Ancient Greece - Class Notes For Mr. Pantano

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Transcript Ancient Greece - Class Notes For Mr. Pantano

Ancient Greece
 The tall flat hill is called the Acropolis and
is located in Athens.
 In ancient Greece the Acropolis was
used for defence and worship.
 The building on top is a temple
dedicated to the goddess Athena, it is
called the Parthenon.
 Over the centuries the structure was
used as a temple, cathedral, mosque,
government headquarters and even a
munitions warehouse.
 The original structure of the Parthenon
stayed intact for around 2,000 years, until
as a storehouse for gunpowder, it was
blown up by a stray cannonball during a
war in 1687.
 Most of the damage has been caused by
humans (e.g. stray cannonballs, pollution
from cars).
 Most of the damage was done in 1687.
 The Parthenon is undergoing a major
 The restoration team spends hours repairing
fractured stones by incorporating new and
ancient marble pieces.
 Lots of public and academic debates on
the extent to which the ruins should be
The Parthenon: Temple to Athena
 The Parthenon was a place where the
people of Athens would pray to Athena.
Peoples of Ancient Greece
 Created the first settlement in Europe.
 Lived on the island of Crete between 19501400 BCE.
 These people were sea traders (sea
 Appeared in the 14th century BCE (1400 BC)
and quickly took over the mainland of
 These people used bronze tools and
 Their civilization ended around 1100 BCE.
 A war-like group which came from Asia
Minor (modern day Turkey) in 1100 BCE.
 The Dorians used iron tools and weapons.
 They took much of Greece by force and
enslaved much of the population. Two of
their major cities were Sparta and Corinth.
 This group eventually replaced the Dorians
and spread throughout Greece.
 The Hellenes are the ancestors of modern
 Very advanced society created and
mastered the use of tools.
The Environment of Greece
 Very mountainous
 Greece is made up of the main land as
well as almost 2000 islands.
 Hot, dry summers; mild wet winters
 The soil is dry and rocky (difficult to farm).
 Athens had to import wheat.
Agriculture and food sources
 Ate fish, seafood (access to sea)
 2 staple crops: Olives and Grapes (grow
well in rocky, dry soil)
 Ate goats and Sheep (milk, cheese)
 Athens exported* wine, oil, and pottery (*To
sell goods to foreign countries).
 Many Greeks had small farms.
 They also grew fruits, vegetables and grains
(i.e. figs, pomegranates, onions, cabbage,
sesame seeds etc.).
 Most farms produced enough food for one
 Some farmers sold & traded their surplus for
money or for other products.
 Wealthy farmers shipped their products to
other parts of Greece or Persia and Asia
Minor (Turkey).
The ancient Greeks and the Sea
What did the ancient Greeks use the
seas for?
1. Transportation
2. Trade
3. Protection and Military
4. Food
5. Expansion and Spread culture
The Pnyx
 It was located in Athens.
 It is one of the most significant sites in the
 It is where the Athenians came to voice
their opinions on political issues.
 It was a popular meeting place.
 Many people would come to watch their
fellow citizens speak.
 It is the meeting place of the world's first
ever democratic legislature, the Athenian
ekklesia (assembly), and the flat stone
platform is the bema, the "stepping stone"
or speakers' platform.
City States in Ancient Greece
 State usually means country.
 It was made up of small city states or Polis.
 Most city states were separated by
mountains or by the sea.
 This made communication difficult among
 As a result, the Greek cities developed
autonomously (independently).
Each Polis governed (managed) itself.
Every citizen had a say in government.
This is called democracy.
There was constant fighting between cities
over land, wealth, and power.
 Cities had many things in common:
language, religion, military techniques, and
the Olympics.
 Some of the most famous city states are
Athens, Sparta, Troy, and Corinth.
Types of Government
 One person is in charge. This person is
usually called a Despot (king/queen).
 Power is passed down from parents to
children, usually father to son.
 A small group of people called
aristocrats are in charge.
 Aristocrats usually have a common
ancestry and are very wealthy.
 In ancient Greece it was very difficult,
almost impossible to become an
aristocrat, if you were born into
another class.
Dictatorship (tyranny)
 Like the monarchy, one person is in charge.
 This person is called a Dictator or Tyrant.
 The Dictator usually takes power illegally.
 His/her rule is above all laws, people have
limited rights.
 One person in charge, but elected by all
 Elected leader rules in the name of all
 Citizens take part in the political process by
voting, protesting and debating issues.
How did Democracy Arise in
Athens Social Groups
 Around 432 BC, the Athenian city-states
had approximately 300 000 inhabitants.
 They were split into 4 social groups.
The four (4) SOCIAL GROUPS:
Citizens (45 000)
The wives and citizens of citizens (105 000)
Metics (40 000)
Slaves (110 000)
1. The Citizens
A) Who they were:
They were free.
They were over 20 years of age.
They were born from a citizen father and
 Most of them were peasants.
 Some were very rich, but others were poor.
B) Their Rights
 To own land
 To rule the city
C) Their Responsibilities
 To have their sons educated
 To do military service
 To participate in political life
A) Who they were
 They were free.
