Power Point Presentation for 1820 - 1850

Download Report

Transcript Power Point Presentation for 1820 - 1850

The Panic of 1819
• In 1819, the impressive post-War of 1812
economic expansion ended.
– Banks throughout the country failed; mortgages were
foreclosed, forcing people out of their homes and off
their farms.
– Falling prices impaired agriculture and manufacturing,
triggering widespread unemployment.
– All three sections of the country were impacted and
prosperity did not return until 1824.
American Economy
total economic
activity in millions of
1806 1808 1810 1814 1818 1919 1820
1. What action of the government caused the drop from 1806 to 1808
2. What event affected trade between 1810 and
The Bank of the United States and
its role in the Panic (Depression)
• The primary cause of the misery seems to have been a
change toward more conservative credit policies by the
Second Bank of the United States (rechartered in 1816).
– The bank directors viewed with scorn the unconventional
practices of many western banks.
– The B.U.S. called in its loans, forcing the state banks to do
• State loans had been made to land speculators who were unable to
• banks failed and depositors were wiped out.
• Conditions were made worse by the influx of large
quantities of foreign goods into the American market and
the slumping cotton market in the South.
Issues created by the Panic and
westward expansion into the new
North and South Divide on Tariffs
• Reaction to the Panic depended upon where
one lived.
– Northern manufacturers thought future economic
downturns could be avoided by enacting high tariffs
that would protect them from foreign competition.
– Southerners, however, resented the higher prices
they had to pay for imports because of the tariff and
began a long campaign against those duties, hoping
that freer trade would revive the cotton economy.
– Westerners, taking a still different approach, blamed
the bankers and speculators.
The Tariff of 1816
• Americans were forced to confront the issue of
protecting their struggling industries.
– The British had stashed large quantities of
manufactured goods in warehouses during the war.
• When peace was achieved in 1815 a flood of these goods
was dumped on the American market.
• New England manufacturing concerns found it
almost impossible to compete with the cheap
foreign imports.
New England’s Voice in the
• Daniel Webster, a
great spokesman for
New England
– He opposed the tariff
measure; he did not
want to see the
nation’s industrial base
broadened, fearing
that New England’s
commercial strength
would be diluted.
The Leader of the Western
• Senator Henry Clay of
Lexington Kentucky was
one the three most
important Senators
during the first half of the
19th Century.
• He is in part or in full
responsible for
– The Missouri Compromise
– The American System of
– The Compromise of 1850
Clay’s efforts to forge the Missouri Compromise (1820) were the first of several
such ventures dealing with expansion and the spread of slavery. Clay was himself
a slave owner, but he favored the emancipation of slaves and their resettlement in
The Election of 1824 was decided in the House of Representatives. John Quincy
Adams won the presidency and selected Clay as his secretary of state — a move
that encouraged critics to claim a "corrupt bargain." Clay gained widespread
support in his home state and throughout the West for advocacy of the American
In 1831, Clay returned to the Senate and emerged as the leader of the National
Republican party, which later became the Whig Party. He lost a bid for the
presidency in 1832, but played prominently in the Bank Crisis and Tariff of 1833.
Clay’s perhaps most notable achievement came in the Compromise of 1850, in
which the “Great Pacificator” or “Great Compromiser” managed temporarily to
tame sectional passions. The Whig Party lasted only a short while following
Clay’s death, but their ideas, particularly the American System, were taken over
by the new Republican Party.
The American System
• A plan to strengthen and unify the nation, the American System of
Economics was advanced by the Whig Party and a number of
leading politicians including Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun and John
Quincy Adams. The System was a new form of federalism that
• Support for a high tariff to protect American industries and generate
revenue for the federal government
• Maintenance of high public land prices to generate federal revenue
• Preservation of the Bank of the United States to stabilize the
currency and rein in risky state and local banks
• Development of a system of internal improvements (such as roads
and canals) which would knit the nation together and be financed by
the tariff and land sales revenues.
• Canals would be the method of bringing the
products of the old Northwest to the big eastern
– Western farmers could sell their products to the large
Hungary populations of factory workers
– The surplus food could be shipped to overseas
• This connection between the Old Northwest and
the Northeast made them politically similar in
their needs. They were already socially similar
in that they did not allow slavery
Potomac River Canals
• The C&O Canal follows the route of the
Potomac River for 184.5 miles from
Washington, D.C. to Cumberland,
MD. The canal operated from 1828-1924
as a transportation route, primarily hauling
coal from western Maryland to the port of
Georgetown in Washington, D.C.
Why Canals ????
• Canals provided an increase in trade, which in
result established a wealthier economy. The
Canals were large in size; the locks were 72 x 7
feet, which allowed the boats to carry more
tonnage. The average canal was 40 feet wide
and 40 feet deep.
– The best know of the canals was the Erie Canal.
