Airway Crises Tools By Hwan Joo MD*

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Transcript Airway Crises Tools By Hwan Joo MD*

Airway Management
By Hwan Joo MD
Airway Presentation
 Normal Airway Management
 Closed Claims
 Difficult Intubation and Tools
 Difficult Ventilation and Tools
 Intubation tools for Surgeons
 Overall goals
 Teach surgeons about airway tools
 Not necessarily how to intubate
Indication for Tracheal
 Oxygenation and Peep
 Ventilation
 Airway protection from Aspiration
 Tracheal toilet and/lung washings
 Route for drug administration
Airway Assessment
 The Mallampati view
may be indicative of
difficult airway
 Negative predictive
value >99% for MP 1-2
 PPV for MP 4 only 40%
 MP and laryngeal view
not very correlative
Difficult Airway Assessment
 History of difficult Intubation
 Physical examination
 Trauma
 C-spine precaution
 Blood in airway
 Airway trauma
 Morbid obesity
 RSI makes it worse!
Direct Laryngoscopy
 3# Mcintosh blade most
commonly used
No change in design for
60 years
High success rates in
normal airways (99%)
However, difficult to learn
>50 uses to be proficient
Not so good with difficult
Laryngeal Mask Airway
 Comes in sizes 3, 4, 5
(small, medium large)
Great for ventilation
Insertion easier if you have
deep anesthesia
Does not protect against
Not able to deliver high
pressure ventilation
Useful for difficult airways
and failed laryngoscopy
Induction of for Intubation
 Nothing
 Patient already non-responsive
 Medications contraindicated
 Topical lidocaine
 Midazolam, fentanyl
 Etomidate±Sux
 Ketamine±Sux
 Propofol±Sux
Closed Claims -Caplan, Anesthesiology 1990
 Airway -Largest and most costly form of
injury (34% of all claims, $200,000+ US)
 Inadequate ventilation (34%)
 Esophageal intubation (18%)
 Difficult intubation (17%)
 36% of claims against difficult intubation
cases considered preventable
Closed Claims in Canada
 Between 1993-2003, 50% of all large CMPA
suits in anesthesia were airway related
 Average settlement was $500,000
 75% of patients suffered brain damage or deaths
 50% were associated with difficult airways
 In half of these patients, difficult airway adjuncts were not
 Therefore, there is room for improvement
ASA Difficult Airway Algorithm
 Recognized difficult airway
 intubation vs non-intubation
 facemask, LMA
 regional
 Unrecognized difficult airway
 can ventilate
 convert to spontaneous ventilation?
 awake vs asleep
 cannot ventilate
 emergency measures required
Difficult Intubation -Ventilation Possible
 Awaken patient
 Asleep fiberoptic intubation
 LMA without intubation
 Intubation via LMA or ILMA
 Lighted stylette
 CombitubeTM
 Video laryngoscope
Flexible Fiberoptic Intubation
 Awake fiberoptic intubation
is the gold (Rose CJA 1994)
 Asleep FOI, successful but,
 It may be more difficult due to
 Airway obstruction or apnea
 Blood in pharynx
 Limited time before oxygen
 Should be done with help!
Laryngeal Mask
Airway for intubation
 Success for intubation with conventional
LMA is variable (19-93%)
 Success may be improved by the use of a
pediatric bronchoscope via the ETT in
 LMA removal may be difficult after
 Consider LMA without intubation
Lighted Stylette (TrachliteTM)
 With experience
 Success rates reported
to be up to 99% in
patients with difficult
airway (Hung, CJA 1995)
 Success rates for
novices 50% (Wilk, Resuc
 Success rates
decreased in patient
with bull necks and
obese patients
 Success rates by nonanesthesiologist with
combitube has ranged (3393%)
 Average beginner success
rates expected to be in the
80-90% range (Anesthesiatrained)
 May be associated with
esophageal injuries and
mediastinitis (Vezina, CJA 1998)
Video Laryngoscopes
 Rigid laryngoscope with
 View is very clear with no
 Blade angle 50-60 deg
 Easy to use
 Very rapid learning curve
 Can also be learned by ER
physicians, Surgeons
Glidescope in Use
Glidescope Success Rates with
Experience Joo et al
Success Rate
0 to 9
10 to 19
20 to 29
30 to 39
> 40
Glidescope with Disposable Blade
McGrath Videolaryngoscope
Similar to Glidescope
Disposable blade cover
Beautiful all in one design
Optics not be as good
 Narrow field of vision
 More difficult?
