Transcript Lecture 2

Lecture 2
Origins of the Cold War in Europe
after WWII
1. Introduction
2. The Soviet Union: Ideology and Interest
3. The United States: Ideology and Politics
4. Europe after 1945
5. Potsdam Conference
6. Problems with Germany: Economic and Political
7. Conclusion
1. Introduction
 Yesterday, we touched on the second world war
 We discussed the events during WWII and how it
polarized Europe
 Importantly, we explored how WWII had caused
friction and suspicion (e.g. Second Front,
American capital in USSR etc.)
 Also, we touched on the rise of these two
Today we shall…
1. delve deeper into the background of the USSR
and USA and try to understand why they had
conflicting ideas, interest etc.
1. Post WWII Europe and the main problems that
emerged will also be explored
2) The Soviet Union: Ideology,
Politics and Interest
 USSR had a history of being invaded…
Mongol Invasion 13th Century
Charles XII Sweden 1709
Napoleon 1812
Germans 1917-1918
Civil War 1918-20
German assault
 USSR as such feared
Charles XII
 Politics of USSR
Democratic Centralization
– Freedom of Communist Party members to
discuss issues
– Decision of Communist Party made by majority
– Once decision made, all must carry out that
 Enforced single ideology: Communism
 Severe restrictions on national, religious and
cultural self-expression
 Economy was state owned
 Command economy – centralised allocation of
 Post War Soviet Union
– Much destruction and administrative confusion
– Stalin in absolute control
– Had two main concerns 1) security of Soviet
state 2) advance socialism
– Second greatest power to US
– Western powers seen as enemies of Socialism
 Communism… What is it?
– Concept based on the
works of Karl Marx
– Focuses on the process of
change in the structure of society
– Economics shapes society
– Those who own production exploited the others
– Alter the economic basis of society and a new
class will emerge
Structure of Marx’s ideas
Owners of production
3) United States: Ideology, Politics
and Interest
 Founded on principles of individual liberty
 Vast areas held together by
flexible federal government
 Economic system based on
free market
 Private ownership of production
 Individuals or firms had rights to own
and use wealth to purchase labour = Capitalism
 State must have minimum interference.
Championed the cause of liberty and
opposition to colonialism
Form of idealism: Believed that US should
lead the world for a better system of
Think of president Woodrow Wilson’s 14
points outlined in 1918
 As a superpower, had possession of large military
and bases across the pacific
 Sole possession of the atomic bomb.
 Sought to open new markets for US exports and
gain access to oil
 Supported pressure foreign groups such as
journalist, Zionists, missionaries who could
advance American economic interest
 Questions…
– Was differences in ideologies and political systems
cause of conflict between the two superpowers?
– Both sides could work together during WWII in spite of
these differences
– Was the Grand Alliance a ‘marriage of convenience’?
4) Europe after 1945
 Before 1945
– Europe had fair mix of coalition governments
including communists and non-communists
 By 1949
– Stalinist regimes emerged all over Eastern
 USSR Position in Eastern Europe
– Stalin feared US
– But wanted friendly soviet states
– Moved cautiously to establish friendly satellite states
– Time lapse between plural governments and full
establishment of communism in Eastern Europe
– Used ‘salami tactics’ – use of alliances and threats to
advance interest in Eastern Europe
– Communists not popular in free elections
– Eventually, democratic elements eliminated to pave the
way for communist governments in Eastern Europe
 US and her allies viewed this as USSR’s
aggressiveness and attempts to expand
5) Potsdam Conference 1945
 Leadership change
– Churchill replaced by Clement Attlee
– Roosevelt died and replaced by Harry Truman
– Stalin still in power
– What is the significance of this?
 Agreements at Potsdam
– Powers arranged for administration of
– Fixed a de facto frontier between
Germany and Poland
– Peace settlements with the former
hostile powers: Italy, Romania,
Bulgaria, Hungary and Finland
– Italy lost African Territories, Ethiopia,
Libya etc.
– Soviet Union maintained rights to
station troops in Romania and Hungary
– Establishment of 4 occupational zones
(Soviet, American, British and French)
within Germany
– Control Council to be established in
Berlin Germany to administer the
6) Problems with Germany’s division
 Economic Problems
Soviets: wanted REVENGE
– Exacted reparations
– Removed equipment and factories from their
occupational zone
– Took reparations from agriculture and industrial
US and Britain
– Their occupational zone was industrial and
densely populated
– Believed that agricultural produce form Soviet
zone should be used to feed the Germans
– Americans fed German population out of their
own expense
– Britain resorted to bread rationing at home to
help Germans in their zone
 US and British zones merged to form Biszone
 US wanted to focus on German economic
recovery for the sake of European economy
 Soviets continued policy of seizing reparations
 Importantly, all the powers had differing attitudes
towards Germany
 Political Problems
 Soviets wanted to amalgamate the Social Democratic and
Communist Parties of Germany to form the Sociality Unity
Party to form one strong party
 In other zones, political activates permitted to resume and
the Social Democratic Party, backed by US had won
 Importantly, both US and Soviet Union wanted a united
Germany but both tried to integrate their zones into their
own organisations
 Division of Germany became a serious problem that
strained US/ USSR relations
7) Conclusion
 Both US and USSR are ideologically and politically
 Both never had any conflicts prior to the Cold War
 Both drawn together during WWII
 Disagreements of Germany was the main point of
conflict between the two.
