Unit19 - Chandler Unified School District
Transcript Unit19 - Chandler Unified School District
Into a New Century
U.S. History Unit #19
Personal Computers / Biotechnology
Personal Computers – Small computers which, beginning in the 1980s, were
marketed to and became popular with middle- and upper-class Americans. The
development of the microchip and microprocessor made the PC possible.
Biotechnology – The use of living organisms in the development of new
products; Advances in biotechnology in the late 20th century, combined with
similar development in medical sciences, have extended patients’ lives,
reduced pain, and battled a huge number of diseases.
Review Question #21
what decade were
first marketed to the
middle- and upperclasses?
Satellites / Internet
Satellites – Mechanical devices that orbit Earth in space, receiving and sending
information-filled signals that are then relayed to televisions, telephones, and
Internet (World Wide Web) – Invented in the 1980s, the internet has made
communication and access to information almost instantaneous, transforming
commerce, education, research, and entertainment.
Review Question #22
is one type of
signal which is
received and relayed
The process by which national economies, politics, cultures, and societies
become integrated with those of other nations around the world. New
communication, such as the internet and satellites, have increased the pace of
globalization and increased the profitability of multinational corporations.
Review Question #23
is one type of
has increased the
Name given to America’s economy today. The production of services (i.e.
lawyers, teachers, athletes, movie stars, etc.) has increased faster than the
production of goods (i.e. hamburgers, computers, cell phones, etc.).
Review Question #24
business that is part
of the service-sector
of our economy?
Closure Assignment #1
Answer the following questions based on what you
have learned from Chapter 33, Section 1:
Why are new technologies often developed as a
result of waging war? (At least 1 sentence)
How has the computer sped up the pace of
globalization? (At least 1 sentence)
Cite evidence to support or refute this statement: A
service economy provides more opportunities to
entrepreneurs than does an industrial economy. (At
least 2 evidences and 2 sentences)
William J. Clinton
Democratic President from 1993 to 2001; Born in 1946, Clinton was the first
baby boomer elected as President. He was elected governor of Arkansas in
1978, branding himself as a “New Democrat”, a politician who tried to combine
liberal and conservative ideas.
Review Question #25
H. Ross Perot
Texas billionaire who ran for President as a 3rd-Party Independent candidate
in 1992 and 1996. Perot’s party was self-funded and he promised to govern
by using sound business principles. In the end, Perot won 19% of the vote
in 1992, the most by any 3rd-Party candidate since Teddy Roosevelt in 1912.
Review Question #26
Ross Perot won 19% of
the total vote in the 1992
From which presidential
candidate did Perot likely
steal most of his votes?
Family Medical Leave Act
Law signed by President Clinton in 1993 which guaranteed most
full-time employees 12 workweeks of unpaid leave each year for the
birth and care of a newborn child, to recover from a serious illness,
or to care for an immediate family member with a serious illness.
Review Question #27
to the Family
Medical Leave Act, how
many weeks of leave is
an employee guaranteed
A gun-control act named signed by President Clinton in 1993.
Named after James Brady, a presidential aide who was wounded
in an assassination attempt on President Reagan in 1981, the Bill
requires background checks be conducted on gun buyers.
Review Question #28
Brady Bill was
named after James
Brady, a former aide to
which 1980s American
Newt Gingrich / Contract with America
Newt Gingrich – Republican congressman who led opposition to President
Clinton in 1994. Gingrich created the “Contract with America”, a plan that
attacked big government and emphasized patriotism and traditional values.
As a result, in the 1994 congressional elections the Republican party gained
control of the House and Senate for the first time in 62 years.
Review Question #29
As a result of the efforts of Newt
Gingrich and other Republicans in 1994,
the Republican gained control of:
a) The Senate
b) The House of Representatives
c) Both a & b
Kenneth Starr / Impeachment
Kenneth Starr – Special prosecutor who, in 1994, was appointed to investigate
President Clinton’s investments in the Whitewater Development Corporation,
an Arkansas real estate company, which he had put money into while governor
in the 1970s and 1980s. In the process of prosecuting Whitewater, Starr
uncovered evidence of an affair between President Clinton and a White House
intern, Monica Lewinsky. Clinton denied the affair under oath, but eventually
admitted he had lied. In 1998, the House of Representatives impeached Clinton
on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice, leading to a trial in the
Senate. On February 12th, 1999, the Senate acquitted President Clinton on both
charges, and he remained in office.
