Transcript ASIA

A History of the Asian Continent
By: Jennifer Lee, Rina Lubit, Vivian Li, Alice Xue, Jace Chen,
Amanda Wang, Mya Islam, and Yi Dong Zhu
Technological and Environmental
Before 600 B.C.E.
Early Civilizations
Sumerian, Babylonians, Assyrians in Mesopotamia
Shang Dynasty in the Yellow River Valley (1700 BCE)
Rise of China’s longest dynasty, the Zhou, ~1050 BCE
Indus River Valley civilization (2600 - 1900 BCE) built organized cities
1500 BCE: nomadic Aryans moved into Indus River Valley, fusing with Dravidians (developed
the caste system and Sanskrit)
Trade Networks
Development of the Indian Ocean Trade Network (The Horn of Africa and Egypt to Sumeria and
the Indus River Valley civilization)
o monsoon season - seasonal change in wind direction
Inventions such as the dhow, the lateen sail, the outrigger, and others allow for deep-water
navigation of the Indian Ocean
Early transplantation of important food crops (yams, taro, banana) to new habitats.
Silk Road didn’t fully develop until the Han dynasty
Organization and Reorganization
of Human Societies
600 B.C.E. ~ 600 C.E.
Gojoseon dynasty (c. 2000BC - 100BC)
o General Wiman Joseon seized throne from King Jun in the 1st century BC
 Joseon created a strong economy by trading with Hans.
 Military-strong background
3 Kingdoms of Korea (57BC - 935AD)
o Goguryeo (37BC - 668AD): united several regions from Gojoseon’s territory
 Several conflicts with Chinese Sui and Tang dynasty
o Silla (57BC - 935AD)
o Baekje (18BC - 660AD)
 adopted some of the Chinese technology and culture through territorial expansion
 strongly influenced Japanese culture
 fell to Silla invasion with the assistance of Tang army
o Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje constantly fought for territory but also formed alliances
with one another to dominate the peninsula together
221-206 BCE: Qin Dynasty
o Shi Huangdi organized and centralized China after the period of Warring States(480-221 BCE)
through military conquest. (Make a note of legalism)
o Created The Great Wall, restricted confucian ideals, and strengthened the military.
o After Huangdi’s troops invaded nomadic groups, the Xiongnu Confederacy was formed, which
would later attack Northern China for a long period of time.
o Huangdi was overthrown after his oppressive methods accumulated into hatred and violence.
206 BCE-220 CE: Han Dynasty
o split into Western and Eastern period after interception of temporary Xiu dynasty.
o Liu Bang (later called emperor Gaozu) centralized China.
o Development of agricultural techniques, production of silk, and porcelain.
o introduction of Buddhism, and growing popularity in Daoism.
o Empress Dowager Lu(195BCE) - first Chinese female leader. Rose to power when teenager Wu
was crowned emperor after Gaozu died.
589-618 CE: Sui Dynasty
o reestablished order
o the Grand Canal was built as trade route and a mode of transport.
324-184 BCE: Mauryan Empire
o Chandragupta Mauryan, the founder, and his descendants continuously expanded their empire
to cover almost the entire subcontinent.
o united most of India with strong military and trade; flourished with taxation on iron,
agriculture, and trade routes.
o Ashoka - 3rd ruler of Maurya. He converted to Buddhism after witnessing the destructiveness
of the battle of Kalinga.
320-550 CE: Gupta Empire
o founded by Maharaja Sri Gupta
o Hindu was the prominent religion. However, Guptas were religiously tolerant
o Considered to be the Golden Age of India because of mathematical (decimal system, pi, and
zero), artistic, and astronomic advancements.