 They were Greeks who came from other
cities, or non-Greeks.
 They could not own land.
 They had to have Athenian sponsor (A
person who agrees to take responsibility
for another).
 Most metics were merchants or artisans;
others were very rich.
B) Their Rights
 To make profits and accumulate riches
C) Their Responsibilities
 To serve in the army
 To participate in religious celebrations
4. The Slaves
A) Who they were
 They were usually foreigners.
 Some slaves were prisoners of war.
 Other slaves were captured and sold by
 Greeks thought of them as GOODS or
 Children of slaves automatically
became slaves.
B) Their Rights
 None
C) Their Responsibilities
 To work and obey their master
Athenian Families and Education
The Sons of Citizens:
 An educator taught them reading, writing,
music and arithmetic, wrestling and
gymnastics (8 to 14 yrs old).
 They learned the art of reasoning, of
delivering speeches, of arguing and of
convincing ( 15 to 17 yrs old).
 They completed military service by 20.
 At 20, they became citizens; took part in
public affairs.
Wives and daughters of citizens
They were responsible for:
1. Educating children (citizenship)
2. Managing servants
3. Running the home (ordered slaves to do
household chores etc.)
 They rarely left the gynaecium – an
apartment reserved for women in Greek
 Girls learned to weave, to accomplish
household tasks and to educate younger
Origins of Democracy in Athens
 By the 6th century BCE, a man assumed
power by force, with the support of an
army (tyranny).
 An Athenian named Solon was asked to
reform (change) the political system.
 He proposed laws ensured equal justice for
all and to manage the crisis the city was
 In 507 BCE, a politician named Cleisthenes
put an end to tyranny.
 Using Solons laws, he introduced
democracy – a political system in which
the power belonged to the people.
The Influence of philosophers
 The Ancient Greeks believed the Gods
influenced everything and controlled the
working of the universe.
 In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks from Asia
Minor began to question this belief.
 They based their knowledge on logic and
 These thinkers were called “philosophers”
(literally, “who loved wisdom”).
 Greek philosophers were interested in
everything: Astronomy, geography, natural
sciences, and mathematics.
 Their influence spread throughout Athens.
 Athenian philosophers had a major
influence on all Athenians and encouraged
them to use their intelligence.
Direct Democracy in Athens
 The ancient Athenians were the first to
establish a system of direct democracy in
the 6th century BCE.
 Direct democracy means that every
citizen* could participate in government.
 To participate in politics one had to be a
citizen (male, 20+, completed military
training and have two Athenian parents).
Who could vote in Ancient
Citizens (men)
women and
Could Vote
Not Vote
Athenian Democratic Institutions
1. EKKLESIA (Assembly of 6 000 citizens):
Its role:
Write constitution
Raise taxes
Vote laws
Vote public expenses
Vote wars,
Sign peace treaties etc.
2. BOULE (Council of 500 citizens, 30+):
 They proposed laws to the assembly.
 They managed the city’s day-to-day
 Term of office: 1 year, renewable once
3. Heliaia (6 000 citizens, 30+):
 They made up the popular court and
judged on Athens judical affairs.
4. Strategists (10 citizens):
Its Role:
1. They ensured that the laws adopted by
the Ekklesia (assembly) were applied.
2. They commanded the army.
5. Archons (10 citizens):
Its Role:
1. They oversaw or were in charge of the
2. They organized religious celebrations.
The Agora in ancient Athens:
 The Athenian agora was used as a public
meeting place for Athenian citizens.
 This is also the place where merchants set
up their shops.
Ancient Greek houses:
Usually 1 floor
It had a courtyard.
It had few windows (hot climate).
Its walls were painted white, to keep it
Public spaces:
 They were reserved for men.
 The men did most of the shopping.
 Wealthy women could leave the home if
accompanied by a male servant.
Life in Sparta
 Sparta was governed by an oligarchy.
 There was NO voting in Sparta.
2 Kings:
 They were appointed for life.
 They controlled the army.
5 Ephors (overseers):
 They ran everyday operations, made laws,
and wrote the constitution.
 They were elected annually.
 It was comprised of 28 nobles appointed
for life.
 They advised the kings.
Messenians Enslaved by Spartans
 Around 700 BC, Sparta conquered a group
of people living near them, in Messenia.
 The Spartans enslaved the Messenians,
whom they called "helots" (HEEL-otts).
 The slaves were forced to farm the land.
 Spartans treated the helots badly, often
beating/whipping/killing them for no
reason, and not giving them enough food.
 Spartan men spent all their time training for
 When little Spartan boys turned seven, they
left home to live in dormitories with all the
other Spartan boys their age.
 They spent years learning to be good soldiers.
 They exercised/learned to use swords and
 Teachers never gave them enough food,
clothing or blankets (made them tough).
 Spartan girls lived at home with their parents,
but they also learned to be tough, with plenty
of exercise.
 The girls also learned to run houses/spin and
The Battle at
480 BC
 Thermopylae was a pass the Greeks tried to
defend in battle against Persians led by
Xerxes, in 480 B.C.
