Ancient Rome - Johnson Graphic Design

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Transcript Ancient Rome - Johnson Graphic Design

1628 BCE
1200 BCE
753 BCE
Rome is
490 BCE
Battle of
430 BCE
431 BCE
331 BCE
defeats the
264 BCE
Punic War
218 BCE
Punic War
60 BCE
44 BCE
Caesar is
From Republic to Empire
 509
BC Etruscan Kings driven out
 Rome is declared a Republic
 Power is given to Citizens via elected reps
 Only Men with Wealth & Property could rise
in rank
Patricians- Noble class of Romans- 5% of pop
Plebeians- Common people; farmers,
shopkeepers, peasants
 Consuls
(2)- Head of Republic
Check each other’s power
1-year term
Can’t run again for 10 years
 Political
center where leading citizens
tended to government business.
 451
BC based on the idea that all citizens
had a right to the protection of the law
 Originals destroyed
 Format: How to Act and Consequences
Rome seizes Carthaginian Wealth in North Africa
and Iberia (Spain)
 Colonies and land holdings expand control
 grain, oil, wine, silver, and gold used to finance
imperial expansion
expansion brought wealth, but also
created problems:
 new lands & sources of slave labor
increased the gap between the rich
& poor
 Generals who controlled the armies
became more powerful than the
politicians in the Senate
 Struggles for power led to a series
of civil wars in Rome
 Born
to Patrician family- Military/ Political
 Almost dies in Civil war, left penniless
 Age 18- joins Army, serves 4 years
 30- Senator
 34- in charge of public entertainments
spent money and gained popularity
 39- Military governor
 earned his reputation
 41- elected Consul
 the highest office in
in Spain,
as a general
 Triumvirate-
a coalition between 3 individuals
to control/ maintain power- The Rule of 3 Men
 Victory in Civil War = Military Strength = Power
 Informal Political Alliance
 The First Triumvirate
Gaius Julius
Marcus Licinius
Cnaeus Pompeius
“Pompey the
 All
were known for their Military exploits
 Caesar- Popular Politician & General
 Crassus- Largest Landlord & Richest man in Rome
Supported Caesar financially as Consul
 Pompey
Greatest Military Commander of era
Troops used by Caesar to force Senate to pass laws
 Caesar
Army in Northern Italy
Defeated and controlled populations of Germania, Gaul
(France), Switzerland and Austria
 Crassus-
crushed slave revolt in Italy led by
Spartacus 71BC
Crucified 6000 ex-gladiators
Heads off to Persia on campaign
 Pompey
Greatest Military Commander of his era
Establish general & vanquished Pirates in Mediterranean
All good things must come to an end
 Crassus- Dies in Battle in Persia in 53 BC
 Caesar- 4 Legions in Gaul
Fighting “Barbarian” tribes in Gaul and Germania
invades Britain, leaves to stop uprising in Gaul
Family Connections Fail
Caesar’s daughter, Pompey’s Wife- dies in Child Birth
Pompey rejects Caesar's Great niece, marries a daughter of
Caesar’s political enemy
Tribes of Gaul were a strong Military force
 Internal conflict kept them from uniting
 Caesar lost several battles
 By 51BC- Gaul has been conquered
 Pompey
Senate recognize
power/threat of
 50BC-
he disband army
& Return to
Rome to stand
 Caesar
that leaving army
& returning would
be suicide
 49BC-
crosses the
Rubicon with
Legion XIII
 “The
die has been
 Pompey
& leading Senators flee to Greece to
prep army
 Caesar
easily takes Italy, Rome, and Spain
 Outnumbered
2-1, he faces Pompey in
Greece, and crushes him
 Pompey
flees to Egypt.
 Pompey
flees to Alexandria, Egypt
 Ptolomy, Co-Ruler of Egypt & brother of Cleopatra
has Pompey killed
Beheaded, presents head to Caesar
Major mistake, Pompey still a Consul of Rome
 Caesar
weeps at his death
 Asks for killers to be turned over
Ptolomy says No
 More
Caesar Wins
Ptolomy dies
 Caesar
returns to Rome
 Appointed Dictator
Leader in times of Military Conflict
 Elected
as Consul & then Consul with No Co-
 Appointed Himself
Caesar has Cleopatra restored
to the throne of Egypt
became Caesar’s mistress
Live in Rome
Cleopatra’s son Caesarean was
probably Caesar’s son
Not recognized by Caesar
Brutus & Senators decide they are not ready to
relinquish power to one man.
 conspire to murder Caesar on March 15, 44 BC
 invite him to be crowned King of Rome
 50 Senators with knives hidden in their togas stab
him to death.
Coin issued by Brutus, to commemorate
assassination. Hoped he and the other
conspirators would be seen as heroes
liberating the Republic from a tyrant.
 Considered
1 of the Greatest Military Minds of
the ancient world
 name becomes one of the titles for the Roman
“Czar” and “Kaiser” derive from his name too.
 began
the practice of granting Roman citizenship
to conquered peoples.
prolonged the expansion and maintenance of the
Roman Empire
 one
of Shakespeare’s most celebrated plays
 Julian Calendar- 365 days, 12 months
Gregorian Calendar- Modern Day
 The
month July is named for him.
 body
is cremated in a massive public
demonstration in the Forum
 Conspirators flee
 Civil war again breaks out
 Caesar’s right-hand-man, Marc Antony, and his
heir, Octavian, defeat armies of Brutus and the
Marc Antony