• It ran 363 miles from Albany, New York on the Hudson River
to Lake Erie. Before the Erie Canal was built it cost $100 to
bring a ton of goods from Buffalo to New York City. After the
canal was built the cost lowered to $8. The canal made New
York City one of the most used ports in the nation
• Clinton’s Ditch
The Longest Canal in America the Erie
connected the Great Lakes to the Mohawk
and Hudson river valleys of New York State
It was built by Immigrant Irish workers that
earned 25cents an hour
Canal Boats made the trip along the canal by
being towed by animals on the shore line
The Erie
the Old
west to
The Southern Leader
Calhoun’s views on the tariff
question underwent a total
change, from support in 1828 to
strident opposition a short time
– The more radical elements in
South Carolina supported the
concept of nullification, but
Calhoun initially counseled
– The Tariff of 1832, however, reignited the debate and led to a
special convention which nullified
the federal law within the confines
of South Carolina.
– Calhoun again urged moderation
and worked with Clay to bring
about a compromise tariff
Shall Slavery Expand Westward
• In February 1819 a second problem with
the potential for pulling the country apart
reared its head as the country was again
confronted with the volatile issue of the
spread of slavery into new territories and
The Northern Perspective
• The out cry against the South's "peculiar
institution“, as slavery was called, had
grown louder through the years.
Northerners asked the following question
"How long will the desire for wealth render
us blind to the sin of holding both the
bodies and souls of our fellow men in
The Southern Perspective
• The South demanded that the North
recognize its right to have slaves and
expand into the new lands. They felt this
was a right protected by the Constitution.
• The slaves were seen as personal
property and therefore the government
was required to uphold the rights of the
property owner
The Political Maneuvering
• The Missouri Compromise was an effort by
Congress to defuse the sectional and political
rivalries triggered by the request of Missouri late
in 1819 for admission as a state in which slavery
would be permitted
• At the time, the United States contained twentytwo states, evenly divided between slave and
free. Admission of Missouri as a slave state
would upset that balance; it would also set a
precedent of congressional acceptance for the
expansion of slavery.
The Decision
(The Missouri Compromise)
a compromise bill was worked out with the following provisions:
(1) Missouri was admitted as a slave state and Maine (formerly part of Massachusetts) as
(2) except for Missouri, slavery was to be excluded from the Louisiana Purchase lands north
of latitude 36°30.
criticized by many southerners because it established the principle that Congress
could make laws regarding slavery
Nevertheless, the act helped hold the Union together for more than thirty years
It was repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
Three years later, the Supreme Court in the Dred Scott case declared the Missouri
Compromise unconstitutional, on the ground that Congress was prohibited by the
Fifth Amendment from depriving individuals of private property without due process of
The Era of Good Feelings
(America’s coming out party)
American Nationalism
Dartmouth vs. Woodward
McCullough vs. Maryland
Gibons vs. Ogden
Rush Bagot Agreement
Monroe Doctrine
Adams Onis Treaty
McCullough vs. Maryland
• A Supreme Court case decided in 1819 by the U.S.,
dealing specifically with the constitutionality of a
Congress-chartered corporation, and more generally
with the shared power between state and federal
• The Second Bank of the United States was authorized
by Congress to help control the unregulated printing and
distribution of currency (paper money) by state banks.
• The problem was many people continued to oppose the
bank's constitutionality, and viewed it as an interference
with States Rights
The States try to tax the National
Bank and impose their power.
• Maryland set an example by imposing a tax on all banks
not chartered by the state. When the U.S. branch bank in
Baltimore refused to pay taxes, Maryland brought suit for
collection from the bank.
– In his decision John Marshall said “the chartering of a bank, was
a power implied from the power over federal fiscal operations.
Because the state cannot impede constitutional federal laws, the
Maryland tax on the National Bank was unconstitutional.
• One of the most important decisions in the history of the U.S.
Supreme Court, Marshall's opinion called for a broad interpretation
of the powers of the federal government.
• The case became the legal cornerstone of subsequent expansions
of federal power
Gibbons vs. Ogden
• One conflict has been over which level of
government, state or national should
control interstate commerce. Interstate
commerce is the buying and selling of
goods across state borders. This is
different from intrastate commerce, which
is the buying and selling of goods within
state borders.
The Issue
• Aaron Ogden had a Fulton-Livingston
license to operate steamboats under this
monopoly. He operated steamboats
between New Jersey and New York.
However, another man named Thomas
Gibbons competed with Aaron Ogden on
this same route. Gibbons did not have a
Fulton-Livingston license, but instead had
a federal (national) coasting license,
granted under a 1793 act of Congress.
• The problem was that the waterway
between New Jersey and New York was
an interstate waterway. The business on
this waterway was interstate commerce.
The question was who had the right to
issue a license to operate boats on this
interstate waterway, the state of New York
or Congress (the national government)?
The Decision
• In Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), Justice John
Marshall ruled that the power to regulate
interstate commerce also included the power to
regulate interstate navigation: "Commerce,
undoubtedly is traffic, but it is something more—
it is intercourse ... [A] power to regulate
navigation is as expressly granted, as if that
term had been added to the word 'commerce' ...
[The power of Congress does not stop at the
jurisdictional lines of the several states. It would
be a very useless power if it could not pass
those lines."
Thomas Jefferson on the Rulings of
the Marshall Court (Federalist)
• "It has long been my opinion. ..that the germ of dissolution of
our federal government is in the constitution of the federal
judiciary; an irresponsible body-- for impeachment is scarcely a
scarecrow-working like gravity by night and by day, gaining a
little today and a little tomorrow, and advancing its noiseless
step like a thief, over the field of jurisdiction, until all shall be
usurped from the States, and the government of all be
consolidated into one.