 The Persians won the Battle of
 The Spartans who led the defense were all
killed, but their courage provided
inspiration to the Greeks, many of whom
otherwise might have willingly become
Persian sympathizers, or so the Spartans
 Although the Spartans lost at Thermopylae,
the following year the Greeks did win
battles they fought against the Persians.
Persians Attack the Greeks at
 Xerxes' fleet of Persian ships had sailed into the
Gulf of Malia towards the mountains at
 The Greeks faced the Persian army at a narrow
 Spartan King Leonidas was the general in charge
of the Greek forces.
 He tried to restrain the Persian army, to delay
them, and keep them from attacking the rear of
the Greek navy, which was under Athenian
control (Themistocles).
 Leonidas may have hoped to block them long
enough that Xerxes would have to sail away for
food and water.
Ephialtes and Anopaia:
 After the Carnea festival, more Spartan
soldiers were to arrive and help defend
Thermopylae against the Persians.
 Unfortunately for Leonidas, after a couple
of days, a traitor named Ephialtes led the
Persians around the pass running behind
the Greek army, thereby squashing any
chance of Greek victory.
 The name of Ephialtes' path is Anopaia.
Greeks Fight the Immortals:
 On the third day, Leonidas led his 300
Spartan troops plus their Boeotian allies
against Xerxes and his army, including the
"10,000 Immortals."
 The Spartan-led forces fought this
unstoppable Persian force to their deaths,
blocking the pass long enough to keep
Xerxes and his army occupied while the rest
of the Greek army escaped.
 Themistocles was the Athenian in charge of
the Athenian naval fleet.
 He had persuaded the Greeks to use the
bounty from a newly discovered vein of
silver at its mines at Laurium to build a naval
fleet of 200 triremes.
 When some of the Greek leaders wanted
to leave Artemisium before the battle with
the Persians, Themistocles bribed and
bullied them into staying.
Type of
Did they have
Train for
At what age did
military training
At what age
could men
leave the army?
High emphasis
Low emphasis
The Oracle of Delphi:
 It is both a place and a person.
 The ancient Greeks appointed a priestess
to communicate with the Gods.
 The Greeks believed that Delphi was the
center of the world.
 They believed the Oracle would make
predictions, answer questions, and help
leaders make decisions.
Warfare in Ancient Greece
 There were many famous wars in ancient
 City states and foreign empires would fight
over land, wealth, and power.
 Wars would usually last for long periods of
time. Sometimes over ten years!
The Legend of Troy
 The Trojan War is the first known account of
ancient Greek warfare, about 1180 BCE.
 Many experts believe that this war is just a
myth (did not happen).
 The war was fought between Trojans and
the Achaeans.
 The cause of the war was Helen, an
Achaean princess who fled to Troy with one
of the Trojan princes, Paris.
 The siege of Troy lasted 10 years until the
Achaeans tricked the Trojans into believing
they surrendered.
 The Achaeans built a large horse and put a
large number of troops inside and offered it
as a gift of surrender.
 Achilles was also inside the Horse.
 Achilles was believed to be part god and
the greatest warrior in ancient history.
 Once the horse was in Troy, the Achaean
soldiers came out and took over the city.
What did Greek soldiers look like?
 All Greek soldiers were free men, there
were no slaves allowed in the army.
 All soldiers provided their own armour and
 Ancient Greek soldiers were commonly
known as Hoplites.
Hoplite Armour and Weapons
 All hoplites had two weapons a long
thrusting spear with a butt spike and a short
 Their armour consisted of a large round
shield, breastplate, helmet, and greaves
(shin guards).
 It is important to note that different cities
had different variations of weapons and
armour, but all hoplites had what was
mentioned above.
 Corinthian helmet (standard helmet)
 The feathers on top were used to
intimidate and deflect arrows and
throwing spears.
 A Sarissa spear was used by the
Macedonians and Alexander the
Hoplite Tactics
 Hoplites fought in what is known as the
 This is where hoplite shields interlock forming
a wall of armour.
 Hoplites would then run in this formation
and crash into the enemy or the opposing
 Hoplites would then fight in formation until
one side retreated.
Ancient Greek Architecture
 Large Greek structures were traditionally
made out of limestone.
 Workers would drag and lift the large
blocks into place using ropes and pulleys.
 Temples were typically the largest
structures in the Greek city states.
 Temples had 4 major components; inner
temple, columns, frieze, and pediment.
Why is Greek Architecture so
 It is a style of architecture that is seen in
many cities around the world.
 It is a style that is still used in the design of
modern buildings.
The Olympics
 The date of the first competition is
 Experts believe that the ancient games
started 776 BCE and ended in 393 AD.
 The games were a tribute to Zeus, and
were held near his temple in the city of
 It was considered a great honour to
compete in the games.
 The Olympics that we know today started
in 1896 by Pierre de Coubertin.
 Today’s games consist of 35 individual and
team sports, and nearly 400 events.
What have the Ancient Greeks Given us?
1. Democracy
2. Olympics
3. Architecture
4. Philosophy