Warm-up - Killeen ISD

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Transcript Warm-up - Killeen ISD

U.S. History Review
The 6 dates that YOU should know like
your own birthday!
1607: Jamestown, Virginia. The first permanent English settlement AND colony in
North America.
1620: The Mayflower Compact: a plan of self-government written aboard the
Mayflower by the Pilgrims in Plymouth Rock, Massachusetts.
1776: Declaration of Independence. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental
Congress approves this document that announces that the 13 American colonies
were separating from Great Britain and that a new nation was formed: the United
States of America!
1787: U.S. Constitution. Written and approved at the Constitutional Convention held in
Philadelphia, Pa.
1803: Louisiana Purchase. Purchased from France by Thomas Jefferson, this land
deal doubled the size of the U.S.
1861-1865: U.S. Civil War. The North (Union) led by President Abraham Lincoln go
to war against the South (Confederacy) led by Jefferson Davis. The main causes
were slavery and state’s rights. The South lost in 1865 and slavery was ended.
Magna Carta
First written document that limited the power of a
king. Introduced rights for nobles only such as trial
by jury, right to property, and right to privacy.
(Signed by King John I Of England)
Christopher Columbus
“In 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean
Accidentally discovered
the Americas while
searching for a new route
to the East.
As a result of this voyage, a new age of European
exploration and conquests of the Americas began!
1607 – Jamestown, Virginia founded;
the first permanent English settlement in N. A.,
founded by the Virginia Company of
Capt. John Smith
1619 - House of Burgesses-Virginia
First representative government in
the colonies.
1619 - Dutch ship
brings 20 Africans to Jamestown
1620 –
The Pilgrims, on their ship the
Mayflower, land in Plymouth, Massachusetts.
The Pilgrims write the
Mayflower Compact to
establish their own selfgovernment
1630 – the Puritans land in
Massachusetts and start the
city of Boston.
Massachusetts becomes
the 2nd English colony
in North America
Famous events:
•The Salem Witch Trials
• Fundamental Orders of
-the first written constitution in the
• King Phillip’s War
• Anne Hutchinson
1634 – the colony of
Maryland is started by
Lord Baltimore as a safe
place for Catholics.
1636 - Roger
Williams starts
Rhode Island.
1664 - The Dutch New Netherlands colony
becomes the English colony New York.
1681 Pennsylvania is
founded by William
Penn, a Quaker.
The Quakers were a religious group that believed in equal
rights for women, religious toleration, and non-violence.
They were also the first anti-slavery society in America.
1732- Georgia, started by James
Oglethorpe as a refuge for debtors, becomes
the last of the 13 original colonies.
The economic system used
by European colonial
powers, allowed them to
have total control over their
Colonies provided
nations with raw
resources that
master countries
could trade for
Each nation wants a
favorable trade balance.
The more gold you have,
the richer your country will
People came to America for many
Push Factors:
*Political oppression
*Religious persecution
*Lack of jobs/land
Pull Factors:
*Religious freedom
*Political freedom
*Economic opportunity
* Abundant land
1689 – English Bill of Rights
English law that increased the rights of all
English citizens and further limited the power of
the king.
James II
Resigns his
monarchy in
“The Glorious
Queen Mary II
Along with her husband, William of
Orange, had to sign the English Bill of
Rights in order to become the new
monarchs of England.
The American
Colonies grow
Between 1607 and 1775 an
estimated 690,000 Europeans
& 278,000 Africans came to
live in the colonies.
New England Colonies:
Massachusetts, New Hampshire,
Rhode Island, Connecticut
• Made up of small towns that were well-organized with a church in
the center. The religion was primarily Puritan Christianity.
• The soil was hard and rocky, and the winters were long.
• Subsistence farming (just enough to survive) was common.
• The primary industries were fishing, timber, shipbuilding,
whaling, and merchant trade.
Middle Colonies:
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania,
• More fertile soil than New England. Also milder winters.
Main crops were grains such as wheat, rye, and barley (aka
the breadbasket colonies), also grew crops of fruits and
• Many industries along with skilled labor like carpentry and
iron works.
• 100,000 German immigrants settled in Pennsylvania.
• Different groups brought diversity to the middle colonies.
Different religions existed here.