• "To this I am opposed; because, when all government,
domestic and foreign, in little as in great things, shall be drawn
to Washington as the center of all power, it will render
powerless the checks provided of one government on another,
and will become as venal and oppressive as the government
from which we separated." ---Thomas Jefferson, 1821
The Adams-Onis Treaty
• Also called the Transcontinental Treaty of
1819, the Adams-Onis Treaty was one of
the critical events that defined the U.S.Mexico border. The border between the
then-Spanish lands and American territory
was a source of heated international
debate. In Europe, Spain was in the midst
of serious internal problems and its
colonies out west were on the brink of
• Spanish foreign minister Onis signed a treaty
with Secretary of State John Quincy Adams.
Similar to the Louisiana Purchase statutes, the
United States agreed to pay its citizens’ claims
against Spain up to $5 Million. The treaty drew a
definite border between Spanish land and the
Louisiana Territory.
• In the provisions, the United States ceded to
Spain its claims to Texas west of the Sabine
River. Spain retained possession not only of
Texas, but also California and the vast region of
New Mexico.
Rush-Bagot Treaty
• The Rush-Bagot Treaty signed in 1817 between the
United States and the United Kingdom demilitarized the
Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, where many British
naval armaments and forts still remained, and laid the
basis for a demilitarized boundary between the US and
British North America. This agreement was indicative of
improving relations between the United States and
Britain during this time period following the end of the
War of 1812. It was negotiated by Acting Secretary of
State Richard Rush and the British minister to
Washington Sir Charles Bagot.
The Western Hemisphere faces
changes (after Napoleon)
• The end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 marked
the breakup of the Spanish empire in the New
World. Between 1815 and 1822 Jose de San
Martin led Argentina to independence, while
Bernardo O'Higgins in Chile and Simon Bolivar
in Venezuela guided their countries out of
• The new republics sought -- and expected -recognition by the United States, and many
Americans endorsed that idea.
Monroe Doctrine
• In 1822 President James Monroe, under powerful public
pressure, received authority to recognize the new
countries of Latin America -- including the former
Portuguese colony of Brazil -- and soon exchanged
ministers with them.
• This recognition confirmed their status as genuinely
independent countries, entirely separated from their
former European connections.
• At just this point, Russia, Prussia and Austria formed an
association called the Holy Alliance to protect
themselves against revolution.
• By intervening in countries where popular movements
threatened monarchies, the Alliance -- joined at times by
France -- hoped to prevent the spread of revolution into
its dominions. This policy was the antithesis of the
American principle of self-determination.
European Motives
• This movement in Europe was part of the
Congress of Vienna’s attempt to stop
nationalism and the breakup of Empires.
• They wanted to put everything back the
way it was before the French Revolution
and Napoleonic Wars
The Problem
• when the Alliance announced its intention
of restoring its former colonies to Spain,
Americans became very concerned.
• For its part, Britain resolved to prevent
Spain from restoring its empire because
trade with Latin America was too important
to British commercial interests.
• London urged the extension of AngloAmerican guarantees to Latin America
America Makes a Policy Stand on
Empire in the New World
• In December 1823, with the knowledge that the British
navy would defend Latin America from the Holy Alliance
and France, President Monroe took the occasion of his
annual message to Congress to pronounce what would
become known as the Monroe Doctrine -- the refusal to
tolerate any further extension of European domination in
the Americas:
• The Monroe Doctrine expressed a spirit of solidarity with
the newly independent republics of Latin America. These
nations in turn recognized their political affinity with the
United States by basing their new constitutions, in many
instances, on the North American model.
What the Monroe Doctrine Said
• The American continents...are henceforth not to be considered as
subjects for future colonization by any European powers. We should
consider any attempt on their part to extend their [political] system to
any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and
• With the existing colonies or dependencies of any European power
we have not interfered and shall not interfere. But with the
governments who have declared their independence and
maintained it, and whose independence we have...acknowledged,
we could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing
them, or controlling in any other manner their destiny, by any
European power in any other light than as the manifestation of an
unfriendly disposition toward the United States.
What does it mean?
Second Great Awakening
• Church Revival
New Churches
A. Mormon
B. Methodist
C. Baptist
(Democratic influences)
Methodist in America in 1800’s
• Methodism's leading edge rolled into Kentucky in 1786.
It sent a finger circling northeastward into New England
in 1789. During the next three decades the tide of
evangelization (2nd Great Awakening) moved through
the Mississippi Valley and sent offshoots into Alabama
and Texas.
• Paralleling the tide of nationalism that was carrying
settlers across the continent. In 1790 the Methodists,
United Brethren, and Evangelicals claimed 1.47 percent
of the United States population (44,100); in 1820, 2.79
percent (223,800);. This growth was accompanied by
the development of a number of institutions.
• 1820 Joseph Smith went into the woods to pray
concerning which church to join. He had his First
Vision of God the Father and Jesus who
appeared to him and told him not to join any of
the denominational churches
• An Angel directed Smith to the hill Cumorah in
upstate NY. He could dig and find these golden
tablets (plates) which was written in reformed
Egyptian hieroglyphics a sacred record of the
people who lived on the American continent
prior to the time of the Indians.