 More portable
 More likely to disappear
Video Laryngoscopes
LCD Screen
Disposable blade
Much cheaper initial cost
However, $50 per use
What is wrong with this picture?
Ventilation Difficult or Impossible
 Failed intubation is disturbing but…..
 Failed ventilation is universally fatal!
 Choices
 LMA (will discuss ILMA later)
 Combitube
 Transtracheal airway
 cricothryotomy
 transtracheal jet ventilation
 tracheostomy
Laryngeal Mask Airway
 Success rates for ventilation as high as
 95% after 1 attempt and 98% after 2 attempts
 No decrease in success rates in patient’s
with difficult airways
 Overwhelming data of uses in difficult
airways and in failed ventilation
 may have saved 100’s of lives!
 For IPPV use large LMA’s
What is the Best Device for Failed
Ventilation? LMA vs. CombitubeTM
 Success is dependent on more on the
operator’s experience than to tool
 Majority of anesthesiologist have little or
no experience with the Combitube
 LMA should be the first choice for difficult
ventilation scenarios
 However, Combitube theoretically
prevents aspiration
Trans Trachea Airway
 TTJV (jet ventilation)
 difficult with multiple
 Needle cricothryotomy
 High success rates using
Seldinger technique
 No need for jet
 Slash or surgical
 Messy but may do the job
Intubating Laryngeal Mask
Airway (ILMA)
 Things of interest
 Elbow connector
 Continuous ventilation
 PVC Tube
 Metal rings in silicone tube
not compatible with FOB
 Better than C-Trach?
 Better manipulation
 Higher Success rates
What is this?
 The view via ILMA is
different from regular
 The epiglottis is often
 Obviously blind
intubation failed
 Larger ILMA required
LMA C Trach
 ILMA with LCD screen
 Improved success rates for intubation over ILMA
 Success on normal airways about 90-95%
based on limited studies
 However, need greater mouth opening compared to
ILMA, 2.5cm versus 2.0 cm
 Same success rate for ventilation
 Less trauma
Failed Intubation
What to do as a Surgeon
 Awaken patient if possible/feasible
 Maintain ventilation and oxygenation
 Facemask
 Combitube
 Call Anesthesia
 Surgical Airway
 Attempt ventilation throughout
Airway Tools not for Surgeons
 Too much effort required to learn
 Not good with secretions or blood
 Not as useful in unplanned cases (ER)
 Lighted Stylettes
 Again, high learning curve
 Not as useful in patients who are not paralyzed
 High incidence of esophageal intubations
What is the Best Tool for
 LCD Laryngoscopes are the way of the
 Currently, Glidescope is the easiest to use
with the most literature supporting it
 Must Practice on routine patients
 Use it get familiarity
 Bug the anesthesiologists to use it in the OR
 Gold standard, Glidescope + FOB
Glidescope FOB Insertion
Glidescope FOB Intubation
The Future
The future of intubation will be video assisted
 In the past, intubators
intubated in the dark
by themselves
 (Like masturbation!)
 The future will have
everybody involved in
the process of
 (ER Doc, Nurses, RT)
 Everyone is involved
Final Recommendation
 When faced with a
difficult airway, stay
on the beaten path of
 Practice, Practice…
 Use familiar but
advanced devices
 Do not persist with
techniques that have
 Secure ventilation
Practice in Simulation