The Cold War - Westlake City Schools

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Transcript The Cold War - Westlake City Schools

American Studies
 Two opposing world views dominate international relations:
 US believes whole world should model itself after us
Democracy: Free elections, multiple parties to choose for
Capitalism: Free market, consumerism and materialism
Individualism: Your needs and wants are most important
Religious expression: Mostly Christianity (1954 added “under God”)
 USSR believes their way is better
Communism: One party system
Planned economy: Everyone contributes and gets the same back
Collectivism: The group’s needs and wants are most important
Atheism: Religion should not effect govt or divide citizen groups
 Cold War: No “hot” violent conflict between these two nations
 Both sides use propaganda, military expansion, threats, espionage,
and economic influence to achieve goals
 USSR wants to be a world power and spread
 Soviets lost about 20 million during WWII
 Afterward, 25 million are homeless and hungry
 They need to expand in order to recover
 European leaders want to protect borders from any
further invasions
 Soviets establish buffer zone or “satellite nations” along
western border
 US wants to help foster democracy there
 US emerges more powerful than ever
 What were the goals of the Soviet Union in the Cold
 a.
 b.
 c.
 d.
To not get involved .
Spread Democracy and build friendships.
Create satellite nations and spread communism.
To create capitalistic economies for all nations.
 Feb. 1945: Meeting of Big 3 Allied leaders: FDR, Churchill
and Stalin
We agree to give USSR Poland and territory in the Balkans
in exchange for help with Japan
Establish idea for the United Nations: International council
to help nations solve problems without war
Soviets will occupy Eastern Europe until free elections can
be held in the near future (never happens)
Soviets want Germans to pay high reparations
 Other Allies know they won’t be able to and want to occupy
Germany and help them instead
 Agree to split Germany into “spheres of influence” in order
to help them recover
 Seeds of the Cold War: Creates severe tension
 1945: US is the only one with atomic bomb and uses it to
take a strong negotiation stance
 The New Big 3 Allies: Truman, Stalin, and Attlee
 Meeting to finalize all plans made at Yalta Conference:
 War crimes trials in Nuremburg and Tokyo after the war
 The Potsdam Declaration: They agree that we should use
the bomb on Japan
 In the United Nations Charter, member nations pledge to
“unite our strength to maintain international peace and
security.” Since ratification of its charter following World
War II, the primary goal of the United Nations has been to
 A. restore world trade disrupted by World War II.
 B. encourage industrial growth begun during World War II.
 C. establish policies to help nations pay World War II
 D. intervene in world conflicts to prevent another war such
as World War II.
 Feb. 1946: Stalin announces he will break off trade
with all western nations and build up his weapons
 March 1946, Winston Churchill gives a speech at a
college in Fulton, Missouri
 “A shadow has fallen upon the scene so lately lighted
by the Allied Victory…an iron curtain has descended
across the continent”
 Metaphor: NOT a real wall or curtain!
 Churchill says western nations must join
together to fight communist aggression
“There is nothing the
Communists admire
so much as strength
and nothing for which
they have less respect
than for military
 In the years following World War II, the countries of
communist Eastern Europe were often referred to as
being “behind the iron curtain.” These countries were
perceived as a single region based on
 A. a common cultural heritage
 B. unique physical features
 C. economic and political characteristics
 D. widespread immigration from other regions
 “Communism must be confronted and contained
whenever and wherever it seeks to extend influence.”
 US Diplomat in Moscow George Kennan: Expert on the
USSR, says they will avoid confrontation
 Containment Policy:
 The US won’t fight Communism where it already exists
 The US will try to stop all further communist expansion
 1947: Becomes the Truman Doctrine: US foreign policy
for next 45 years
 Uses it to justify providing aid to Greece and Turkey so
that they could fight against communist influence
 “At the present moment every nation must choose
between alternative ways of life. The choice is often
not a free one.”
 “One way of life is based upon the will of the majority
and is distinguished by free institutions, representative
government, free elections, guarantees of individual
liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom
from political oppression.”