Review Question #30
Congress on charges
of committing what
Closure Assignment #2
Answer the following questions based on what you
have learned from Chapter 33, Section 2:
How did Clinton position himself ideologically in
order to win over both Democrats and Republicans
in the 1992 election? (At least 1 sentence)
On what domestic issues did Democrats and
Republicans differ during Clinton’s presidency? (At
least 2 issues)
Summarize the events surrounding Clinton’s
impeachment. (At least 3 sentences)
North American Free Trade Agreement
Originally supported by President Bush in 1992, NAFTA called for a gradual
removal of trade restrictions between the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
Many Americans feared that entering NAFTA would lead American jobs to be
outsourced to Mexico, where labor was cheaper. Nevertheless, President
Clinton and the Democratic Congress approved NAFTA in 1993, and the
agreement has been in effect since 1994.
Review Question #31
NAFTA, the United
States made an
with what two other
GATT / WTO
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) – A revision to the original
GATT was signed by President Clinton and other international leaders in
1994; GATT’s goal was reduce tariffs to promote free trade.
World Trade Organization (WTO) – Replaced GATT in 1995, expanding the
organization’s authority to negotiate trade agreements, settle disputes, and
enforce compliance with them. The WTO represents America’s movement
toward economic globalization, participating in one world economic system.
Review Question #32
do each of the letters
in WTO stand for?
The forced removal and/or murder of persons of a specific ethnicity in a
country; During the early 1990s, the fall of communist Yugoslavia led to the
rise of four new nations. In Serbia, the strongest of the four, Slobodan
Milosevic formed an authoritarian military dictatorship which sanctioned mass
murder, violence, and rape of Catholic Croats and Bosnian Muslims. In 1995
NATO, led by the U.S., bombed Serbian strongholds and sent peacekeeping
troops into the Balkans (the region of former Yugoslavia), forcing Serbs to
agree to a cease-fire.
Review Question #33
In 1995 NATO, led by the United States,
sent peacekeeping troops into the
Balkans to stop ethnic cleansing
George W. Bush / Bush v. Gore
George W. Bush – Republican President from 2001 to 2009; A Yale graduate,
part-owner of the Texas Rangers baseball team, and former governor of Texas,
Bush was popular with conservatives and Christian fundamentalists. Though
not a gifted speaker, he struck many Americans as down-to-earth and sincere.
Bush v. Gore – Clinton’s vice-president Al Gore ran against Bush in the
election of 2000. Gore received a half million more votes than Bush in the
popular vote, but the electoral college vote margin thin, with the entire election
coming down to the outcome of the vote in Florida. Based on the electronic
counting machines, Bush won by 327 votes. Democrats demanded a recount
by hand; Republicans sued to prevent a recount. Finally, the Supreme Court
ended the recounting by a 5-to-4 decision, giving the presidency to Bush.
Closure Assignment #3
Answer the following questions based on what you have
learned from Chapter 33, Section 3:
1. Why have efforts to reduce tariffs and trade barriers
often been controversial in the United States? (At least 1
2. What basic assumption about the U.S. role as sole
superpower underlies American peacekeeping efforts of
the 1990s? (At least 1 sentence)
3. Compare how Democrats and Republicans viewed the
initial results of the 2000 election. (At least 2 sentences)
Review Question #35
to running for
President, George W.
Bush was part owner
of what major league
Al Qaeda / Osama Bin Laden
Radical Islamic terrorist group led by wealth Saudi Arabian businessman
Osama bin Laden. The central goal of al Qaeda is to end American involvement
in Muslim countries. In 1993 al Qaeda exploded a bomb in the World Trade
Center, killing 6 and injuring more than a thousand. In 1998 al Qaeda set off car
bombs at American embassies in Africa killing 225 and injuring 5,500 others. In
2000 al Qaeda bombed the USS Cole in Yemen, killing 17 sailors.