Southern Colonies:
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina,
South Carolina, Georgia
• Rich soil and warm, rainy climate leads to farming and little or no
• Tobacco, rice, and indigo were the main cash crops. Slaves became
• Large farms with slave labor led to a plantation economy.
• Maryland, founded by Lord Baltimore, became a colony where
Catholics could settle.
• Many members of the Church of England (Anglicans)
By 1732, there were 13 flourishing
English colonies on the east coast
of North America.
After a century of “laissez-faire”
or letting the colonies “do their
own thing”, the British
government tried to gain control
with disastrous results.
The French and Indian War
England vs. France
• War between England and France fought in North
America over territorial claims.
• A young George Washington serves in the British army.
• Benjamin Franklin proposes the Albany Plan of Union
(“Join or Die”) to unite the colonies, it is rejected.
• France finally loses and has to give up all of its land in
North America to the British.
• The Treaty of Paris of 1763 gave England all land
between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mississippi River.
The French and Indian War leaves the British
government with a large debt and begins to
pass taxes that anger the American colonists:
•1763 - Proclamation of 1763: colonists were not
allowed west of the Appalachian Mountains
•1764 - Sugar Act: a tax on sugar and molasses
•1765 - Stamp Act: a tax on all printed materials, caused
anger and protests by the Americans. Sam Adams and Paul
Revere form the Sons of Liberty.
•1766 - Quartering Act: forced Americans to provide
housing to British soldiers
• 1767 – The Townsend Acts: taxes on many different
products, Daughters of Liberty are formed
•1773 - Tea Act: tax on tea
May, 1770 - The Boston Massacre
British troops
fire on
killing five of
Sons of Liberty used the incident as
propaganda to anger Americans.
1773 - Boston Tea Party: the Sons of
Liberty, led by Samuel Adams, dump British tea
into the Boston Harbor.
To punish the colonists, the British pass the
Intolerable Acts in 1774 (closed the Boston
Harbor, prohibited town meetings, took away right to
jury, new quartering act, etc.)
April 1775 – Paul Revere rouses the
Minutemen to meet the British at Lexington
and Concord, the first battles of the Revolution.
The “shot heard around
the world”
May, 1775 – The Second Continental
Congress meets in Philadelphia and
selects George Washington as the
Commander of the Continental
“The Olive Branch Petition”
•Written by members of the Second
Continental Congress
•It was a last attempt at peace between the
Americans and the British
•It was rejected by King George III
July 4, 1776 – Declaration of
Independence, written by Jefferson, is
approved by the Second Continental Congress.
John Adams
Ben Franklin
Henry Lee
“We hold
these truths to
be self-evident,
that all men
are created
equal, that they are endowed by their Creator
with certain unalienable rights, that among
these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of
Thomas Jefferson: Declaration of Independence, 1776
Battle of Trenton
December 25, 1776 – Washington defeats the
Hessians (German mercenaries) at Trenton,
The “Turning Point”
of the War!
American victory that
convinced France to join the
Winter, 1777-1778: the Continental
Army, joined by the Marquis de
Lafayette and Baron von Steuben, camps
at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania; becomes a
symbol of the hardships of war.
The Battle of Yorktown (1781)
The final major battle of the
Revolutionary War.
Yeah boi! The Americans and French win!
General George
Lord Charles
Cornwallis’ Surrender at
“The World Turned Upside Down!”
Oct. 19, 1781
Painted by John Trumbull, 1797
In the Treaty of Paris of 1783, the British finally
recognize the United States as an independent country.
North America after the Treaty of Paris, 1783
Articles of Confederation
Our first “Constitution”
America’s First Government!
Created by the Second Continental Congress
in 1777, approved in 1781
Articles of Confederation
An agreement by the states to work together.
It gave the states the most power and
formed a very weak central government.
– No judiciary (national court system)
– No executive branch (no President)
– One legislature, with little power.
– Each state had only one vote.
– No power to tax anyone
– No power to regulate trade between the states
Successes of the
Articles of Confederation:
1. Kept the country united during the
Revolutionary War
2. Negotiated the Treaty of Paris of 1783,
ending the revolutionary war
3. Passed the Northwest Ordinance, set the
rules on how a territory becomes a state.
(Once a territory reached 60,000 it could
apply for statehood.)