 “The second way of life is based upon the will of a
minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies
upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and
radio, fixed elections and the suppression of personal
 “I believe that it must be the policy of the United
States to support free people who are resisting
attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside
 During the Cold War the United States was involved in
different conflicts because they assured the world that
 the U.S. would help in any way to stop the spread of
communism. What was this policy of containment
a.Marshall Plan
b.Domino Theory
c. Isolationism
d.Truman Doctrine
 Europe was devastated by WW II: Depression
 Cities, farms, factories, roads, etc. = destroyed
 Millions are homeless and hungry
 The conditions were ripe for the spread of
 Gaining support in France and Italy
 US economy needs Europe to be stable in order for all
nations to grow and benefit
 George Marshall
 Truman’s Secretary of State
 Army Chief of Staff in WW II
 Later will be Secretary of Defense
 Served in WW I and WW II
 5 Star General
 2 Distinguished Service Crosses and a silver star
 Nobel Peace Prize for his work with the Marshall Plan
 Sends Herbert Hoover over to find out what Europe
needs so that we can help them
 US will help rebuild the European nations
 In exchange, they agree to spend a portion of the $ on
US goods
 The US will spend $13 Billion helping 16 countries
 Soviets refuse to participate say it’s a US plot to take
over Europe.
 However, in 1948 it was the USSR that seized control of
 Very Successful: Europe recovers quickly, world
economies benefit, US business prospers
 Gains us allies and eliminates appeal of communism
 At the end of World War II, Soviet armies liberated the
countries of Eastern Europe from Nazi Germany. The
occupation of these countries by the Soviet Union
contributed to the development of the Cold War by
 A. contributing to conflict in the Middle East
 B. bringing about the reunification of Germany
 C. strengthening the authority of the United Nations
 D. dividing Europe into communist and non-
communist spheres
 Berlin is located 100 miles
inside East Germany
 Berlin was divided into West
and East
 West Berlin was part of
Allied West Germany
 US desired economically
strong Germany to
contribute to western
recovery and contain Soviets
 Supplies reached West
Berlin on road and rail
lines connecting it to W.
 In 1948 the Allies disagree
on several issues involving
Germany, including a new
 In June 1948 the Soviets blockade the border, cutting
West Berlin off from West Germany.
 Communications, supplies, and electricity were cut off
 2 million citizens of West Berlin are trapped, 100 miles
inside Communist East Germany. They have no access
to supplies necessary for their survival.
 They have 35 days of food and 45 days of coal
 Truman’s Options
1. Do nothing – Let it fall to the Communists
2. Send armored convoys across the border and risk
going to war
3. Find a way to resupply that doesn’t result in war
Introducing the Berlin Airlift
 US and British aircrews will have to bring in
everything that the West Berliners need to survive.
 Everything will come by air - food, medicine, fuel, etc.
 It was the largest continuous airlift in history
 324 days: 277,000 flights delivered 2 million tons of
 10 minutes to unload 10 tons of supplies
At its peak, a plane landed in
Berlin every 30 seconds
 How did President Truman respond to the Soviet
blockade of Berlin in 1948?
 A.
By escalating the conflict with a counter-blockade
of Soviet Positions
 B. By sending American tanks through the blockade
 C. The Soviets never blockaded Berlin
 D. By airlifting supplies into West Berlin
 Soviets lift blockade in May 1949: Humiliating defeat
 Flights continued until September to build up supplies
 US won the first “battle” of the Cold War
 Allies agree to unite to form Federal Republic of
Germany (West Germany) prevents Soviet blockade
 Stalin retaliated forming German Democratic
Republic (East Germany)
 1961: Berlin Wall built to split East and West Berlin
 Torn down in 1989
 1949: Soviet Union detonates their
1st atomic bomb = tensions rise
 China becomes Communist
 Chairman Mao Zedong takes over
 US feels we “lost” China
 NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization was an alliance
created to defend the West against Soviet aggression
 Mutual defense agreement where nations promised to
consider an attack on one member an attack on all, go to aid
of any member
 Initially 12 nations were members
 During World War II, Japanese troops occupied much of China.
This weakened the Chinese government, and in 1949, communist
forces overthrew the government and established a communist
state. What effect did the Chinese Communist Revolution have
on the development of the Cold War?
 A. It decreased tensions, because it led to the formation of the
Warsaw Pact.
 B. It increased tensions, because it strengthened the
independence movement in India.
 C. It increased tensions, because it increased Western fears of
communist expansion.
 D. It decreased tensions, because it led to the collapse of
communism in the Soviet Union.