• 1829 Smith finishes translation of the Golden
Plates, publishes Book of Mormon
• 1830 April 6, Joseph Smith, Jr. founded the
Mormon Church
• 1844 June 27, mob attacks jail in Carthage, Ill.,
Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum are killed.
• 1846 In February Brigham Young lead the
Mormons out of Nauvoo, IL, choosing the
site which is now Salt Lake City.
The Baptist
• 1770 - New Lights
– 1780 - Free Will Baptists (North)
• 1827 - Primitive Baptists
• 1910 - Northern Baptist Convention
– 1814 - Baptist Missionary Convention
• 1845 - Southern Baptist Convention
• The Baptists had no formal church organization. Their farmerpreachers were people who received "the call" from God, studied
the Bible and founded a church, which then ordained them. Other
candidates for the ministry emerged from these churches, and they
helped the Baptist Church to establish a presence farther into the
wilderness. Using such methods, the Baptists became dominant
throughout the border states and most of the South.
The Tent Revival
• hundreds and sometimes thousands of people would
gather from miles around in a wilderness encampment
for four days to a week. There they engaged in an
unrelenting series of intense spiritual exercises,
punctuated with cries of religious agony and ecstasy, all
designed to promote religious fervor and conversions.
These exercises ranged from the singing of hymns
addressed to each of the spiritual stages that marked the
journey to conversion, public confessions and
renunciations of sin and personal witness to the
workings of the spirit, collective prayer, all of which were
surrounded by sermons delivered by clergymen
especially noted for their powerful "plain-speaking"
• What above all else characterized this evangelicalism
was its dynamism, the pervasive sense of activist energy
it released. As Charles Grandison Finney, the leading
evangelical of mid-nineteenth century America, put it:
"religion is the work of man, it is something for man to
• The Second Great Awakening exercised a profound
impact on American history. The numerical strength of
the Baptists and Methodists rose relative to that of the
denominations dominant in the colonial period -- the
Anglicans, Presbyterians and Congregationalists.
Increased Population
• During the early 1800’s population
increased at an incredible pace .
• 90% of this increase was the result of the
number of children being born to each
• The average American woman had five
• As a result the following happened
• The white birth rate increased at a pace
that changed the percentage of white and
black people from 80% white and 20%
black to 90% white and 10% black.
• ****This happened even though the infant
mortality rate, the number of children who
died before their 1st birthday, was nearly
• As a result of this population boom the
average age of an American in 1820 was
17 years of age.
• This youthful and dynamic population full
of energy was a rapid pace of expansion
into the trans-Appalachian west, Ohio
Valley, and
Increased Population
America in 1820
How America makes a living
1810 - 1850
The Early Industrial Revolution in
• The First Industrial
Revolution: Textiles and
Steam: 1712-1830
– Samuel Slater
– Eli Whitney
– Robert Fulton
Industrialization of Northeast
• The Factory System quickly expanded after the
Americans were cut off from English Goods
during the War of 1812.
– Cheap water power from rivers and streams was
available in New England
– New England Merchants and shipbuilders had money
to invest in Textile Industries (Cloth)
– A pool of labor was available
• The poor farming conditions drove many people to seek work
in factories
• Women were the primary workforce in the Textile Industries
Samuel Slater
• Slater emigrated secretly to America
in 1789 in hopes of making his
fortune in America's infant textile
industry. While others with textile
manufacturing experience had
emigrated before him, Slater was the
first who knew how to build as well as
operate textile machines. Slater, with
funding from Providence investors
and assistance from skilled local
artisans, built the first successful
water powered textile mill in
Pawtucket, Rhode Island in 1793.
What the Industrial Revolution
Changed in America
• Production by machine rather than by
• Production concentrated in large,
intricately organized factories rather than
being done at home
• Accelerated technological innovation,
emphasizing new inventions and applied
Eli Whitney
Invented the Cotton Gin
Device more efficiently removed seeds from fiber
and made cotton more profitable to grow
The device had a secondary effect of re-enforcing the need
for slave labor to produce more cotton.
Led to the creation of the Cotton Economy in the Southern
States and the subsequent westward expansion of slavery
as Southerners moved west in search of new land.
Eli Whitney
• The American System of Manufacture
– The use of interchangeable parts to mass
manufacture rifles
• Other industries adapted the process to increase
the production of their products
• Created the procedures for mass production that
would led to the consumer revolution.
– Mass production allowed for decreased prices for goods
and increased demand.
– Helped to promote the idea of the Middle Class in society
Increase in the size and
predominance of cities
• The Industrialization of the Northeast
produced a Migration of people into the
cities which swelled the populations and
produced a list of social issues;
– Overcrowding
– Disease
– Violent Crime
– Prostitution
– Alcoholic abuse
Working Conditions in Factories
Repetitive and Monotonous work
No Safety in the work place
Very Low wages
If you got hurt you were out of a job with
no help
• No unions to organize the workers
• Employers could lower your wages as they
The Southern Economy
• In the South the Plantation Economy looked just
like it had during the Colonial times.
– Land and slaves were still the most important
investment a Southern Planter made
– No large cities were developed because the land
could be better used to plant crops on.
– Very few factories existed in the south
– The cotton and tobacco crops were still exported
mostly to England.
