Ancient China

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Transcript Ancient China

China’s Geography
 Read Chapter 4, Section 1
 Answer the questions on the worksheet
 Record 3 key facts from each section in your notes
 Physical Settings-Different Regions
 The rivers of China
 China’s isolation
 Due Tomorrow
China’s Geography
 All types of geographic
 ‘China’ has changed a lot
over the years
 Three main rivers
 Huang or Yellow(China’s
 Yangtze or Chang
 Xi in the south
 Strong sense of culture,
isolated from most
Shang Dynasty-1750 BC-1050 BC
 First people in roughly 10,000 BC
 Xia people first settle by the Yellow river in 3,000 BC
 Shang invade the region, start first dynasty
 3 groups
 Government/Culture
 Religion
 Language and Writing
 Created a Bureaucracy- a
government organized
into different levels and
 Economy
 Agriculture- Rice and
Millet, pigs, horses,
 Some merchants and
Shang Calendar
 Was created one of two ways
 1. Based on the sun
 2. Based on the movements of the moon. This was
mainly used for special occasions such as birthdays and
 Animism- the belief that
spirits inhabit everything
 Gods of wind, sun, clouds,
and man
 Shangdi- A great god who
controlled human destiny
and the forces of nature
 Oracle Bones- The
shoulder of cattle or
tortoise shells used for
writing on
Fall of the Shang
 People came to the region mainly because they were
attracted to the wealth.
 The Zhou formed Alliances with other local tribes
 They said that the Shang were corrupt and unfit to rule
Zhou Dynasty 1050 BC- 256 BC
 No centralized government
 Gave territory to members
of the royal family to
 Feudalism-loyalty-military
service to kings for land
 By 771 BC they are forced
 Begins the Late Spring and
Autumn Period and
Warring States Period of
Chinese History
 Established the ‘Mandate
of Heaven’
 Four principles to the Mandate:
 The right to rule is granted by
 There is only one Heaven therefore
there can be only one ruler.
 The right to rule is based on the
virtue of the ruler.
 The right to rule is not limited to
one dynasty.
Mandate of Heaven
 Here are some of the ways these
this idea impacted China
It gives the ruler prestige and
religious importance.
It gives the ruler supreme power.
It allows a new ruler to gain
power quickly if the people
believe he has the 'Mandate of
A ruler's power must be kept in
check by virtue.
The Mandate of Heaven justifies
rebellion as long as the rebellion
is successful.
 Floods, riots, and other disasters
might be signs that the ancestor
spirits were displeased with the
King’s rule.
 Leads to a long history of
government overthrow and
Late Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States
Period of Chinese History
Zhou Dynasty Achievements
 - origin of Chinese philosophy developed
to deal with political and social changes
 - compass invented sometime between
480 - 221 B.C.
 - kite - the oldest type of aircraft was
invented during the 4th or 5th century
 - lasted longer than any other dynasty in
Chinese history
 - developed China's first projects
involving hydraulic engineering
 - perfection of bronze casting
 - use of gold and silver inlays in objects
 - use of iron in developing iron casting
for tools and weapons was introduced
 - developed technology for irrigation,
drainage, waterways, canals, dikes, and
 - used dyed yarns and materials like silk
and linen
 - produced glass
 - refined the calendar
 - studied and recorded astronomy and
astronomical events
 - created the first geographical maps
 - discovered magnetism
 - advancements in mathematics,
including basic arithmetic, fractions,
geometry, trigonometry, and
 - use of fertilizers and pesticides
 Read Chapter 4, section
 Fill out the worksheet
 Record 3 keys facts, for
both, Confucianism and
 Due Friday, Jan. 31
 Born poor and vowed to end
suffering and bring peace,
Pushed education as the
meaning of life
“noble deeds, not noble birth
bestowed honor”
Family, Elders, Ancestors
Civic Duty, Virtuous leaders
Lao Tzu
 Began Taoism
 Taught about living in
harmony with nature
 Tao=the way
 Emphasizes non-action
 No concern for wealth or
material world
The Art of War
 Most important book of
 "the best policy is to
military strategy
 Written by Sun Tzu in
the 5th century BC
 “know your enemies and
know yourself”
 Sun Tzu considered war
as a necessary evil that
must be avoided
whenever possible.
capture the state intact;
it should be destroyed
only if no other options
are available“.
 Win without fighting
 Avoid strengths, attack
 Deception and
Qin Dynasty 221 BC-206 BC
 Qin Shih Huang di
Mean “first emperor”
Expanded Territory
Victories doubled the
size of China
Against Confucius and
Lao Tzu’s Philosophies
Also had feudalism
Qin Dynasty
 Qin Shi Huang di
quickly put down any
revolts against him
 Ordered all Noble
families to live at the
capital city, so he could
watch over them
 Murdered 100’s of
Confucian scholars and
ordered useless books to
be burned.
Qin and Legalism
 A highly efficient and powerful government is the key
to maintaining social order
 Autocracy-Absolute power of one (emperor)
 Rewards and Punishments are useful to maintain
social order(people are selfish and untrustworthy)
 Thinkers and their ideas should be strictly controlled
by the governments
Qin Dynasty
 Forced peasants to work
on roads, walls, public
works against their will
 Set uniform standards,
writing, laws, currency
and measurements
 This allowed for trade to
Great Wall of China
 14,000 miles long
 From the Yellow Sea in
the East to the Gobi
Desert in the West
 Enemies would have to
travel ½ way to Tibet
 Many died while working
on the wall
Terracotta Army
 Died in 210 B.C
 Created the Terracotta
army to protect him in
the afterlife
 Discovered in 1974
Fall of the Qin
 After Qin Shi Huang di died in 210 B.C. his son took
over, and proved to be a weak leader.
 Peasants rebelled just three years after the second Qin
Emperor took office
 One of the leaders, a peasant from the land of Han,
Marched his troops into the capital city
 The harsh Qin Dynasty gave way to the Han Dynasty
HAN Dynasty 206 BC-220 AD
 Liu Bang (Born a peasant) overthrows Qin
 Liu Bang won and declared himself the first emperor
of the Han Dynasty
 Strong Centralized government-Civil Service Reforms
 He did however, lower taxes and softened harsh
 China became a Confucian state
Silk Road
 Connected China to Western Europe
 Traded goods such as silk, spices, gold, and silver
 Caused cultural diffusion
 Learned about foods, animals, and fashions that were
common in foreign lands