o women:urbanization and new complexity of social structure reduced women’s rights and
strengthened the husband’s control over wife. (ex: early marriage, sati/widow cremation)
o Collapsed due to external attacks (esp from Huns) and absence of a successor
post-Gupta, India stays decentralized until after 1000 CE
400 BC-250 CE: Yayoi period
o marked start of weaving, rice farming, and iron and bronze making
250-538 CE: Kofun period
o saw establishment of strong military states centered around powerful clans (zoku)
o established Yamato polity and origin of Japanese imperial lineage
 Yamato used Shintoism to legitimize rule
● centered around nature worship
538-710 CE: Asuka period
o Yamato polity gradually became centralized state with code of laws
 Taika Reforms, Taiho Code
o buddhism introduced to Japan
Regional and Transregional
600 C.E. ~ 1450 C.E.
China - The Tang Dynasty
Tang Empire was founded by Li Shimin in 618, ended in 907
Culture was a combination of Inner Asian nomadic culture and Chinese tradition
Buddhism was used politically - Mahayana Buddhism specifically
o Tang princes enlisted monastic leaders and counsel aristocrats for tax exemptions, land
privileges, and gifts in return
Tang Empire expanded west and Chang’an, the capital, was the center of communication for
material goods and cultural influences with Central and Inner China. Unified China and part of
Central Asia
o Transportation network included well-maintained roads and water transport. The Grand
Canal was a significant part.
Made pottery and crossbow weapons
Tributary system: countries sent embassies to pay tribute to capital and acknowledge the
Empress Wu Zhao ruled from 690 to 705
Tang had conflicts with Tibetans and Turkic Uighurs starting in 750
Elites feared Buddhism was undermining Confucian family ideals and encouraging women in
In 840, government attempted to undermine Buddhism by closing monasteries that had tax
China - The Tang and Song Dynasties
Military lost morale and funding after Chinese expansion was stopped by Arabs in the Battle of
the Talas River in 751
An Lushan, a Tang general, led rebellion with 20,000 soldiers in 755. Emperor fled while the
rebellion continued for eight years.
Huang Chao led rebellion with poor farmers and tenants from 879 to 881. Put down by local
warlords, but prevented Tang emperors from rising to power again.
Liao people ruled Northern China from 960 to 1126.
The Tanggut controlled the Inner Asian frontier from 1038 to 1227.
Song Empire ruled central and southern China from 960 to 1126.
After Liao challenged Song power, they made a truce in 1005 where the Song paid cash and
silk to the Liao. After a century, Song broke the truce and allied with Jurchens, who destroyed
Liao capital and established Jin empire - ruled from 1127 to 1279.
Jin seized the Song capital Kaifeng in 1127 and captured the emperor. The Song gave up
central and north China to Jin. New capital of Song was Hangzhou. Period in which Song paid
Jin is called “Southern Song”
Song further developed technology and science from the Tang. Developed print culture, had
rise in urban populations and commercial activity. Dominated military technology
o Used movable type instead of woodblock. May have been invented by Korea
China - Beyond the Song
Neo-Confucianism developed. It was a new approach to Confucian texts
Women were still subordinated - maintained the home. Property was given to husbands.
Couldn’t remarry. Footbinding became widespread.
Strengthened ties with Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia
Genghis Khan and his successors took over China in the 1230s and imposed oppressive taxfarming system
Genghis Khan’s grandson Kublai established the Yuan Empire in 1271 and created secure trade
routes and exchanged ideas and skills
o Yuan culture combined Mongol and Chinese traditions
o Mongols (warriors) were at top of society, then Central Asians and Middle Easterners (tax
collectors), followed by northern Chinese, and then southern Chinese
o China was organized into provinces
o Strengthened Eurasian trade
Conflict between Mongol princes cause farmer rebellions and inter-Mongol feuds
o Zhu Yuan Zhang took over and established Ming in 1368
710-794 CE: Nara period
o buddhism virtually became state religion
o most of Japanese society agricultural, population rural and lived in villages
o most villagers followed kami, heavily based on shintoism
-1185 Heian Era:
Japan’s classical era
start of the figurehead emperor regimes
Marked by the appearance of distinctly Japanese culture
 Lady Murasaki’s Tale of Genji
866 - 1180: Fujiwara influence
1185-1333: Kamakura Shogunate
o Beginning of Japanese feudal era
o Power is concentrated in the hands of the shogun and the daimyo
o Zen Buddhism is introduced to Japan
o Rise of Bushido.
