers were commonly
known as Hoplites.
Hoplite Armour and Weapons
All hoplites had two weapons a long
thrusting spear with a butt spike and a short
Their armour consisted of a large round
shield, breastplate, helmet, and greaves
It is important to note that different cities
had different variations of weapons and
armour, but all hoplites had what was
Corinthian helmet (standard helmet)
The feathers on top were used to
intimidate and deflect arrows and
A Sarissa spear was used by the
Macedonians and Alexander the
Hoplites fought in what is known as the
This is where hoplite shields interlock forming
a wall of armour.
Hoplites would then run in this formation
and crash into the enemy or the opposing
Hoplites would then fight in formation until
one side retreated.
Ancient Greek Architecture
Large Greek structures were traditionally
made out of limestone.
Workers would drag and lift the large
blocks into place using ropes and pulleys.
Temples were typically the largest
structures in the Greek city states.
Temples had 4 major components; inner
temple, columns, frieze, and pediment.
Why is Greek Architecture so
It is a style of architecture that is seen in
many cities around the world.
It is a style that is still used in the design of
The date of the first competition is
Experts believe that the ancient games
started 776 BCE and ended in 393 AD.
The games were a tribute to Zeus, and
were held near his temple in the city of
It was considered a great honour to
compete in the games.
The Olympics that we know today started
in 1896 by Pierre de Coubertin.
Today’s games consist of 35 individual and
team sports, and nearly 400 events.
What have the Ancient Greeks Given us?