Review Question #34
was the target
of al Qaeda’s first
terrorist attack on
American soil in
September 11th, 2001
A series of four suicide attacks that were committed in the United States on
September 11, 2001, coordinated to strike the areas of New York City and
Washington, D.C. On that Tuesday morning, 19 terrorists from the Islamist
militant group al-Qaeda hijacked four passenger jets. The hijackers
intentionally piloted two of those planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and
United Airlines Flight 75, into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center
complex in New York City; both towers collapsed within two hours. The
hijackers also intentionally crashed American Airlines Flight 77 into the
Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, and intended to pilot the fourth hijacked jet,
United Airlines Flight 93, into a target in Washington, D.C.; however, the
plane crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania after its
passengers attempted to take control of the jet from the hijackers. Nearly
3,000 people died in the attacks.
Afghanistan / Taliban
Afghanistan – Middle-Eastern nation which served as the training ground
and hiding place for Osama bin Laden and al Qaeda.
Taliban – The Islamic fundamentalist government of Afghanistan which
permitted bin Laden to operate terrorist training camps. After 9/11/01 the
Taliban refused to turn over bin Laden to U.S. custody, leading President
Bush to order an American-led invasion of the country, overthrowing the
Taliban by December 7th, 2001.
Review Question #37
did the United
States decide to invade
and overthrow the
Taliban government in
Patriot Act / Department of Homeland Security
Patriot Act – Passed by Congress in the aftermath of 9/11, the Act gave law
enforcement broader powers to monitor suspected terrorists (through
confiscating phone records and e-mails) and detain or deport foreigners
associated with terrorist groups.
Department of Homeland Security – New presidential cabinet-level office
approved by Congress to coordinate domestic security matters among federal,
state, and local agencies to prevent future terrorist attacks.
Review Question #38
the Patriot Act,
what is one type of
communication that the
US government has the
authority to monitor and
Closure Assignment #4
Answer the following questions based on what you have
learned from Chapter 33, Section 4:
1. For what various reasons has the United States become
involved in Middle Eastern affairs? (At least 1 sentence)
2. How did the September 11 attacks influence American
policy in the Middle East? (At least 1 sentence)
3. Do you believe that, following the 9/11 attacks, the United
States government should have begun monitoring
communications (e-mail, phone records, internet
communications, etc.) from all people living in the United
States? Explain your answer in at least 1 sentence.
Weapons of Mass Destruction /
Operation Iraqi Freedom
WMD – Nuclear, biological or chemical weapons with the capability of causing
the deaths of many people at once or damage to large amounts of property.
The belief that Saddam Hussein was stockpiling WMD’s was a key justification
behind the Bush administration’s decision to invade Iraq in 2003.
Operation Iraqi Freedom – (March 19th, 2003 – Present) US and British invasion
and overthrow of the Iraqi government under Saddam Hussein. On May 1st,
2003, Pres. Bush gave a speech declaring victory in Iraq; however, conflict
between Kurds, Sunnis, and Shiia Muslims combined with increased terrorist
activity has led to continued American casualties and difficulty in establishing
a democratic government, leading to a severe drop in Pres. Bush’s popularity.
Review Question #39
two of the four
groups who have fought
for dominance in Iraq and
against American troops
since the overthrow of
Abu Ghraib / WikiLeaks
Abu Ghraib - Beginning in 2004, human rights violations in the form of
physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, including torture, reports of rape,
sodomy, and homicide of prisoners held in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq (also
known as Baghdad Correctional Facility) came to public attention. These acts
were committed by military police personnel of the United States Army
together with additional US governmental agencies.
WikiLeaks - An international, online, self-described not-for-profit organization
publishing submissions of private, secret, and classified media from
anonymous news sources, news leaks, and whistleblowers. Its website,
launched in 2006 under the Sunshine Press organization, claimed a database
of more than 1.2 million documents within a year of its launch. In April 2010,
WikiLeaks published gunsight footage from the 12 July 2007 Baghdad airstrike
in which Iraqi journalists were among those killed by an Apache helicopter,
known as the Collateral Murder video. In July of the same year, WikiLeaks
released Afghan War Diary, a compilation of more than 76,900 documents
about the War in Afghanistan not previously available to the public.