Ashikaga Shogunate
o came to power after the Kamakura Shogunate, but allowed greater decentralization,
which led to peasant revolts and civil wars.
Southeast Asia
Khmer Empire (~500 CE - 1400 CE) emerged in Cambodia.
Srivijayan Empire controlled much of Indonesia and parts of the Malay Peninsula.
Both the Khmer and the Srivijayan Empires were strongly influenced by Indian culture.
(Example: Angkor Wat, architectural masterpiece influenced by Hinduism and Buddhism)
Both states eventually lose power as kingdoms such as Burma, Thailand, Annam and Champa
(Vietnam), and city-states rise.
Trading Networks
First Greek and Phoenician interactions in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean Trade Network expands to include parts of the Roman Empire and ports on
the coast of the South China Sea
Rise of the Silk Road as a major trading network (Marco Polo, Pax Mongolica, Mongol
○ Pax Mongolica: Silk Road was stationed with soldiers to protect tax collecters,
travellers, merchants, and consumer goods → decrease in bandit attack
Spread of Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Jainism throughout Southern and Eastern Asia
Rise of China as a major trading power under the Tang and Song dynasties
Voyages of Zheng He, 1405-1433 --Chinese junks, Chinese advancement of oceanic voyaging
Global Interactions
1450 ~ 1750
Era of Independent Lords: This was a period from the 1460s - 1500s. During this time, civil war took place
because leaders (shoguns) had little control, daimyos fought each other, and the economy was weak.
-The Jesuit Francis Xavier and Catholic missionaries as well as European traders (Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch)
came to Japan to introduce religion, gunpowder weaponry, and more.
- Japan was reunified in 1615 (by Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu).
-The Tokugawa Shogunate instilled a policy of isolationism that ended in the 1720s. The Shogunate lasted from
1603 - 1868 and during this period, there was much prosperity, peace, and overall stability.
- Japanese Culture:
-Social stratification
-Restriction of guns, only the samurais could keep swords
-The state regulated gunpowder weaponry (monopoly).
-During the 1720s, Japan traded with foreigners only through Nagasaki (restricted trade)
-Japan was afraid of large numbers of gunpowder being imported.
-Some Christians were even killed (dislike of foreign culture, Christianity, etc).
The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
- The first ruler (and the creator) of the Ming Dynasty was a man named Hong Wu.
- He had originally been a monk, but ended up as a bandit chief who proved to be an excellent
general. After a 13 year campaign, he captured Beijing and drove the Mongols back, and soon
became emperor.
- Hong Wu ruled China for 30 years, guarding against Mongol invasion and restoring peace and
- Chinese culture: There were literary works, china (porcelain), architecture, and more.
- European explorers travel to China during this period to create embassies and trading houses,
and Catholicism was being spread.
- The Ming Dynasty went downhill during the 1600s because of: (1) weak rulers (2) inflation (3)
rapid population growth (4) famines and other disasters (5) military expenses
- There was a peasant revolt that was the more immediate cause. Shortly after, the Manchus
from Manchuria take over.
Qing Dynasty
-The Manchus established an empire in China and had a system of social stratification put in
place (as in Japan). This empire lasted from 1644 - 1911 and covered Manchuria, China, and
later what is now known as Taiwan.
-During the Qing Dynasty, foreign trading mainly took place in Canton only.
-The state watched over the trades and made sure that the number of exports were greater
than the amount of imports (trade protection helped keep the economy strong).
- Promotion of Confucianism, scholarship, art, education, etc.
-China received tribute from Mongolia, Tibet, Nepal, Burma, and Vietnam.
-China saw Europeans as inferior. They generally did not welcome foreign culture and goods.
Christianity was banned in 1724.
-Chinese exports included silk, porcelain, and tea!