Shays’ Rebellion: 1787
Daniel Shays, Revolutionary War veteran
and farmer
Occurred in western Massachusetts
Small farmers angered by crushing debts
and taxes go on a riot-4 get killed.
Made people realize that the Articles
government needed a lot of improvements!
The U.S. Constitutional
Convention (1787)
• Delegates from the 13 states meet in Philadelphia to
rewrite the Articles of Confederation but instead create a
whole new document.
• The larger populated states present the Virginia Plan for
representation in the new Congress. (representation based
on population)
• The smaller populated states present the New Jersey Plan
as their plan for representation. (each state gets one vote)
• The southern slave states want their slaves counted for
representation purposes but not for taxation.
Compromises of the
Constitutional Convention
• The Great Compromise: created a Congress
with a House of Representatives based on the
population of each state and a Senate with two
senators for each state.
• The Three-Fifths Compromise (every three
out of five slaves would be counted) settled the
issue of counting slaves for representation and
taxation purposes.
of the
States is
approved by
The Preamble to the Constitution:
“We the People of the United States, in
order to form a more perfect union,
establish justice, insure domestic
tranquility, provide for the common
defense, promote the general welfare, and
secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves
and our posterity, do ordain and establish
this Constitution for the United States of
7 Principles of the U.S. Constitution
•Federalism: A system of government where power is shared
between a national (central) government and the states.
• Popular Sovereignty: a government in which the people rule
and all governmental powers rest with the people.
• Republicanism: A government where the people exercise their
power by voting for their political representatives.
• Separation of Powers: The division of government powers into
three branches, none of which has more power than the other.
• Checks and Balances: A system of government where each
branch exercises checks, or controls, over the others.
• Limited Government: A system of government where everyone,
citizens and powerful leaders alike, must obey the laws.
• Individual Rights: A system of government where a citizen’s
personal freedoms, liberties, and privileges are guaranteed by the
Yeah! The Constitution is ready
for approval! Or is it?
Federalists: (Adams, Hamilton, Madison)
supported a stronger federal government,
wanted the Constitution ratified without a Bill
of Rights.
Anti-Federalists: (Mason, Burr, Henry)
feared a strong central government, wanted
stronger states and a Bill of Rights added
before they would support it.
The Federalist Papers: essays written
by the Federalists to convince people that
a stronger federal government was
needed and to ratify the Constitution
without a Bill of Rights.
James Madison
Alexander Hamilton
John Jay
Bill of Rights (1791)–1st 10 amendments
1st: Freedom of speech, of the press, of religion, and to protest our
2nd: Right to own guns
3rd: No quartering of soldiers in our homes
4th: Protection against unreasonable search and seizure
5th: Right to due process, right to remain silent, no double-jeopardy
6th: Right to jury in criminal trial, speedy trial, and to a lawyer
7th: Right to jury in civil suits
8th: Protection against cruel and unusual punishments
9th: We can have more rights than just the ones in the Constitution
10th: Powers not given to the national government go to the states
Power divided among three branches:
Separation of
Legislative Executive
out laws
The two “houses” of Congress:
Each state
has 2
So, what’s
the total
number of
House of
is based the
population of a
(currently there
are 465 reps!)
Each branch can check or control the other
two. We call this Checks and Balances
•Controls Money
•Veto Power
•Power to
•Issues Executive
•Can declare a
•Can serve
for life
Federalism-power shared between
federal and state governments.
April 1789 George Washington
becomes the 1st
President of the
United States.
John Adams, Thomas
Jefferson, and Alexander
Hamilton are part of the
First Cabinet
George Washington:
President from 1789-1797
Main events:
• Whiskey Rebellion
• Wars with Indians
• Farewell Address:
warned the nation about –
1. getting involved in other
countries’ affairs
2. the dangers of political
John Adams
2nd President
Thomas Jefferson
3rd President: main author of the
Declaration of Independence.