– Southerners imported most of their needs from
England or the Northeast.
• High protective tariffs made purchasing English goods very
The Economy of the Old Northwest
• The Economy of this section (region) of America
was dependent on Diversified Farming, Meat
Packing, and Distillation of Spirits.
– Wheat and other grains were grown in the northern
• Milwaukee, Chicago, and St Louis became centers of the
beer making trade
– Corn and livestock in the Ohio Valley
• Cincinnati Ohio became a meat packing center
– Tobacco was grown in Kentucky
• The Ohio River, Mississippi River, and Great
Lakes became the main transportation system
for these industries
Politics in America 1820 1828
The Fall of the Federalist and the
Rise of Jacksonian Democrats
First American
Political Party
(Era of Good
Take on most
of the ideas
from the
Federalist Party
The Federalist
Party becomes
Irrelevant and
James Monroe
is President
during this time
Doctrine is
written by J.Q.
Adams and
presented in a
speech by
Monroe. Calls
for Europeans
to stop
and leave
Election of
Four (4)
Henry Clay
Pro Tariff
Pro Road and Canal
John Q.
Picked winner
by Congress
Pro Government involvement in
John C.
Calhoun &
Against Government involvement in economy
•No clear
•H of R
Anti-Road & Canal
Won the popular vote
lost the election
Political Changes
(The Age of the Common Man)
Participation in Politics increased after the election of
The right to vote was granted to all males over 21
The requirement for owning property was eliminated
In 1824 only 4% of the population voted, but by 1840
nearly 14% of the population was voting. This shows the
increased interest of and participation in politics
Modern Party Politics
• Before 1820 the method of selecting presidential
nominees was left to the Congressional Caucus
– The members of Congress in each party picked the
• By 1824 however democratic reforms had led to
greater participation in politics through the
expansion of the electorate
– 18 of 24 states choose presidential electors by
popular vote in 1824
– In 1831 the idea of political conventions to select
presidential candidates was introduced offering a
more democratic system was adopted by the major
Tariff of 1824
• After having enacted the first true protective tariff in 1816, Congress
continued the progression in 1824 by raising rates (over 30% on
average) and by including such products as glass, lead, iron and
wool in the protected category.
• This measure has sometimes been called the "Sectional Tariff of
1824." Northern and Western representatives joined together in
passing the tariff, turning a deaf ear to complaints from the South.
– Cotton growers sold heavily to Britain and other European nations, and
justifiably feared tariff retaliation.
– Northern manufacturers and Western farmers produced largely for the
domestic market and were more immune from foreign tariff
discrimination than Southern growers.
Election of 1828
• John Quincy Adams vs. Andrew Jackson
– First Modern Political Campaign
– Very Dirty and a lot of Mudslinging
– The Jeffersonian Democratic Party was split into two
parts over the issue of Tariffs and government
involvement in the economy.
• Jackson will run as a Democrat
• John Q Adams runs as a National republican (Whig)
• Marks the beginning of the 2nd American
Political Party System
Reason John Quincy Adams
was not re-elected in 1828
• John Quincy Adams reluctantly
signed the tariff measure, fully
realizing he was being made a
scapegoat by his political
– This measure effectively
ended his hopes for
reelection. Little thought was
given to vetoing the tariff; the
inclination of the early
presidents was to exercise
that power only for matters of
dubious constitutionality.
Andrew Jackson’s Policies
• Spoils System
• Veto of Road Bills
• Indian Removal
• Disregard for Supreme Court
• Veto of the National Bank Re-Charter
Tariff of abominations
• New England textile manufacturers pressed Congress
and the administration for higher protective measures,
arguing that British woolens were being dumped on
American markets at artificially low prices.
• Western support for increases could be obtained only by
agreeing to include an increase on duties for the
importation of certain raw materials.
• When the West was accommodated, the New
Englanders objected.
• The South under any circumstance was opposed to
protectionism. In short, no one was really pleased with
the 1828 “tariff of abominations.”
Nullification Crisis
The Tariff of 1832, despite pleas from Southern representatives, failed to moderate the
protective barriers erected in earlier legislation.
A. South Carolina called a state convention that nullified the tariffs of 1828 and
1832 within their borders and threatened to secede if the federal government
attempted to collect those tariff duties. Robert Hayne (of Webster-Hayne
Debate fame) had resigned from the Senate to run for governor of South
Carolina; John C. Calhoun resigned the vice presidency and took Hayne’s
seat in the Senate. These two men spearheaded the nullification drive. A real
possibility of secession and war existed.
B. Jackson immediately offered his thought that nullification was tantamount to
treason and quickly dispatched ships to Charleston harbor and began
strengthening federal fortifications there. Congress supported the president
and passed a Force Bill in early 1833 which authorized Jackson to use
soldiers to enforce the tariff measures.
C. Meanwhile Henry Clay again took up his role as the Great Compromiser.
1. On the same day the Force Bill passed, he secured passage of the Tariff of
1833. This latter measure provided for the gradual reduction of the tariff over
10 years down to the level which had existed in 1816.
2. This compromise was acceptable to Calhoun who had not been successful
with finding any other state to support him on nullification. Jackson signed
both measures.