 In 1955 the Soviets and their allies formed the Warsaw
Pact: Communist version of NATO alliance
 NATO nations trained and prepared throughout the
Cold War to fight WW III
 NATO forces are actively serving in Afghanistan
 Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary,
Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and
Slovenia are now members of NATO
 In the years following World War II, there emerged the
North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Warsaw
Pact nations. These are examples of
 A.
regional economic cooperative efforts.
 B. military alliance systems
 C. environmental impact studies.
 D. international tribunals.
 After WWII: Feared it would be hard to re-absorb all the
troops at home
 The G.I. Bill of Rights: Provided funds for
servicemen/women to go to college or get other job
 Health and unemployment benefits and housing loans
 Baby Boom: Couples start families as troops return (1946-
 A baby every 10 seconds!
 Suburbs rapidly expand along with interstate highways
 New economic prosperity: Time/labor saving appliances
 Everyone is buying cars and televisions
 Story of Us video
 Fear of Soviet aggression and subversion changed the
way the US saw the world and each other
 Causes era of hysteria, suspicion and accusation of
disloyalty due to fear of Communism
 If you criticize the govt, you must be Communist
 Federal Employee Loyalty Program (FELP): to conduct
security checks on over 2 million govt employees
 People could be fired for being a potential threat
without evidence
 Large number resigned and 200 fired
 State/Local govts do the same
 Make employees take loyalty oaths
 McCarran Internal Security Act (1950) Required
Communist organizations/members to register with
attorney general
 Prohibited defense industries from hiring known
Legalized internment of certain people during national
Truman vetoed saying it was violation of constitutional
rights by Congress overruled
 Joseph McCarthy: House Rep. who exploited US fear of
Communism for his own political gain
 Sparked national frenzy by claiming that he had a list of
205 known communists employed by US State Dept
 Never offered any evidence and eventually discredited
 Many disapproved but not publically because of fear of
being accused of sympathizing with Commies
 Loses credibility in 1954: Investigated US Army
 Televised hearings: Show lack of evidence
 Dec. 1954: His influence came to an end, climate of fear
gradually declined but never disappeared
 House Un-American Activities Committee (1938, 1947)
HUAC investigated allegations of Communist influence in
Hollywood movie industry
 Wanted to prove that Communists in Screen Writers Guild
inserted subversive propaganda into Hollywood films
 10 witnesses refused to testify exercising 5th amendment
protection against self-incrimination
 Hollywood Ten were found guilty of contempt of Congress and
served up to 12 months in jail
 Blacklisted so other studios would not hire them
 1948: Alger Hiss, who attended Yalta and helped organize
UN, accused of spying for Soviets during 1930s
 Fought for innocence but sentenced to 5 years in jail
 Which was a common factor in the United States that
caused the Red Scare following World War I and
McCarthyism following World War II?
 A. racial tension in major cities
 B. signs of economic downturn
 C. fear of communist expansion
 D. the counterculture movement
 Contain Communism
 Arms Race between US and USSR
 1950: Truman order comprehensive investigation of US
military strength
 NSC-68 report says US should operate under assumption
that USSR desires world domination
Truman felt to keep US safe we need more nuclear
weapons and a bigger military
Should be a source of encouragement to all nations to
Need to be ready for rapid mobilization
Congress doesn’t want to raise taxes for bigger military,
but then…
 North and South Korea split at the end of WWII
 North Korea: Communist supported by USSR
 South Korea: Democratic supported by US
 Stop at 38th parallel in the middle
 1950: Northern troops invade South Korea in order to unite
the nation under Communism
 Led by Kim Il Sung (grandfather of current leader Kim Jung
 China supports them
 UN Security Council: Condemns the invasion and authorizes
use of military to expel the invading North
 Police Action: US did not officially declare war but
participated to contain communist expansion
 US sends naval and air support, then ground troops
 Sets precedent for undeclared involvement in the future
 US spent over $64 billion, lost over 33,000 American soldiers
 Higher civilian death rate then WWII or Vietnam
 Scorched Earth policy: Destroy everything so they can’t rebuild
 US drops more bombs here than all Allied bombs in WWII
 Korea remained divided at the end of the war
 Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) on both sides of the border
(38th parallel)
 Did not solve any long-term issues in Asia
 DID allow for massive US military build-up
 SEATO: Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, like
NATO alliance
 Korea today: Still divided, with democratic South
Korea and Communist dictatorship in North Korea
 The Cold War influenced U.S. foreign policy and
involvement after World War II. Which of the
following demonstrates that influence?
