Social Research

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Transcript Social Research

Social Research
Social Research
Goal: Test common sense & peoples assumptions then
replace with fact & evidence and make…………
Definition: statement about a
group of people or things that
is based on only a few people
or things in that group.
Social Research
Where to we do
• The whole world
is a sociologists lab!
Two Types :
Quantitative: research that relies on numerical data
Qualitative: research which uses observation and
relies upon descriptive data
 Experiment: research that takes place in a lab setting
(limited use in social research)
 Field Research: research that takes place in a natural
(non-lab) setting (primarily used in social research)
 Survey: research method in which people respond to
questions (most common method used in research)
 Questionnaire: asking a sample population to respond to a
to a series of closed-ended questions
 Interview: asking of open-ended questions in order to
gain required information
Secondary/Historical Analysis: reading and analyzing
another persons data and
research on a topic
 Case Study: in depth examination of a single group,
problem, or community
• Longitudinal Study: type of case study that is conducted
over a period of time.
• Cross-sectional Study: focus on data collected at a
specific period of time.
 Natural Observation: research
based on observation of people
in any given environment (place)
 Participant Observation: research in
which the researcher becomes
involved with the group being studied
Theoretical Perspectives:
Case Study
A questionnaire on violence in high schools
is sent to a national, random sample of
principals. The survey examines a possible
relationship between incidence of school
violence and family life.
A particular high school with high levels of
fights is examined with respect to the
relationship between fights at school and
family life at home. Researchers interview
principals, teachers, and students.
Concealing their identity, a researcher takes
a temporary job at a high school with lots of
fights at school. They attempt to observe a
possible link between fights and family life.
The Social Research Method
Step 1:
Choose a Topic……AND……Ask a Question
Topic  Sport and School Behavior and Grades
Question  What is the impact does playing a high
school sport have on the behavior of
student athletes in class?
The Social Research Method
Step 2:
Literature Review
• What does research that has already been done say about this topic?
I would read and review:
• American Sociological Association Journal Articles about Sports & School
• Books by authors who studied this topic previously
• Interviews from athletes (high school and college)
• Newspaper Articles about Sports and School
The Social Research Method
Step 3:
State your Hypothesis
- What do I think will be my answer?
•Hypothesis= proposed explanation for a
Hypothesis  Students who play a high school sport
will have better behavior in school
versus those students who do not
play a high school sport.
The Social Research Method
Step 4:
Develop your Research Plan
1. Choose your methods to collect data (3)
2. Create a timeline for your research
3. Choose your research population
Methods  Survey, Interview, Secondary Analysis (data)
Timeline  I will conduct my research over a period of
2 weeks
Population  I will research 50 student-athletes and 50
non-athletes grades 9-12 at SHS
The Social Research Method
Step 5:
Collect your Data
• Go out and perform your research!
- Independent Variable= varied or
manipulated by the researcher; the ‘cause’.
- Dependent Variable= response that is
measured; the ‘effect’.
Variable  Playing a sport (Independent) will
yield either good or bad behavior (Dependent)
The Social Research Method
Step 6:
Analyze your Data
Analyze your data and look for the following:
• Patterns and Relationships
• Correlations and Causations
Patterns  A majority/few student athletes have good behavior
in class.
Relationship  Being a student-athlete causes better behavior in
class (Direct Relationship)
Correlation  I found a positive correlation between studentathletes and positive behavior
The Social Research Method
Step 7:
State your Conclusions
• What generalizations can be drawn from the results of your research?
• Was your hypothesis proven correct or incorrect?
Hypothesis  My hypothesis was proven to be correct
Generalization  Students who play high school sports tend to
behave better in class.
Examining Results
- Causation= an outcome has been directly
caused by a variable or factor.
Sociologists examine cause and effect by looking
at the variables, or characteristics, involved.
Examining Results
- Correlation= a change in one variable
regularly associates with a change in another
Caveat: When
conducting research,
either in a lab setting or
in society, outcomes do
not always match the
intended results.