-During the mid to late 18th century, China became more vulnerable to foreign influence
because of increased poverty and population, lack of technological/scientific advancements,
and more.
Korea: The Choson Dynasty
Founded in 1392, this dynasty lasted for over five centuries, making it the longest lasting
Confucian dynasty in history, as well as the last Korean dynasty
Confucianism was dominant over Buddhism and played a major role in Korean philosophy and
society, with neo-Confucianism as the official state religion
Similar to China, Korea also had a form of civil service examinations but only the higher class
Koreans could take the exam.
In the late 16th century, Korea was invaded by Japanese warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who
intended to use Korea as a stepping stone to reach China
The Japanese were able to conquer most of southern Korea, but the occupation only lasted for
six years. This also suspended relations between Korea and Japan for a decade
Not long afterward, the Manchus made two invasion attempts
After the second invasion, Choson became a tributary state of the Qing Dynasty
Every year they had to send tributary missions to China, but otherwise, they adopted a system
of seclusion and the period between 1600 and 1800 was a peaceful time
India: The Mughals (1504-1750s)
A descendant of Genghis Khan, a man named Babur was the leader of a tribe known as
the Moguls, a variation of the word “Mongol”
In 1504, they invaded Kabul, Afghanistan, and by 1526, they successfully invaded the
Delhi sultanate in India with guns and soldiers from the Ottoman empire.
Babur’s grandson Akbar, who became emperor at 13, ruled for 50 years until his death
Akbar created a new religion, the “Divine Faith” that combined aspects of Islam and
He promoted religious unity as well as legitimized the ruler as the leader in religious
matters as well as state affairs
Akbar established a policy of cooperation with Hindus: he abolished the jizya (nonMuslim tax) and permitted Hindus to take high-ranking government positions
He was a famous patron of the arts, as were his descendants, including Emperor Shah
Jahan, the emperor who built the Taj Mahal
Shah Jahan’s son Aurangzeb wanted to rid India of all Hindus and wasted much of the
treasury’s money on numerous wars
This led to peasant uprisings and the end of Mughal India
Indian Ocean Trade Network
First European interactions within the trade network: Vasco da Gama, 1498, resulted from the
spread of navigational technology from Asia and development of shipbuilding and mapmaking
in Europe
Advanced weapons and navigation allow for European dominance in the region
This region had long been a vibrant trade route, but with the introduction of Europeans, it
transformed from an Asian-centered economy to a global economy
The main motivations for European exploration included the search for resources, new trade
routes to Asia, and the desire to spread Christianity
Since many Asian goods such as pepper, ginger, and nutmeg were very expensive, the
Europeans wanted to find a direct route to Asia and cut the middleman
In the 1600s, the British East India Company and the Dutch East India Company created
factories and bases in India, not to conquer, but to control trade
The English and Dutch also used joint stock companies, where investors rather than
governments funded expeditions
Southeast Asia
Like India, Southeast Asia also saw the arrival of the Europeans.
Portugal was the first country to play a role in the Southeast Asian trade routes
Soon, however, the Spanish and Dutch surpassed the Portuguese as the primary
European powers in the region
Spain began to colonize the Philippines in 1599, while the Dutch East India company
established a trading base at the city of Sunda Kelapa, now known as Jakarta, Indonesia
During this time, Qing influence decreased slightly as many Southeast Asian countries
were being occupied by European powers
The British were not particularly interested in this area until the late 18th and early
19th centuries
Industrialization and Global
1750 ~ 1900
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
In Japan- The U.S government sent navy ships to force open the trade door with Japan in the
1850s. Japanese government did not respond with resist, but instead altered its government,
society, and industry
- Built factories that specialized in silk textiles as a part of their
Western style industrialization
In India- England established its raj at the beginning of this era (Indian Ocean Trading Net.)
-was a leading grower of cotton and was the primary supporter of
England’s textile mills. At the end of the era, production of
hand-made textiles began to decline -->machinery
China rejected most things western in this era and remained largely out of the production end
of the Industrial Rev.