 A. Korean War
 B. Persian Gulf War.
 C. Internment of Japanese Americans.
 D. Growth of suburbs in the 1950’s.
 After WWII: Nationalist movements in Latin America
 People resented US business involvement
 Many living in desperate poverty
 1959: Fidel Castro led a communist revolt in Cuba and
takes over
 Eliminates any US involvement/control
 President Eisenhower breaks off diplomatic relations
 Cuba signs a treaty with the USSR
 1961: JFK becomes President and is concerned about
having a Soviet ally so close to US borders (90 miles)
 US tries to invade Cuba at Bay of Pigs with intent of
igniting an uprising against Castro
 Uses anti-Castro groups trained by US military
 Invasion failed miserably: US appeared weak and
 JFK uses covert CIA operatives to disrupt Cuban trade,
conduct raids, and attempt assassinations of Castro
 1962: USSR installs missiles in Cuba that could strike the
 Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev wants to protect ally
close to US
 Some want to attack, risking all-out nuclear war
 US threatens with naval blockade to stop any further
missile installations, but USSR says it won’t work
 JFK demands USSR remove the missiles or the US will
launch our missiles in Turkey at the Soviets
 Put US on Defcon 4 alert: Highest ever
 Announced to the public 8 days after discovery
 Military on high alert: 180 ships in blockade, bomber
planes stay in the air
 Closest we’ve ever come to nuclear war: Citizens are
panicked and preparing for nuclear holocaust
 After 4 days: Soviets back down and remove missiles
 US must remove missiles in Turkey first
 Kept a secret from Americans so we don’t appear weak
 JFK respected for averting crisis
 Some tensions reduced; communication to avoid disaster
 Arms race continues: Both afraid and want to remain
 The use of atomic weapons at the end of World War II
fostered fears about their potential use during the
Cold War years. These fears were critical in
determining the U.S. response to
 A. the Marshall Plan
 B. the Berlin Blockade
 C. the Cuban Missile Crisis
 D. the independence movement in India
 Arms Race: Build up military for protection and threat
 Space Race: Show power and technological advancement
 Oct. 1957: Soviets launch Sputnik I, 1st manmade object to
orbit Earth
 Sputnik II carries a dog, 6 more Sputniks through 1961
 1958: US launches Explorer to orbit Earth
 1961: Soviets send first person into space to orbit Earth
 Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin
 Weeks later, US sends Alan Sheppard for 15 minute flights
 1962: John Glenn is the first American to orbit Earth
 JFK decides we must make it to the moon in order to win
 1968: US launches Apollo 8 to orbit the moon
 July 1969: The moon landing is completed by US
 Apollo 11: Buzz Aldrin, Neil Armstrong, and Michael
Collins orbit the moon and then walk on its surface
 “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for
 Worldwide TV audience watched in awe
 The successful launching of Sputnik by the Soviet
Union in 1957 signaled the beginning of
 A. Americans competing to prove technological
superiority over the Soviets
 B. The Cold War in the United States
 C. Soviet aggression in Afghanistan and China
 D. Disarmament discussions between the superpowers
 Vietnam was a French colony in Southeast Asia
 Ho Chi Minh: Leader of the Communist rebels trying
to drive out French Imperial govt
 US supports French anti-communist regime
 Eisenhower justifies this based on the Domino Theory
 If one country falls to communism, all others will follow
 1954:Vietnamese beat the French
Now an independent country
Vietnam divided at 17th parallel
North: Communism
South: Democracy (but corrupt)
 Fearing that commie rebels would win, southern leader
Ngo Dinh Diem cancelled elections for national leader
 Rebel groups formed National Liberation Front (NLF):
 Vietcong: Communist rebels in South Vietnam, aided by
the North
 Communist China aids to Vietcong and North Vietnam
 US aids South Vietnam
 JFK demands that Southern govt stop corruption in
return for US aid and military training
 Nov. 1963: Lee Harvey Oswald assassinated JFK
 Lyndon B. Johnson becomes president
 Following World War II, France attempted to re-establish
control over its colony, Indochina, which included
Vietnam. Leaders of the Vietcong, a communist-supported
independence movement in Vietnam, fought against
France’s efforts to retake the colony. The United States
viewed this conflict as part of the Cold War and aided
France. This U.S. action was based on which policy?