The Guantanamo Bay detention camp is a controversial
detainment and interrogation facility of the United States located
within Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Cuba. The facility was
established in 2002 by the Bush Administration to hold detainees
from the war in Afghanistan and later Iraq.
Darfur / Refugees
In the early 2000s Arab militias within Sudan, with the support of the
Arab-led government, attacked African tribal groups in the western
province of Darfur. Entire villages were burned and tens of thousands
of people were killed, leading an estimated 1.8 million people to flee
to refugee camps. Despite a truce agreement in May 2006, the fighting
in Darfur continues today.
Hurricane Katrina was the deadliest, most destructive and
costliest hurricane to hit the United States in the past 80 years. At
least 1,836 people died in the actual hurricane and in the
subsequent floods. Total property damage was estimated at
Columbine / Virginia Tech
Columbine - School shooting which occurred on April 20, 1999, at
Columbine High School in Columbine,, Colorado. Two senior students,
Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, embarked on a shooting spree in which a
total of 12 students and 1 teacher were murdered. They also injured 21
other students directly, with three further people being injured while
attempting to escape the school. The pair then committed suicide.
Virginia Tech - School shooting that took place on April 16, 2007, on the
campus of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in
Blacksburg, Virginia. Seung-Hui Cho shot and killed 32 people and
wounded 17 others in two separate attacks, approximately two hours
apart, before committing suicide. (Another 6 people were injured escaping
from classroom windows.) The massacre is the deadliest shooting incident
by a single gunman in U.S. history.
Closure Assignment #5
Answer the following questions based on what you have
In your opinion, is the United State justified in torturing
terror suspects to gain information, even though these
suspects have not been convicted of committing any
crimes? Explain. (At least 1 sentence)
Why did President Bush choose not to send American
troops to stop the genocide in Sudan? (At least 1
What can and should be done to prevent attacks similar
to those which occurred at Columbine and Virginia Tech?
(At least 1 sentence)
Economic Recession / Housing Bubble
Economic Recession - After the bursting of the great housing bubble in mid2007, the United States of America was stuck by a huge recession. The United
States entered 2008 during a housing market correction, a subprime mortgage
crisis and a declining dollar value. In February 2008, 63,000 jobs were lost, a 5year record. In September, 159,000 jobs were lost, bringing the monthly average
to 84,000 per month from January to September 2008. The bottom, or trough, was
reached in the second quarter of 2009 but the nation's economy continued to be
described as in an "economic malaise" during the second quarter of 2011.
Housing Bubble - An economic bubble affecting many parts of the United States
housing market in over half of American states. Housing prices peaked in early
2006, started to decline in 2006 and 2007, and reached new lows in 2012. On
December 30, 2008 the Case-Shiller home price index reported its largest price
drop in its history. Any collapse of the U.S. Housing Bubble has a direct impact
not only on home valuations, but the nation's mortgage markets, home builders,
real estate, home supply retail outlets, Wall Street hedge funds held by large
institutional investors, and foreign banks, increasing the risk of a nationwide
recession. In 2008 alone, the United States government allocated over $900
billion to special loans and rescues related to the US housing bubble.
The Election of 2008
Held on November 4, 2008. Democrat Barack Obama, then the junior United
States Senator from Illinois, defeated Republican John McCain, the senior U.S.
Senator from Arizona. Obama received 365 electoral votes, and McCain 173.
The popular vote was 69,456,897 to 59,934,814, respectively. Obama received
the most votes for a presidential candidate in American history. This also was
the first U.S. presidential election in which an African American was elected, as
well as the first in which an African American won the nomination of one of the
two major parties.
Bank Bail Outs / Stimulus Plan
Bank Bail Outs - In 2008-9 the U.S. Treasury and the Federal Reserve System bailed
out numerous very large banks and insurance companies, as well as General Motors
and Chrysler. Congress at the urgent request of President George W. Bush passed the
Troubled Asset Relief Program or "TARP", funded at $700 billion.