Lecture 3
Origins of the Cold War in
Europe after WWII
George Kennan’s ‘Long Telegram’ From Moscow
Containment Policy: Economic
Truman Doctrine 1947
Marshall Plan 1947
Reaction towards Marshall Plan
Czechoslovakian Coup
1) George Kennan’s ‘Long
Telegram’ From Moscow
From 1944 Kennan was a diplomat in
charge of US embassy in Moscow
Appointed “Deputy Chief of Mission”
Known as the ‘father of containment’
HELP HELP!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Soviets intend to expand
into Easter Europe ah…..
We all better becareful!!!!!!
 In 1946 US questioned US embassy in
Moscow about lack of Soviet support for
IMF and World Bank
Kennan responded with the ‘Long
Later wrote ‘Sources of Soviet Conduct’
in 1947
‘Long Telegram’ and ‘Sources of Soviet
 argued that Soviet Union was expansionists
 Highlighted that Soviet assumed that she is
surrounded by capitalist enemies.
 Maintained that the Soviet Union had a deep
sense of insecurity
 Soviets bent on destroying her rivals
 Suggested that Soviets had to be contained in
areas of strategic importance to the US.
Why is Kennan’s ‘Long Telegram’ so
‘Long Telegram’ Became the basis for the
Truman Doctrine in 1947
Kennan became the head of the Policy
Planning Staff in US state department
1947 - 49
Responsible for change of US policy to a
policy of containment
Truman began to be influenced by
Churchill’s “iron curtain” speech
“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste
in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has
descended across the continent”
Churchill 1946
Changed American public opinion of
their relations with Soviet Union
More hard lined approach taken by
Increased US insecurity
2) Containment Policy: Economic
James Byrnes secretary of
state influenced by
Wanted to stabilise
economies of Western
Motive: To contain
communist influence.
Maintained an ‘open door
policy towards Soviet
Disbursed credits elsewhere in Europe
State Department informed Soviet Union in
1946 about US credits again…
Hello Stalin, if you want US credits, here
are the following conditions:
• Let the United States claim from
seized American properties in
liberated countries in Eastern Europe
• Let U.S.A have greater say in the
economic reconstruction of Eastern
• Internationalize Europe’s waterways
• Grant us more rights in trade and
shipping and remove all trade barriers
in the Soviet Union
So what you say
Stalin? We have a
HOW ABOUT NO???!!!!!
You crazy American
3) Truman Doctrine
 1947
Britain could no longer provide
assistance to the Greek government
Greeks fighting communist armed
Arms flowing in from Albania and
Yugoslavia to help Greek rebels
Soviets pressurizing Turkey for control
over black sea straits
Greece falling to communist control
and Soviet extension into the Middle
East became a serious threat
Truman decided that U.S must
replace Britain to help Greece
Aid also must be given to Turkey
Dean Achenson Under-Secretary of State
convinced US public that credits must be
given to US friendly governments
300 million for Greece
100 Million for Turkey
No response from Soviets
Start of US containment in the
4) Marshall Plan
Europe 1946-47 – Severe economic
Bread rationing in France fell
Communism becoming more popular
U.S Secretary of State George Marshall
worked on the problem and instituted the
Marshall plan
Here are the aims of my Marshall Plan:
1. Not Directed against any country but
against economic disaster
2. Assistance must not come from the US
but from a number of European states
acting jointly. Europe was to unite to
provide a large market for mass
3. An offer of aid should be open to the
countries of eastern EU and to the SU:
though it should be so formulated that
the Soviet satellites could only join by
accepting a large measure of economic
Map of ColdWar era Europe
and the Near
East showing
countries that
Marshall Plan
aid. The red
columns show
the relative
amount of total
aid per nation.
Marshall Plan Structure
– Organisation for European Economic
Cooperation (OEEC) established 1948
– Aim: Provide Marshall aid and coordinate
– Aim: To restore European economy by 1951
– Aim: Combination of European economies and
pledge of 13 billion in aid
– Plan limited to 4 years
– European states accepting aid had to
make concessions for U.S.
– Concessions such as General Agreement
on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
– Countries had to accept certain US
exports unconditionally.
 Importance
of Marshall Plan
– Plan to save Western European from
economic and political collapse and
possible Communist take over
– Tool to undermine the appeal of
– Avoid recession and the spread of
5) Reactions to Marshall Plan
Clement Attlee
Robert Schuman
Let’s just get all the
European nations to
draw up separate lists of
their needs
There is no need to
coordinate our economic
recovery the way the
Americans are dictating.
Molotov - Soviet
Foreign Minister
And please, for quite
obvious reasons let’s
exclude Germany from
whatever plans we have.
Letting Germany
recover is simply
Besides, why should
European economic
recovery be on
American terms?
We the citizens of Poland,
ACCEPT the Marshall Plan
There will be no
participation in the
Marshall Plan for
you guys
Hungary, Romania,
Poland, Albania
and Finland
 Why
was Stalin so firm in refusing
the Eastern European countries’
acceptance of the Marshall Plan?
 Would
have opened the Soviet Block
to Western economic influence
 Would
have destabilized the position
of Communism
 At
a Conference of Communist Party
leaders in Poland in 1947
Let’s forget all this nonsensical imperialist
moves of the Americans
I propose the Communist Information
Bureau (Cominform)
Through this bureau we shall,
• coordinate actions between
Communist parties under Soviet
Andrei Zhdanov - Soviet
• establishment of people’s democracies
and planned economies along Soviet’s
7) Conclusion
Truman’s administration marked a shift in
US policy
From a policy of accommodation to a
policy of containment
More pro-active role of the U.S.
Soviets reacted through economic policies
of their own