A. a policy of opposing colonialism
B. a policy of helping Japan rebuild its economy
C. a policy of containing the spread of communism
D. a policy of participating in United Nations’
peacekeeping efforts
 Johnson believed that communist rebels were a threat to
global balance of power
 August 1964: Johnson said North Vietnam attacked two
US ships and asks Congress to increase troop strength
 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: Gives Johnson power to use
any necessary action against Communists
 Gives him the power to take “all necessary measures to
repel any armed attack against the forces of the US and to
prevent further aggression”
 Later, the public discovered the two US ships provoked
the attack = leads to distrust of the govt
 US never declares war, but we are heavily involved in
the war
 Use of guerilla warfare: Hidden, small group attack
strategy, sometimes armed civilians
 Rolling Thunder: Consistent bombing of North
Vietnam by the US from 1965-1968
 Destroy infrastructure without ground invasion of the
 Kept track of body counts not land gained to judge who
was “winning the war”
 US govt told Americans “Victory is around the corner”
 Jan. 1968: Tet is the Lunar New Year holiday in
 Both sides announced a two day cease-fire to celebrate
 The Tet Offensive: North Vietnam and the Vietcong
launch a surprise attack on the south during holiday
 Attack military and civilian command and control
centers throughout South Vietnam
 Turns the tide of war: Now we realize that we may lose
 People who had supported war begin to question our
continued involvement
 2.2 million are drafted into the war: Can fight in a war
at 18 but can’t vote until they’re 21
 Civil Disobedience: Break a law to call attention to a
perceived injustice
 Example: Burn draft cards to show they see law as unfair
 1971: 26th Amendment: Vote at 18 starting 1971
 Draft dodgers: Refuse to serve, many flee to Canada
 Baby boomers protest in large numbers
 Most protesters were students
 Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
 Hippies: Peace, love, and protest songs
 Distrust of Govt: War never declared, Gulf of Tonkin
 Hypocritical Govt: Not allowing self determination or
supporting true democracy
 Stay out of Foreign Affairs: Costing American $ and lives
 Morally opposed to war:
Sending the poor to fight for the rich govt
First televised war shows brutality and killing civilians
US used chemical weapons like Napalm and Agent Orange
Reports of US military abuses: My Lai massacre
 1968: Mass murder of 400-500 unarmed Vietnamese civilians,
including men, women and children, by US troops
 Not reported in US for a year
 Many were gang-raped or had their bodies mutilated
 26 soldiers charged with the crime, only one convicted and sentenced
to life, but only served three years
More bombs dropped here than
both Allies and Axis dropped in
 The burning of draft cards by those who objected to
the Vietnam War is an example of civil disobedience
because it was an action that
 A. was protected by the U.S. Constitution.
 B. was intended to draw the attention of the media.
 C. violated a law that the protesters considered to be
 D. expressed a point of view that was unpopular at the
 1970 Kent State Shootings: 4 students killed by
National Guard while peacefully protesting
 Chant “Hey Hey LBJ! how many kids have you killed
 1971: Pentagon papers show govt had been lying for years
 1968 Democratic National Convention: Riots in
Chicago outside, politicians debate inside
 Johnson won’t run again: Humphrey or Muskie
 On the news: Protesters and police fight in the streets
 Chant “Hell no, we won’t go!” about the draft
 Over next 11 years until the fall of Saigon in 1975:
 About 58,000 US military personnel died in Vietnam
 Four Presidents tried to prevent rebels from gaining
control and reuniting it under communism
 US efforts failed: 1976 Vietnam was united under
Communism and became a Soviet ally
 Still communist today
 Controversial war sparked by fear resulted in:
 Large-scale, sometimes violent, protests at home
 Over 3-4 million Vietnamese deaths
 Widespread distrust of the government
 1985: Mikhail Gorbachev is the Premier of the USSR
 Soviet people are poor and unhappy: Can’t afford to continue the
arms race
 Enacts reforms to provide more freedoms to the people
 Moves from command economy to mixed economy
 Reduces control of the satellite nations
 1990: Reunification of Germany
 Ronald Reagan “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down that wall!”
 1991: Satellite nations begin to declare independence
 Struggle for control of new govts in Eastern Europe
 Romania was the only country who had a violent revolution
 Dec. 1991: Communist party and Soviet economy collapses and