As the years passed it became evident that Calhoun
had made the transition from nationalist to states’
rights advocate. Most troubling to his opponents was
his justification of the institution of slavery. Upset by
legislative threats to slavery, Calhoun secured passage
of a “gag rule,” which automatically tabled resolutions
dealing with the sensitive topic.
Veto Maysville
Road Bill
The Spoils
Andrew Jackson’s
(Major Events)
Indian Removal
Tariff of
Economic Problems of 1837
• The United States faces another economic
failure during the Panic of 1837.
– The Panic is caused by several factors, but
the most important factor is over speculation
and to much credit by banks
– The Panic is further strengthened by the
closing of the 2nd National Bank of the United
Political Fall out for President
Martin Van Buren
• The newly elected president and hand pick
successor to Andrew Jackson was Martin
Van Buren.
– Van Buren will take the heat for the Panic and
is a very ineffectual President.
– Congressmen like Calhoun, Webster, and
Clay become the real power in the Federal
Reforming America
Protestant revivalist
1.Charles Grandison finney (New York)
Preached Common sense sermons which told people they could reform themselves
2. Lyman Beecher (The west)
Warned against material gain, the power of selfishness, and sectional jealousy
(believed that good people would make a good country)
Children of Lyman Beecher
Henry Ward Beecher- abolitionist
Harriet Beecher Stowe- Uncle Toms Cabin
Catherine Beecher - Education
America 1830
Reformers of the First half of
the Nineteenth Century
The people who spoke out against
the injustices of their time
• 1. A group of philosophers and writers who
rejected traditional religion
– 1. Spiritual discovery would lead to more
profound truth than science and reason
– 2. They rejected outward rituals and group
worship for private inward searching
– 3. They urged people to be self-reliant and act
on their beliefs. (Civil Disobedience)
– 4. They believed that living a moral life
required involvement in reforming society
Ralph Waldo Emerson
• Leader of
– Resigned ministry of
Unitarian Church
because he believed
people could
transcend the material
world and become
aware of the spirit that
is in all of nature
Emerson Continued
• He is recognized as a major American poet
• Quote “ what is man born for, but to be a
reformer, a remaker of what man has made, a
renouncer of lies and a restorer of truth and
• His writing attracted a group of young thinkers
and writers who would take up his ideals.
• One of those young writers was David Henry Thoreau
David Henry Thoreau
• Lived a life of solitude at
Walden Pond. He
thought, wrote and lived
a simple life. In his
famous book “Walden”
he describes the value
of living closely with
• Firm in his beliefs
against the Mexican
war he was jailed for
not an act of civil
disobedience, not
paying his taxes, which
he felt were being used
to fight an unjust war.
The Temperance Movement
• A movement intended to bring about the end of
a social problem (evil) by eliminating alcohol
– In the early 1800 more alcohol was consumed than in
any other period of American History
• Reformers who had listened to Finney and
Stowe valued self control and self- discipline
saw alcohol as evil because it made people
loose self-control.
• Women reformers saw alcohol as a threat to the
family as many husbands abused wives and
Temperance Continued
• Between 1815 And 1840 more tahna 7,000
local temperance societies had been formed
with well over one million members
– Members encouraged people to take the pledge
not to drink, a practice called abstinence.
– In 1851 Maine In the end however these laws
were repealed because of economic pressures.
– became the first state to ban the manufacture and
sale of alcohol, and other states soon followed
– The movement did have an effect though because
between 1840 and 1860 the consumption of
alcohol dropped over fifty percent (50%)
Woman’s Rights
(the vote)
• Seneca Falls New York
– First Convention on Woman’s Rights
– Called By Loretta Mott and Elizabeth Cady Staton
– Resulted in the writing and publication of the
Declaration of Sentaments
• Based on the Declaration of Independence it gave notice of
the grievances that women felt with regard to their treatment
by the men
– This Convention makes the beginning of the fight for
a woman's right to vote (suffrage)
Prison Reform
• In the 1800’s most states had prisons to hold
criminals and to conduct punishments.
– Punishment included branding, being placed in
stocks, and isolation
• In 1841 Dorethea Dix visited a prison and found
the conditions to be horrid.
Men and Boys in cells together
The mentally Ill chained in cells meant for criminals
No food and poor clothing
No heat in the cells/ no lavatory facilities
Prisons Continued
• Ms Dix spent the next two years visiting
every prison in Massachusetts and she
wrote a detailed report of the conditions for
the Massachusetts Legislature. Her
powerful witness convinced the state to
build separate facilities for Boys, Men and
the Insane. Her report also lead to
improvements to the conditions found in
Prisons and Hospitals
• Small societies of people dedicated to
social and political perfection.
– They believed that people needed to get away
from the quick paced world of cities and
Industrial factories.
– They wanted a place were people could work
together without any greed, sin or egotism.
• This ideal place is called Utopia
– All people would be equals
Utopians Continued
• The most famous experiment was
conducted in Indiana
– Robert Owen a man from Scotland set up a
community known as New Harmony.
– At first everything went well but after a year or
so the community failed due to laziness,
selfishness and quarreling.
• This was a common fate for most Utopian
Utopians Continued
• Many Utopian societies were religious in
– The most famous religious community was
the Shakers of New Lebanon Conn.
• These people did build many successful
communities and are well known for the simple
furniture they made.