Hamilton)started the Federalists
political party: stronger central
government, industrial economy,
national bank)
MAIN EVENTS: (with Madison) started
the Democratic-Republican political party:
stronger states, agricultural economy, state
•XYZ Affair
•Louisiana Purchase (1803)
•Alien and Sedition Acts
•Marbury v. Madison (1803)
•Jefferson and Madison respond with
the Virginia and Kentucky
Resolutions, introduce states rights
•Lewis and Clark expedition
•Embargo of 1807
James Madison
James Monroe
4th President
5th President
“the Father of the Constitution”
•Era of Good Feelings
War of 1812: U.S. vs. Great Britain (no
clear winner)
•Star Spangled Banner, written by Francis
Scott Key
•Battle of New Orleans makes Andrew
Jackson a war hero
•Stoppage of manufactured imports leads to
American industrial revolution
•Adams-Onis Treaty (U.S. gets
•Missouri Compromise of 1820
•The American System
•Monroe Doctrine (warning to
European nations,made the U.S.
protector of the Americas)
Andrew Jackson
7th President of the United States
•First President from
•War hero from War of
the deep south
1812 (won the Battle of New
Orleans in 1815)
•Introduced Jacksonian
Democracy (increased
•Created the modern
voting to more citizens)
Democratic party
•Represented the
common man
Jackson vs. Bank of the U.S. : vetoed charter for the Bank of the U.S. to
continue operating, causing the bank to shut down.
Jackson vs. Native Americans: had Indian Removal Act passed in 1830, ignored
Worcester v. Georgia ruling, led to the Trail of Tears.
Jackson vs. John C Calhoun: Nullification Crisis- Calhoun threatens to secede
South Carolina from the U.S. because of Tariff of 1832. Jackson threatens to
send in the U.S. Army. Henry Clay’s Comp. of 1833 avoids a war.
States Rights: Struggle for Power
States vs. Federal government
States rights – Nullification: Some states (mostly in the
south) believed that if a federal law was unconstitutional,
then they did not have to obey it, or they could “nullify” it.
Origins: Jefferson and Madison’s Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
protesting the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Nullification Crisis (1832): South Carolina, led by John C.
Calhoun, refused to obey the Tariff of 1828 (Tariff of Abominations)
and of 1832. SC threatened to secede (split from) the United States,
Andrew Jackson threatened to invade SC with the army. A compromise
was reached and South Carolina remained.
Were tariffs really that bad? It depends on where you’re from. The North
loved them because it made European imports more expensive than their
goods, helping them sell more. The South hated them because they were
forced to pay more for European goods.
“The Big Three”
1. John C. Calhoun: Former Vice President and Senator from South
Carolina; became the voice for the South regarding issues such as
state’s rights and slavery; also was Andrew Jackson’s political
enemy during the Nullification Crisis.
2. Henry Clay: Senator from Kentucky; known as “the Great
Compromiser”; wrote the Missouri Compromise of 1820, the
American System, Compromise of 1833, and the Compromise of
1850; fought for the needs of the western states.
3. Daniel Webster: Senator from Massachusetts; was firmly against
secession by any state, supported an industrial economy, and became
Calhoun’s political enemy.
The Industrial Revolution
The inventions and their inventors that changed the history of the United States
Invented the
first textile
mill in the
U.S. , this
started the
Invented the
steamboat (the
watertransport of
goods and
Samuel F.B.
Invented the
telegraph and
Morse code,
Eli Whitney
Invented the
cotton gin,
which greatly
slavery, and
parts, which
made factories
much more
Invented the
Reaper, which
grain farming
and led
thousands to
settle the
Great Plains
John Deere
Invented the
steel plow,
which also
thousands of
Americans to
settle in the
Great Plains
and further
The Era of Reforms
Many Americans began to improve the conditions of their fellow citizens.
Dorathea Dix:
Horace Mann:
reformed public
movement to
ban alcohol
Sojourner Truth:
Susan B. Anthony:
women’s rights,
“Ain’t I a Woman?”