Stimulus Plan - To respond to the late-2000s recession, the primary objective
President Obama’s Stimulus Plan was to save and create jobs almost immediately.
Secondary objectives were to provide temporary relief programs for those most
impacted by the recession and invest in infrastructure, education, health, and ‘green’
energy. The approximate cost of the economic stimulus package was estimated to be
$787 billion at the time of passage, later revised to $831 billion between 2009 and
Born in Honolulu, Hawaii, Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and
Harvard Law School, where he was the president of the Harvard Law Review.
He was a community organizer in Chicago before earning his law degree. He
worked as a civil rights attorney in Chicago and taught constitutional law at the
University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. He served three terms
representing the 13th District in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. Obama
was elected as a Senator representing the state of Illinois in Congress and
served in that office from 2004 to 2008 before being elected as President.
Nationalized Health Care
Officially known as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, though
often called Obamacare, in 2010 Congress and President Obama passed
legislation which will require all Americans to have health insurance coverage
by 2014 while also providing those living in poverty with privilege of receiving
government-funded health insurance.
Closure Assignment #6
Answer the following questions based on what you
have learned about American History from 2008 to
In your opinion, when the United States economy
experiences a recession or depression, who
should be blamed? (At least 1 sentence)
If Barack Obama were white, do you think he would
have been elected as President in 2008? Why or
why not? (At least 1 sentence)
Should the United States Government provide
health insurance coverage to all Americans? Why
or why not? (At least 1 sentence)
Gay Rights Movement
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) movements in the United
States comprise an interwoven history of social and political movements in
the United States of America, beginning in the early 20th century. They have
been influential worldwide in achieving social progress for LGBT people
while confronting strong opposition from conservative, religious groups and
individuals. In the past few decades the LGBT community has won the rights
to adopt children and be granted equal opportunities in the workplace. The
current objective of the LGBT community is to legalize Gay Marriage.
Several states, predominantly in the northeastern United States, have passed
legislation to legalize Gay Marriage in the past 10 years. In 2012, President
Barack Obama became the first American President to publically endorse
the legalization of Gay Marriage.
Arizona Prop 102
An amendment to the constitution of the state of Arizona adopted by a
referendum held in 2008. It added Article 30 of the Arizona Constitution,
which says: "Only a union of one man and one woman shall be valid or
recognized as a marriage in this state." 31 other states have adopted similar
legislation in the past 10 years, most notably California’s Prop 8, where gay
marriage had been legalized in the court system in 2007. The LGBT has field
lawsuits against multiple state governments, claiming that marriage is a civil
right that should not be denied; however, the Supreme Court has yet to hear or
issue a ruling on any of these cases.
Tea Party Movement / 2010 Elections
Tea Party movement (TPM) - An American populist political movement that is
generally recognized as conservative and libertarian, and has sponsored
protests and supported political candidates since 2009. It endorses reduced
government spending, cutting taxes, reduction of the national debt and federal
budget deficit, and adherence to an originalist interpretation of the United
2010 Elections - Approximately 82.5 million people voted. The Democratic
Party suffered major defeats in many national and state level elections, with
many seats switching to Republican Party control. The Republican Party
gained 63 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives, recapturing the majority,
and making it the largest seat change since 1948 and the largest for any
midterm election since the 1938 midterm elections. The Republicans gained six
seats in the U.S. Senate, expanding its minority, and also gained 680 seats in
state legislative races, to break the previous majority record of 628 set by
Democrats in the post-Watergate elections of 1974. This left Republicans in
control of 25 state legislatures, compared to the 15 still controlled by
Democrats. After the election, Republicans took control of 29 of the 50 State
Immigration Reform Act (1986) /
Immigration Act (1990)
IRA (1986) – Law which hoped to stop the flow of illegal immigrants by
penalizing employers who hired them and by granting resident status to those
residing in the United States since 1982.
IA (1990) – Law which increased legal immigration quotas by 40% and reduced
restrictions on regions of the world from which immigrants would be
welcomed to the U.S. As a result, the period from 1990 to today has seen the
largest number of immigrants in American history.
Review Question #40
immigrants to the
United States today
come from which
region of the world?