• They were a celibate people and so as they aged
the population was not increased by children.
Abolitionist Movements
• The roots of the Anti-slavery movements
can be found in colonial times.
• By the Mid-1800’s slavery has become
the number one social issue facing the
– It has become a force which divides the
country North and South
• In the South it is a simple matter of economics
• In the North it the anti-slavery forces are becoming
During the late 1700’s several antislavery societies formed in the North.
– By 1804 every state north of Maryland had
abolished slavery
– By law the importation of slavery was stopped
in 1808 when the slave trade and commerce
compromise ran out.
– Many people began to call for the
Emancipation (freeing) of the slaves
• Many people began to call for stopping the
spread of slavery to the new territories
– When Congress established the Northwest territory is
wrote into the law a ban on slavery in that area.
• Free Blacks in America also became active in
ending slavery in the United States.
• By the end of 1820 over 50 anti-slavery groups
had formed in America
• In the Early 1800’s some abolitionist favored
a plan of colonization in Africa for freed
• Thy believed that freed slaves would never get a fair
treatment in the United States.
• They founded the American colonization society in 1816
and established a colony called Liberia in Africa.
• It must be understood that most of the whites
people that supported colonization did not
believe that freed slaves were their equals.
• This plan offended most African Americans
who considered themselves and their children
as Americans. They wanted to improve
conditions here not move to Africa
• As time passed and slavery seemed to
expand rather than go away many balloonist
became more radical and violent in their fight
to end slavery.
• One of the most famous was William Lloyd
Garrison a white man who published the Antislavery newspaper called the LIBERATOR.
• In 1833 Garrison founded the American AntiSlavery Society and began to work toward the
immediate end of slavery.
• The society had 1,000 chapters and 150,00 members
Fredrick Douglas
• ______________________________________
The Underground Railroad
• ______________________________________
Harriet Tubman
• ______________________________________
Resistance to Abolitionism
• In the
____________________IIn the
• Many Americans settled in Texas during
the 1820s, and by the 1830s they
outnumbered the Mexicans living there.
• Mexico's dictator, General Santa Anna,
placed heavy restrictions upon Texans,
including a ban on slavery.
• The American settlers rebelled and
declared themselves a Independent
Texas Independence
Hostilities began at Gonzales on Oct. 2, 1835; the Texans repelled a
Mexican force sent to disarm them and won subsequent victories.
In February 1836, Santa Anna, undiscouraged, led a large army across the
Rio Grande; he was delayed, however, by the unexpectedly determined
defense of the Alamo. Meanwhile, the Texans declared their independence
from Mexico on Mar. 2, 1836, and organized a provisional government.
Sam Houston led a successful retreat, but other insurgents were defeated
and massacred in late March. Santa Anna pursued the rebels,
overstretching his supply line and thus isolating his forces on San Jacinto
Prairie. There, on April 21, he was routed by Houston and taken prisoner.
Mexican troops then withdrew from Texas.
The Republic of Texas (with its Lone Star flag) remained independent until
1845, when it became part of the United States.
America in 1840
The Annexation of Texas
(Manifest Destiny)
The U.S. annexation of Texas, by a joint congressional resolution (Feb. 2728, 1845), had caused considerable political debate in the United States.
The desire of the Texas Republic to join the United States had been
blocked for several years by antislavery forces, who feared that several new
slave states would be created from the Texas territory.
The principal factor that led the administration of John Tyler to take action
was British interest in independent Texas. Indeed, anti-British feeling lay
behind most of the expansionist policy statements of the United States in
this period.
James Polk won the 1844 presidential election by advocating a belligerent
stand against Britain on the Oregon Question. Once in office he declared
that "the people of this continent alone have the right to decide their own
destiny." About the same time the term Manifest Destiny came into vogue to
describe what was regarded as a God-given right to expand U.S. territory.
The term was applied particularly to the Oregon dispute, but it had
relevance also to California, where American settlers warned of British
intrigues to take control, and to Texas
The Mexican War of 1846
American President James K Polk
grabs some land
(Manifest Destiny)
The Mexican War
• began with a Mexican attack on American troops
along the southern border of Texas on Apr. 25,
• Some historians have argued, however, that the
United States provoked the war by annexing
Texas and, more deliberately, by stationing an
army at the mouth of the Rio Grande.
• Another, related, interpretation maintains that
the administration of U.S. President James K.
Polk forced Mexico to war in order to seize
California and the Southwest.
The War starts
• On Apr. 25, 1846, Mexican troops crossed the Rio
Grande and ambushed a detachment of American
dragoons commanded by Capt. Seth B. Thornton.
Taylor's report of this ambush reached President Polk on
the evening of May 9, a Saturday. On Monday, May 11,
Polk presented his war message to Congress, and on
Wednesday, May 13, over the vigorous opposition of the
abolitionists, the U.S. Congress voted to declare war on
Mexico. In the meantime two more Mexican attacks had
been made across the Rio Grande at Palo Alto (May 8)
and Resaca de la Palma (May 9), and both had been
The Conduct of the War
• Thus, the quick defeats at Palo Alto and Resaca
de la Palma surprised and shocked the Mexican
• American General Taylor occupied the Mexican
city of Matamoros on May 18 but then delayed
for several months before moving south. He was
apparently waiting for transportation promised
him by the U.S. government.