New industrial powers (Western Europe, U.S, Russia, Japan) forced spheres of influences in
China and at the end of this era the nations accepted the U.S’s proposal for an “open door
policy” with China.
Imperialism in Asia
European nations found that much of Asia could be brought into their empires because their
governments were strong enough to keep the Europeans at bay
Japan was becoming a major power and Europeans desired China’s economic assets more than
its land
Biggest example was India, England’s “jewel in the crown” of colonies and England established
rule over South Asia with significant help from the British East India Company
Japanese Imperialism-When Japan changed it’s gov’t in the 1860s during the Meiji Restoration,
it was eager to to become a world power aside the US and Germany.
Japan began an aggressive campaign to start a pacific campain.
Early test of Japan’s westernized army was the Sino-Japanese War and later, the RussoJapanese War (1905)
French military force and diplomacy in Indochina
Local Reactions to Imperialism
Similar to Africa, In Asia the same pattern of local people rebelling violently while other tried
to “fit in” to the colonial powers’ way of life.
Military resistance to European occupation occurred in Afganistan (against the British), the
Philippines (against the U.S) and in China (against foreigners in general)
India- Sepoy Rebellion which also resulted in the end of the Mughal Dynasty
Examples of cooperation were also seen here because many Indian soldiers remained loyal to
the British in the Sepoy Rebellion.
The King of Siam (Thailand) decided to proactively deflect European colonization by inviting
British representatives to help “westernize” his country
European Imperialism leads to Nationalist Movements
● Best know nationalist was in India against the Bristish raj.
● The Indian National Congress was founded in the late 19th cent. with the
aim of gaining independence from the British
● Another nationalist movement arose in India in the early 20th century
with a different goal- the Muslim League
Accelerating Global Change and
1900 ~ present
Early 20th Century Asian Change
● The fall of Qing China in 1911 gave way to the installment of the Chinese
Republic in 1912 with Sun Yat Sen as the first president.
● Sun Yat Sen - known as the Founder of Modern China, he promoted three
principles: nationalism, democracy, and livelihood.
● Japan humiliates Russia in the Russo-Japanese war, which demonstrated its
industrial power, and ultimately led to imperialist ambitions from the
● Indians began to feel nationalistic feelings after the British assumed direct
rule, due to policies that they did not like and disconnects between the two
cultures. This was further amplified by the return of Mohandas Gandhi.
World War 2 in Asia
The Japanese industrial might allowed it to conquer all of Eastern Asia all the way to British
India during its expansion period from 1931 to its height in 1942.
China’s civil war between the Nationalists and the Communists weakened the country, which
allowed for a takeover by Japan.
Asia was a big war zone for most of WW2, with the Japanese fighting the Allied-backed Asian
Post WWII, Impacts of the Cold War, and Communism in Asia
● Japanese defeat leads to demilitarization of the country and a
permanent presence by the US.
● After WWII, the Chinese resume their civil war, with the Communists
defeating the US-backed Nationalists in 1949.
● Korea is split in 2 by the US and the USSR after the war, which eventually
leads to the Korean War.
● Vietnam is split in 2: the US-backed south, and the Communist-backed
North. Fighting between the 2 leads to the Vietnam War.
● Khmer Rouge’s rise to power in Cambodia due to US bombings during the
Vietnam War leads to a genocide that kills millions.
● India is granted independence, largely due to the efforts of Gandhi. It is
later separated into Pakistan and India due to religious conflict.
Modern Asia
● ASIAN TIGERS: (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan) are free and
developed economic powers that experienced rapid economic growth
between the 1960s to the 1990s.
● Japan also experienced rapid economic growth during the post-war, and
is now the third-largest economy in the world.
● Post-Tiananmen China is now much more free-market than previously,
with trade deals with Western countries, especially the US. Second
largest economy in the world, surpassing Japan recently.
● Tensions still exist between Pakistan and India, with both countries
possessing nuclear weapons.
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