Women’s rights,
right to vote
Elizabeth Cady Stanton:
women’s rights, Seneca
Falls Convention,
Declaration of Sentiments
Frederick Douglass:
abolitionist and
women’s rights
Harriet Tubman:
conductor on the
Steps to the Civil War (part 1)
1. Declaration of Independence: removal of anti-slavery words: Jefferson
has to delete anti-slavery words to please the southern states
2. Constitutional Convention: 3/5 Compromise, slave trade until 1808:
southern states threaten to leave unless their slaves are counted as population
3. The Missouri Compromise (1820): southern states demand Missouri come
in as a slave state, all territory below 36’30N would be for slavery
4. Difference in economies and growth of Northern cities and industry: the
North is getting far more technology, population, and money than the South
5. The Tariff of Abominations (1828): South Carolina threatens to secede if
the tariff is not abolished, claims states’ rights are being violated
6. Nullification Crisis (1832): SC again threatens to secede and nullifies the
law, Andrew Jackson threatens invasion of SC, a compromise is reached
7. Wilmot Proviso (1846): proposal that would eliminate slavery in any
territory gained from the U.S.- Mexican War
Steps to the Civil War (part 2)
8. Compromise of 1850: California entered as a free state and the south got a
fugitive slave law
9. Fugitive Slave Act (1850): required all Americans to capture and hold any
runaway slaves they see, allowed slave-hunters in northern states
10. Uncle Toms’ Cabin (1852): book about slavery written by Harriet Beecher
Stowe, caused many readers to become abolitionists, angered many in the
11. Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) – Bleeding Kansas: allowed people in Kansas to
vote on slavery, led to violence between northerners and southerners
12. Dred Scot vs. Sandford (1857): Supreme Court ruling that declared all slaves
as merely property with no rights as citizens, also nullified the Missouri
Compromise of 1820
13. John Brown’s attack of Harper’s Ferry (1859): northern abolitionist John
Brown tries to start a major slave rebellion but fails
14. The Election of Lincoln as President in 1860: causes the south to secede and
create their own slave nation, the Confederate States of America
Civil War – 1861 to 1865
1861: 11 Southern states seceded and
formed the Confederate States of America.
They elect Jefferson Davis as their President.
President Lincoln called
for 75,000 men to “put
down the insurrection”.
April of 1861 – Confederate forces
fired on Fort Sumter in Charleston,
South Carolina. The Civil War had
The Famous Generals of the Civil War
The Confederacy (South)
Robert E. Lee
Stonewall Jackson
The Union (North)
Ulysses S. Grant
William Tecumseh Sherman
Important Battles of the Civil War
Fort Sumter: April, 1861 – 1st battle of the Civil War.
Southern forces attack and capture Fort Sumter in
Charleston Harbor.
Battle of Antietam: the single bloodiest day in the Civil
War (23,000 casualties combined)
Siege of Vicksburg: 1863 – Union forces led by Ulysses
S Grant capture Vicksburg, Mississippi, giving the North
control of the Mississippi River.
Battle of Gettysburg: 1863 – Robert E. Lee and his
Confederate army invade the north and meet Union forces in
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Lee’s forces lose, making this
battle the turning point of the Civil War.
The Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863
This proclamation announced that all slaves
in Confederate states were from that day on
Yet, because in 1863 the war was still being
fought, not a single slave was freed. Still,
many slaves knew about the Proclamation
and began to do their part to see that the
Confederacy was defeated.
Gettysburg Address
Site of the Battle of Gettysburg – July, 1863
President Lincoln
gives a speech to
dedicate a cemetery to
the men who died
there and to
encourage Americans
to finish the war.
The Gettysburg Address
“Four score and seven years ago
our fathers brought forth, on this
continent, a new nation,
conceived in Liberty, and
dedicated to the proposition that
all men are created equal.”
The Civil War ends in April of 1865
Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S.
Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia.
The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
On April 14, 1865, President Lincoln and his wife attended a play at
Ford’s Theater in Washington D.C.
•John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate sympathizer, entered
the balcony where the President and his wife sat and shot the President
in the back of his head then escaped the theater.
•Abraham Lincoln died of his wounds later that evening, becoming the
first President in our history to be assassinated.
•John Wilkes Booth was found hiding 12 days later and, after refusing
to surrender, was shot to death.
The years immediately after the Civil War are known as
“Reconstruction”. Because much of the South was
destroyed during the war, it was now time to reconstruct
it. During this time, three very important amendments
were added to the Constitution.
The Reconstruction Amendments
13th Amendment (1865): Ended slavery in the U.S.
14th Amendment (1866): Gave citizenship and due process to
anyone born in the U.S.
15th Amendment (1870): Gave black men the
right to vote
(19th Amendment (1920): gave women the right
to vote)
Plessy v. Ferguson
In 1896 the Supreme Court ruled in Plessy vs.
Ferguson that segregation was legal as long as
African Americans had access to public facilities equal
to those of whites.
The problem was, the facilities were never equal.
Plessy vs. Ferguson allowed for “separate but equal”
for more than fifty years.