• The Mexicans did not attack because the
government was collapsing, and an internal
revolution began
The Conduct of the War
• In the meantime, Taylor began his advance on Monterrey. He
reached that fortified town, which had a garrison of more than
10,000 troops, on September 19 and began his attack on the
morning of September 21. With about 2,000 men, Gen. William J.
Worth captured the road between Monterrey and Saltillo and by
noon was storming Federation Hill. Six companies of Texas
Rangers charged up the hill, seized the enemy artillery, and turned
the cannon on retreating Mexican forces. On the opposite side of the
city a diversionary attack penetrated the town, despite much
confusion. On September 22 the Americans rested, but they
resumed the attack the next day. After bloody street-to-street
fighting, the Mexican general Pedro de Ampudia requested and was
granted a truce. On September 25 he was permitted to withdraw his
forces from the city, and an 8-week armistice was agreed upon.
Total Mexican casualties were estimated at 367. The Americans had
368 wounded and 120 killed.
A New American Army becomes
• The decisive campaign of the war was
American General Winfield Scott's
advance from Veracruz to Mexico City.
With army of approximately 12,000, which
was transported by sea to a beach about 5
km (3 mi) south of Veracruz. He
surrounded the city by March 15. And in a
combined naval and land attack forced the
almost impregnable town to surrender on
March 28.
The War Ends
• From April to September Winfield Scott slowly moved is
army across Mexico forcing the Mexican Army to fall
back toward the Capital of Mexico.
• The final battle for Mexico City took place at the fortified
hill of Chapultepec. American artillery bombardment on
September 12 was followed the next day by an infantry
assault. The citadel was heroically defended by cadets
from the Mexican Military College, but they were forced
to surrender before noon. American troops entered
Mexico City that afternoon, and shortly after midnight
Santa Anna evacuated his troops.
• The war was over. In just over five months, Winfield
Scott had done what many had considered impossible
Battles of the Mexican War
How America Grew as
a result of the Annexation
of Texas and the Mexican
The Debate over Slavery
(After the Mexican War)
When the Mexican War was over a new debate started up
between abolitionist and slave holders. Would the New
lands taken from Mexico become slave or free states.
This debate included all of the following items:
Dred Scott
Wilmot Proviso
• Anti-slavery measure
– If passed it would have banned slavery in all
the land acquired from Mexico
– Was challenged by the southern
congressional representatives
Compromise of 1850
• Sponsored by the President
• Millard Fillmore (Whig-National republicans)
• It allowed California to join the Union as a free state
– Gold had been discovered in California during 1849
– Many men from the east were going to California to strike it
rich. (origin of the name 49er’s) used to describe the people
who were moving to California
• New Mexico and Utah territories would use popular
sovereignty (the people would vote) to determine if
they were free or slate states.
• A new fugitive slave law was passed to force slaves
back to the plantations when found in the north
• Ended slave of slaves in Washington D.C.
Fugitive Slave Act
• Pro-slavery measure
– It made helping run away slaves a federal
– Authorized the arrest of escaped slaves even
in the states wee slavery was illegal
Uncle Toms Cabin
• Uncle Tom’s Cabin was written after the
passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, which
made it illegal for anyone in the United States to
offer aid or assistance to a runaway slave.
• Each of Stowe’s scenes serves, without
exception, to persuade the reader—especially
the Northern reader of Stowe’s time—that
slavery is evil, un-Christian, and intolerable in a
civil society.
• She seeks to expose the vices of slavery even in its
best-case scenario. Though her southern slave owning
characters possess kindness and intelligence, their
ability to tolerate slavery renders them hypocritical and
morally weak. Even under kind masters, slaves suffer.
• Later the slaves are sold to the evil Simon Legree. It is
at the Legree plantation, where the evil of slavery
appears in its most naked and hideous form. This harsh
and barbaric setting, in which slaves suffer beatings,
sexual abuse, and even murder, introduces the power of
shock into Stowe’s argument. If slavery is wrong in the
best of cases, in the worst of cases it is nightmarish and
How Stowe makes her point with
Northern Abolitionist
• Writing for a predominantly religious,
predominantly Protestant audience, Stowe
takes great pains to illustrate the fact that
the system of slavery and the moral code
of Christianity oppose each other. No
Christian, she insists, should be able to
tolerate slavery. Throughout the novel, the
more religious a character is, the more he
or she objects to slavery.
• After the Civil War began in 1861
Abraham Lincoln invited Mrs. Stowe to the
White House. Upon her arrival Lincoln
stated “ So you are the little woman who
started a war.”
• Surely Mrs. Stowe’s book had been a key
event in the polarization of America on the
issue of Slavery.
Kansas Nebraska Act
• Put in as a Compromise
– The people of the organized Kansas and
Nebraska territories, of the Louisiana
Purchase, would determine the by popular
sovereignty if they were slave or free states.
– Did away with the Missouri Compromise line
– Partly caused by Dred Scott decision
Dred Scott
• Pro-Slavery
• Supreme Court ruled that it was
unconstitutional for any ban on slavery. In
their opinion it denied a man the use of his
property and as slaves were property not
people, their owners should be able to
move them anywhere in the country and
not be regulated by the state governments