#### Transcript The Respiratory System

```The Respiratory System
1. Pharynx
2. Larynx – Houses the vocal chords
3. Trachea
4. Primary bronchi
5. Diaphragm
1
2
3
4
5
The Equation for Cellular Respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2
6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP (Energy)
The Respiratory System
Prevents food from
entering air passageways
3.
1.
Common passageway for
food and air
2.
Food transport tube
4.
Voice box
5.
Wind pipe
6.
Transports air to right and
left lung
7.
Functional part of lung
Site of gas exchange
What is anatomical dead space?
The area between the pharynx and alveoli where no
gas exchange takes place.
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Anatomical
Dead
Space
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How much air from each breath sits in the anatomical dead space?
Anatomical Dead Space Holds 150 ml air – the only air in the respiratory system that is
available for gas exchange is air in the alveoli.
What is the function of the
alveoli?
Gas exchange – oxygen diffuses
from the alveoli into the blood
and carbon dioxide diffuses
from the blood into the alveoli.
Daltons Law
• The total pressure exerted by a gas mixture is
equal to the sum of the individual pressures
(partial pressures) of each of the different
gases in the mixture.
• Atmospheric Pressure (pATM) = 760 mm Hg at
sea level
• Note: Atmospheric Pressure can be referred to as
Barometric Pressure
Dalton’s Law
760 mm Hg
• pAtm at sea level = _________
• Air
– 78 % N2
– 21 % O2
• pO2 = (Percent O2 in air) X (pAtm)
.21
760mmHg
pO2 = ______
X _____
158 mm Hg
= _______
An increase in elevation results in a decrease in
atmospheric (barometric) pressure.
Mount Everest: 29,142 feet
pAtm = 245 mm Hg
pO2 = ________ X ___________
pO2 = .21 X 245 mmHg = 51mm Hg
View Of Whitney: 14,495 feet; pAtm = 400 mm Hg
.21 X _____
400 = _____
84 mm Hg
pO2 = _____
Mount Whitney
Effects of Elevation
Mt. Everest: 29,142 ft.
pAtm = 245 mm Hg
What is pO2 at the top of Mt. Everest?
pO2 = .21 X 245 = 51mm Hg
Mt. Whitney
14,495 ft.
What will happen to the
size of this balloon if you
carry it from sea level up a
mountain?
What happens to the
distance between oxygen
molecules as you carry
the balloon up a mountain?
Sea Level
Sea Level versus the Top of Mount Everest
Mount Everest
higher than Everest
pATM is _____________
Molecules are __________
closer together
much lower than sea level
pAtm is ______________________
Molecules are _________________
further apart
Low Blood Oxygen
Hypoxia = ___________
The top of
Red Slate
Mountain
Humans experience
hypoxia at high
elevation
Gas
Diffusion
pO2 = 100mmHg
pO2 = 40mmHg
pCO2 = 45mmHg
Blood entering
alveolar capillaries
pCO2 = 40mmHg
Blood leaving
alveolar capillaries
pO2 in tissues is
40mmHg
pCO2 in tissues is
45mmHg
Oxygen – Hemoglobin
Dissociation Curve
97
75
3. What happens to
the Saturation of
Hemoglobin when
pO2 increases?
--------------------
2.
1. pO2
2. Percent saturation of
hemoglobin (Hb)
1
3. The higher the pO2
the higher the
saturation of Hb. (this
means that more
oxygen is being
carried by the blood.)
What happens to pO2 as
elevation increases?
It decreases
Factors that affect the partial pressure of oxygen
---- Normal body temperature
What happens to body
the saturation of
hemoglobin when body
temperature rises?
According to the graph, at high
body temperatures the
saturation of hemoglobin
decreases (the blood is carrying
less oxygen).
Factors that affect the saturation of hemoglobin: Blood pH and blood CO2 levels
Boyles Law
• A: Normal volume and pressure
increased
• B: Volume is decreased resulting in _____
pressure
• C: Volume is increased resulting in
decreased pressure
______
Rib cage expands
when external
intercostals contract
Rib cage gets smaller
when external
intercostals relax
Ventilation of the Lungs
Ventilation: Moving Air in and Out of Lungs
1. Increase
2. Decrease
3. Greater
4. Into the lungs - INHALATION
Contract external intercostals
Contract Diaphragm
(Ribs move up and out)
(Diaphragm moves down)
1
_______
Volume of Thoracic Cavity
2
_______
Pressure of Thoracic cavity
3
pAtm is ________
than air pressure in thoracic cavity
4
AIR MOVES ____________
Respiratory Rate and Tidal Volume
• Respiratory rate = Number of breaths you take per minute
– Textbook value = 12 breaths per minute
• Tidal Volume
– Volume of air inhaled or exhaled during normal breathing
– The volume of air inhaled or exhaled in a normal resting breath
– Textbook value = 500 ml per breath
Pulmonary Ventilation (PV)
• Pulmonary Ventilation (PV)
– The volume of air that moves in out of the
lungs in one minute
– PV = Respiratory Rate X Respiratory Volume
– Resting PV = Respiratory Rate X Tidal Volume
500 ml /breath
12 breaths/min X __________
= ____________
6,000 ml/min
= ___________________
Regulation of Respiratory Rate
1. Increase
2. Decrease
3. Decreases – You are exhaling more thus go are getting rid of more carbon dioxide
4. Increases – You are not exhaling thus you are not getting rid of carbon dioxide
• The primary factor that controls respiratory
rate is the amount of CO2 in the blood.
1 in respiratory rate
– Increased CO2 causes a/an ___
2
– Decreased CO2 causes a/an ___in
respiratory rate
3
– Hyperventilation _____
blood CO2 levels
4
– Holding your breath ____
blood CO2 levels
• An increase in blood CO2 has what effect on
blood pH?
Regulation of Respiratory Rate
What happens to carbon dioxide when it
diffuses from your tissues into your plasma.
CO2 + H2O
H2CO3
H+ + HCO3-
What does the above equation mean?
That carbon dioxide combine with water in
plasma to create carbonic acid. This causes
a decrease in blood pH.
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