History of Sport PPT

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Transcript History of Sport PPT

History of Sport
What is ‘Sport’?
An activity involving physical exertion and
skill that is governed by a set of rules or
customs and often undertaken
competitively against others.
Sport seems to involve basic human skills
being developed and exercised for their
necessity of survival.
 Archery for hunting, self defense for war,
sailing for travel/survival.
Ancient Skills Become Sports
Gladiators in Rome fought and killed for the
enjoyment of an audience, rather than to
protect the Empire.
Yachting is the travel across water for
enjoyment or competition rather than for
transport or commerce.
Running is done on a course for a fixed
length of time or distance, rather than simply
to deliver messages.
Stone-age drawings were discovered in
the Libyan desert depicting among other
activities, swimming and archery.
Captain Cook visited the Hawaiian Islands
in 1778, reported on the native people
 The native Americans engaged in games
and sports before the coming of
Europeans. Lacrosse type ball games,
running, and other athletic activities.
The ancient Mayan and Aztec civilizations
played serious ballgames. The courts
used at that time are still used today.
Sport has been increasingly organized
and regulated from the time of the Ancient
Olympics up to the present century.
 Activities necessary for food and survival
became regulated activities done for
pleasure or competition on an increasing
scale, e.g. hunting, fishing, horticulture.
Ancient China
Artifacts and structures suggest that
Chinese engaged in activities which meet
our definition of sport as early as 4000
years BC.
 Origin & development of China's sports
seem to have been related to the
production, work, war and entertainment
of the time.
Ancient China
Gymnastics appears to have been a
popular sport in China's past.
 It remains so today, as the skill of Chinese
acrobats is internationally recognized.
 Why are they excellent in acrobatic
Ancient Egypt
Monuments to the Pharaohs indicate that
a range of sports were well developed
thousands of years ago, including
swimming and fishing.
 The importance of the Nile in the life of
Ancient Egypt
Other sports included javelin throwing, high
jump and wrestling.
Ancient Greece
Wrestling, running, boxing, javelin, discus
throwing, and chariot racing were
 This suggests that the military culture of
Greece was an influence on the
development of its sports.
Ancient Greece
 The
Olympic games began around
776BC in Ancient Greece.
 The games were held not simply as a
sporting event, but as a celebration of
individual excellence, cultural and
artistic variety, and a showplace for
architectural and sculptural innovation.
Ancient Olympic Events-Day 1
The athletes, as well as the judges, took an
oath to respect the rules.
Contest for trumpet players and heralds
followed this ceremony.
Ancient Olympic Events-Day 2
The equestrian events took place in the
The most popular event was the four-horse
chariot race (quadriga).
There were also chariot races for young
horses and a mounted horse race.
Ancient Olympic Events-Day 2
The pentathlon took place in the stadium in
the afternoon. It consisted of five events :
discus, long jump, javelin, running and
Ancient Olympic Events-Day 3
This day was considered to be the
culminating point of the Games.
A great sacrifice took place: one hundred
cows were killed in honour of Zeus and
other divinities.
Ancient Olympic Events-Day 4
The different races took place in the
stadium, and spectators sat on the
surrounding slopes and were very close to
the action.
Ancient Olympic Events-Day 4
The stade or stadion, which consisted of one
length of the stadium, that is roughly 192m.
The diaulos, two lengths or double stadium.
The dolichos, a long-distance race (from 7 to 24
The race in arms (in Olympia it was a diaulos),
where the athletes wore a helmet and greaves,
and carried a shield.
Ancient Olympic Events-Day 4
The afternoon was dedicated to combat
sports: pugilism (boxing), wrestling and
Ancient Olympic Events-Day 5
This day was reserved for honouring
victorious athletes.
Modern History of Sport
The Industrial Revolution and emerging
middle class brought increased leisure
which allowed increases in spectator
sports, less elitism in sports, and greater
Industrial Revolution
The Early Years: Limited Time and Limited Space
Work day too long (12 - 15 hours)
few parks in cities
Rural communities had more game and sport
Urban working classes mainly spectators of horse
racing, boxing, wrestling, boat races, etc.
Emphasis on calisthenics, gymnastics & outdoor
Club establishment (mainly upper class)
-led to open competitions
YMCA - 1844 - big influence on identifying
exercise and sports as "Christian”
Middle and working class participation
Beginning of amateur/professional distinction
Growing emphasis on seriousness of sports:
economic productivity
national loyalty
character development
The 20th Century
Period of dramatic sport growth
 Corporate Sport and health push
 More $ spent on sports equipment than by
all schools
 Improved Equipment
 Social Involvement
 Part of educational system
Sports Since 1920’s
Sport/society links established
Spectator sports (intercollegiate & professional)
Competition, winning, record setting
Coaching as a specialized technical profession:
-control passed to coaches, managers and
administrative staff.
Sports in the 1920's looked much like today's
sports ….but no TV