Arizona SB 1070 / Sheriff Joe Arpaio
Arizona HB 1070 - Legislative Act that at the time of passage was the broadest
and strictest anti-illegal immigration measure in recent U.S. history. It has
received national and international attention and has spurred considerable
controversy. The Arizona Act makes it a state misdemeanor crime for an alien
to be in Arizona without carrying the required documents, requires that state
law enforcement officers attempt to determine an individual's immigration
status during a "lawful stop, detention or arrest" when there is reasonable
suspicion that the individual is an illegal immigrant, bars state or local officials
or agencies from restricting enforcement of federal immigration laws, and
cracks down on those sheltering, hiring and transporting illegal aliens. The law
was challenged in federal court and its enforcement was suspended until the
Supreme Court issues a ruling regarding its constitutionality, which it is slated
to do in 2012.
Sheriff Joe Arpaio - First voted into office in 1992, Arpaio is responsible for law
enforcement in Maricopa County. This includes management of the Maricopa
County Sheriff's Office, county jail, courtroom security, prisoner transport,
service of warrants, and service of process. Arpaio styles himself as
"America's Toughest Sheriff." He is well known for his outspoken stance
against illegal immigration. Arpaio has become a flashpoint for controversy
surrounding Arizona's SB1070 anti-illegal immigration act. He is also known
for his investigation of President Barack Obama's citizenship.
Closure Assignment #7
Answer the following questions based on what you have learned
about American history from 2010 to 2011:
1. What is your personal belief when it comes to the issue of Gay
Marriage? Explain in at least 1 sentence.
2. Should term limits be placed on politicians serving in
Congress similar to the 8-year limit placed on the President?
Why or Why not? (At least 1 sentence)
3. Within Arizona, what group (religious, racial, age, gender, etc.)
do you think deserves the blame/credit for our state’s political
conservatism in opposing gay marriage and illegal
immigration? Why, in your opinion, does this group support
conservative policies? (At least 1 sentence)
No Child Left Behind Act
(2002) Education law supported by President George W. Bush which holds
schools accountable for the academic performance of their students,
penalizing those that did not reach federal performance standards. The AIMS
test is Arizona’s instrument to measure compliance with NCLB.
Review Question #36
is the name of the
test given to students in
the state of Arizona to
measure our compliance
with the No Child Left
Race to the Top
Race to the Top - A $4.35 billion United States Department of Education
contest created to spur innovation and reforms in state and local district K-12
education. It is funded by the ED Recovery Act as part of the American
Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and was announced by President
Barack Obama and Secretary of Education Arne Duncan on July 24, 2009.
States were awarded points for satisfying certain educational policies, such as
performance-based standards (often referred to as an Annual professional
performance review) for teachers and principals, complying with nationwide
standards, promoting charter schools, and computerization.
The Assassination of Osama Bin Laden
The former head of al-Qaeda known for the September 11 attacks, was
killed in Pakistan on May 2, 2011, shortly after 1 am local time by Navy
SEALs of the United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group.
The operation, code-named Operation Neptune Spear, was ordered by
United States President Barack Obama and carried out in a Central
Intelligence Agency-led operation. Participating units included the United
States Naval Special Warfare Development Group (also known as DEVGRU
or SEAL Team Six), the U.S. Army's 160th Special Operations Aviation
Regiment (Airborne), and CIA operatives. The raid on bin Laden's
compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan was launched from Afghanistan. After
the raid, U.S. forces took bin Laden's body to Afghanistan for
identification, then buried it at sea within 24 hours of his death
Willard Mitt Romney (born March 12, 1947) is an American
businessman and politician. He was the Governor of Massachusetts
from 2003 to 2007 and he is the nominee of the Republican Party for
the 2012 presidential election.
Closure Assignment #8
Answer the following questions based on what you
have learned about American History from 2011 to
1. In recent years, both Republican and Democratic
politicians have supported the idea of establishing
more charter schools. Why do you think this is the
case? (At least 1 sentence)
2. Do you believe that the United States is less likely to
be attacked by terrorists now then it was 10 years
ago? Why or why not? (At least 1 sentence)
3. Who do you think will be elected as President this
year? Why? (At least 1 sentence)