Greece and Persia

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Transcript Greece and Persia

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Bellwork 6 mins! Good Afternoon
1. Finish working on “Lesson 2 Worksheet”
2. Finish Athens Foldable
Name one way Cleisthenes made Athens government more democratic.
List the three groups who were not helped by the changes.
Lesson 1 and 2 Quiz
Lesson 3 Greece and Persia
pp. 248 – 255
Essential Question:
Why did conflict
• Satrapies – the territory governed by a
governor = government official
• Satrap – the governor of a province in
ancient Persia
• Zoroastrianism – a Persian religion based
on the belief of one god
Read: Persia’s Empire
• P. 248
Persia’s Empire
• Persians were building an empire when
the government of Athens was undergoing
political changes
– Persian homeland was located in modern-day
southwestern Iran
Cyrus the Great
• Cyrus the Great built a strong Persian army
• Began creating an empire that became the
largest in the ancient world
Read: Creating an Empire
• Pp. 248 - 249
Creating an Empire
• Persia conquered Mesopotamia, Syria,
Judah, and the Greek city-states of
• Cyrus treated conquered people fairly
• Allowed them to keep their own
languages, religions, and laws
• Allowed the Jews to return to Israel
• Armies took over Egypt, western India,
and lands northeast of Greece
• From the west to the east stretched 3,000
miles (this is about the size of the
continental United States today)
Persian Roads
• Persians improved the roads begun by the
• Royal Road was 1,500 miles from Persia
to Anatolia
• Messengers could travel from Persia to
Anatolia in just seven days
• The same trip would have taken 3 months
before the road was built
Read: Persian Government
• P. 249
Persian Government
• Darius I ruled Persia
from 522 to 486 BC
– Divided the empire into
provinces called
– Each satrapies ruled by
a governor called a
satrap (means “defender
of the kingdom”)
– Satrap collected taxes,
judged legal cases,
managed the police,
and recruited soldiers
for the Persian army
Persian Army
• Persian maintained a full-time, paid,
professional army
• Best fighters were 10,000 soldiers called
the “Immortals” because when one died
another soldier immediately took his place
Read: Who was Zoroaster?
• Pp. 250 – 251
Who was Zoroaster?
• Persians were polytheistic
– A teacher named Zoroaster
• Preached a monotheistic religion
• Religion was called Zoroastrianism
• Taught one supreme god
• God was called Ahura Mazda or “Wise
• Ahura Mazda was creator of all things
• Leader of the forces of good
• Believes people were free to choose
between good and evil
• Religion still has about 200,000 followers
today. Most in South Asia.
Progress Check
• How did Persian rulers unite their vast
Read: The Persian Wars
• P. 251
The Persian Wars
Persians clashed with the Greeks
Greeks in Anatolia revolted against Persia
Athenians sent warships to help rebels
Persians crushed the uprising
King Darius decided to punish the Greeks
Read: How Did the Greeks Win at
• Pp. 251 - 252
How Did the Greeks Win at
• Darius sent a fleet of 600 ships and army
to invade Greece
• Persians landed at Marathon
• Persians waited for the Greeks to fight
• Athenians had only 10,000 troops
compared to the Persian’s 20,000 soldiers
• Persians sailed to Athens to attack by sea
• Persians loaded their ships with cavalry
• As soon as the Persians had their
horsemen on their ships, Athenians
charged down the hills
• Athenians caught the Persians foot
soldiers standing in the water
• Persians suffered a terrible defeat
• A messenger ran 25 miles
from Marathon to Athens
with news of the victory
• When he reached Athens
he cried “Victory”
• Then collapsed and died
from exhaustion
• Today’s marathon races are
named for him and are just
over 26 miles
Read: Land and Sea Battles
• Pp. 252 -255
Land and Sea Battles
• Persians vowed
• Xerxes invaded
Greece with 200,000
troops and thousands
of warships
• The Greek city-states
banded together to
fight the Persians
Battle of Thermopylae
• King Leonidas of Sparta supplied soldiers
• Themistocles of Athens directed Greek
naval forces
• Themistocles wanted to attack the
Persian’s ships and cut off the army’s
• To do this, King Leonidas of Sparta had to
stop the Persian army from reaching Athen
Battle of Thermopylae
• King Leonidas led 7,000
soldiers into a battle that
lasted for three days
• A traitor showed the
Persians a trail leading
behind the Greeks
• Realizing he would soon be
surrounded, Leonidas
dismissed most of the
• Leonidas and 300 Spartans
remained a fought to the
• The Spartan’s heroic stand
gave Themistocles time to
attack Persia’s ships
• Athenian fleet lured the
Persian fleet into the strait of
Salamis near Athens
• Athenian ships were smaller
and faster
• Most of the Persian fleet was
• Persian foot soldiers set
Athens on fire
Battle at Plataea
• Combined forces of the Greek
city-states formed their largest
army yet
• Improved fighting with better
armor and weapons
• Greek army faced Persians at
• Two sides evenly matched with
100,000 men
• Greeks defeated the Persians
• Freed Anatolia from Persian rule
• Peace did no come until 449 BC
Read: Decline of Persia
• p. 255
Decline of Persia
• Persian army was no longer strong
enough to defend the empire
• Persian people were unhappy with
• Kings taxed the people heavily
• Persian empire fell when attacked by
Alexander the Great and a new Greek
empire began
Progress Check
• After the losses in Greece, why did the
Persians grow unhappy with their
Essential Question
• Why did conflict develop?
Ticket out the Door
your name
List two advantages that should have helped
the Persians defeat the Greeks at
Marathon in 490 B.C.
How did the Greeks finally defeat the