Unit 5: East / Southeast Asia

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Transcript Unit 5: East / Southeast Asia

Unit 5: East / Southeast Asia
A History of the Regions
Early History of China
The Shang Period
(1700s-1100s B.C.E.)
-a farming society that settled
along the Huang River
-domesticated water buffalo
-used system of irrigation
-made improvements in
bronze casting
-Grand tombs, shell money,
fairly accurate calendar,
chopsticks, and musical
instruments are other
Shang-era achievements
Early History of China
The Qin
(200s B.C.E.)
-first Chinese imperial
-emperor ordered the
connection of ancient
walls which would
become the Great Wall of
-the term China comes from
the Qin (pronounced
Chin) dynasty
Early History of China
The Han Dynasty
(202 B.C.E. - 220 C.E.)
-built a strong military
-rapid growth of cities
-art & architecture flourished
and spread to the south
-Today the Chinese call
themselves Han after this
great era
Early History of China
The Tang and Sung
(618 C.E. – 1200s C.E.)
-after the decline of the Han,
China was divided and ruled
by several warlords
-around 618 C.E. unity was
restored under the Tang and
Sung dynasties
-China became the most
advanced culture in the world
-after the defeat of the Mongols
in the 1200s, culture thrived,
but rulers limited trade and
outside influences
Early History of Korea
-earliest inhabitants came
from northern and
central Asia
-108 B.C.E. the Chinese
invaded Korea and had
major influence on
Korean culture
-After recapturing the
peninsula, Korean
culture flourished and
became known in Asia
for its architecture,
ceramics and painting
Early History of Japan
Japan’s earliest inhabitants
were the Ainu (I-noo)
-believed to be the
descendants of people
who migrated from N. Asia
thousands of years ago
-300 B.C.E. invaders from
Asia drove the Ainu into N.
Japan and introduced rice
farming to the islands
-today the Ainu number
around 20,000 and still live
in the northern Hokkaido
where they farm and fish
Early History of Japan
700s C.E. Japan developed
unique political order similar
to Europe’s feudal system
and established a capital at
-this political system was
controlled by the emperor as
well as powerful warlords
called SHOGUN
-these shogun ruled over wealthy
landlords called daimyo who
controlled their own local
territories and were protected
by SAMURAI warriors
Early History of Japan
European traders and
merchants arrived in
Japan around the
1500s, but were
forced out by
Japanese leaders in
the 1600s for fear that
European influence
might cause instability
in Japanese society
-Japan remained
culturally isolated for
almost two-hundred
Early History of Southeast Asia
Earliest inhabitants date
back 40,000 years
-important center of plant and
animal domestication (3000
-800 C.E. the Khmer were the
largest developed culture in
the region (primarily Hindu)
-1200s C.E. the Thais migrated
to the region from China
-Buddhism is introduced from
India and becomes primary
-early 1500s the region was
colonized by Europeans
and became known as
Burma (Britain) and French
Modern History of China
China’s earliest contact
with the outside world was
via trade along the “Silk
Road,” which extended
from China to the Black
-Europe made contact via the
seas in the 1500s and
quickly attempted to
dominate trade relations
-China was unprepared to
handle aggressive trade
relations & falls victim to
European, Japanese and
U.S. domination
-1842 Britain takes Hong
-1895 Japan takes Taiwan
Modern History of China
1912 rebels under the
leadership of Sun-Yat-sen
overthrow the last dynasty and
establish the Republic of China
After Sun-Yat-sen’s death,
Nationalist Chiang-Kai-shek
became leader and overthrew
China’s warlords
1930s Japan takes advantage
of China’s political divisions and
assumes control of resourcerich Manchuria, and much of
Eastern China, until 1940s
Modern History of China
After Japan’s defeat in 1945,
Mao Zedong and the
Communist Party take power
in China and established the
People’s Republic of China
-Mao Zedong takes control of all
land and private property and
sets up government controlled
system of farms, labor and
-inefficient use of land for industry
leads to mass famine / millions
-Nationalists flee to Taiwan and
set-up rival government the
Republic of China
Modern History of China
1960s and 70s Communist
led “Cultural Revolution”
persecutes critics, elderly,
intellectuals & scientists
-schools and universities are
-many are killed
Modern History of China
A New China
-after death of Mao Zedong in
1976, Deng Xiaoping came
to power
-Xiaoping helped China
modernize and become a
productive nation with a
healthy market economy
-about half of China’s
industrial workers still work
in inefficient state-owned
Modern History of Japan
1853 Commodore Matthew
C. Perry helped open
Japan to foreign influence
and trade
-1868 a group of Samurai
overthrow the last of the
Shogun and restore the
Emperor’s power in what
became known as the Meiji
Revolution (enlightened
-this sparked a period of mass
reform including western
influenced education,
government, and industry
-1895 in effort to expand,
Japan took Taiwan from
China and annexed Korea
Modern History of Japan
In 1940 Japan signed an
alliance with Germany and
Italy and entered World
War II by attacking U.S.
naval base at Pearl Harbor
-Japan took control of most of
Southeast Asia and many
Pacific islands
-Allied forces pushed Japan
back and in 1945 the U.S.
dropped atomic bombs at
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
-Japan surrenders
-sets up democratic
government that includes
the Diet, prime minister
and an emperor
Modern History of Korea
Japan lost Korea after
the war.
-the U.S. and Russia
divided the country
along the 38th parallel
-in the north the
Russians set up a
government called
The People Republic
of Korea
Modern History of Korea
1950 North Korea invaded
South Korea and sparked
the Korean War
-U.N. / U.S. troops pushed
back N. Korean troops, but
China’s communist
government sent troops to
support N. Korea
-1953 the two side sign an
armistice to end fighting
and set up a demilitarized
zone (DMZ) at the 38th
-the peninsula is still divided
Modern History of Southeast Asia
The Japanese invaded
Southeast Asia during WWII
-after the war, nationalist groups
tried to end colonialism in
the region
-four newly independent nations
emerged: French Indochina
became Vietnam, Laos, &
Cambodia and British
controlled Burma became
Myanmar in 1989
-this independence was not
easy and sparked civil war in
Vietnam (Vietnam War)
-U.S. became involved in an
attempt to help stop the
spread of communism
Elements of Chinese
Major religions and belief
Mandarin is the
official language
Many dialects are
Taoism emphasizes
living a simple life in
harmony with nature
Written language
uses the same
characters derived
from pictograms
centers on family
loyalty, duty, and
Artistic traditions
Landscape painting
Pottery (porcelain)
Wooden houses built
on stone foundations
Tiled roofs that curve