The Rise of Mussolini in Italy

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Transcript The Rise of Mussolini in Italy

* What are the differences and similarities
between Fascism and Communism?
A political movement that promotes an extreme form of
nationalism, a denial of individual rights, and
dictatorial one party rule.
Many European countries saw fascism, communism, and
dictatorship as the only way to survive the economic
problems and instability.
* Promote a classless society
* One supreme leader
* Goal: Spread of communism
* Allow for different classes
* Karl Marx
* The wills of the country
to emerge
* Goal: Devotion to one’s
over the people
* What societal conditions do you think there
were that allowed for these Totalitarian
regimes to rise in the 1st half of the 20th
* Quickly describe how they came to power.
after WWI for Italy
* 460,000 soldiers killed
* Heavy debt (wars are expensive)
* Britain and France did not give Italy the land they
promised in Treaty of London
* This
is what got Italy to switch sides
* Gv’t of Italy at the time was bad
* Rising unemployment
*Italians believed that
the T of V had treated
them poorly.
*Italy had not been given
the land promised at the
Secret Treaty of London.
*Italy’s foreign Minister
Orlando left before the
conference ended,
feeling humiliated.
Treaty of
*A system of
government under a
*Strong support of the
nation over the
*Usually involves terror,
nationalism, and
is fascism?
* Mussolini began his
career as a journalist
where he started to
gain his own ideas in
what became known as
Benito Mussolini
gains power
*Mussolini set up a Fascist
Party and promised to
solve Italy’s problems
*Promised to rebuild Italy
and recreate the Roman
*Organized armed gangs
called the “Blackshirts”
Blackshirts: Supporters of
* Came to power in 1922 and was appointed Prime Minister by
King Victor Emmanuel to prevent a Communist Revolution in
* Why would King Victor Emmanuel want to stop a Communist
* How does putting Mussolini in charge accomplish this?
March on Rome
* to establish Mussolini and the Fascist Party
as the most important party in Italy
* Mussolini said this at a party conference:
"Either the government will
be given to us or we shall
seize it by marching on
*In October 1922, 30,000
fascists marched on Rome,
threatening King Victor
Emmanuel III to give
Mussolini the power.
*The king did not love the
former liberal politicians, so
he agreed to give Mussolini
the power
March on Rome, 1922
* Mussolini became Il Duce (ihl Doo-chay), meaning the leader.
* He enforced fascism throughout his country.
*He forced all the other political parties to be illegal
and he also got rid of the democracy.
*His opponents were put to jail by his secret police.
* The government took control of all the radio stations
and all the other Medias to broadcast only the
doctrines of the fascism.
Fascism under Mussolini
* Do you think people were upset by Mussolini
creating a fascist state Italy?
* I mean Mussolini is restricting freedom, he is
terrorizing people through his secret police?
Most of the Italians in the 1920s30s supported Mussolini and his
fascist state!!
*One of the reasons why
Mussolini was able to gain
support from the people was
the through use of propaganda.
*Propaganda = message such as
posters made to convince
people’s mind, sometimes with
* Mussolini and his government controlled all the
multi-medias including radio, press, newspaper
and education to force people to think that
fascism was the right and the best doctrine.
Propaganda was also used to ensure the
national spirit for the people in Italy and
remind people how powerful Mussolini was.
*The poster on the far right shows the slogan by Mussolini.
It says, “Believe, Obey, Fight”.
*Schools taught these 3 discipline to the students.
Mussolini was outcast
from the League of
Mussolini and Hitler
In October 1936 they
signed a non-military
alliance. Mussolini signed
a full defensive alliance
with Nazi Germany in the
Pact of Steel.
and Hitler
during WWII
Mussolini intended to annex
Malta, Corsica, and Tunis. He
wanted to create a “New
Roman Empire.” He annexed
Albania, straining the
military. His troops were
unprepared for the German
invasion of Poland. Italy
remained neutral.
Mussolini during WWII
Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)
Republicans vs.
Germany and Italy supported the
Russia and many international
brigades supported the
 Abraham Lincoln brigade from the
United States.
The nationalists won.
Francisco Franco became the
fascist dictator.
Painted in 1937 in response to the German bombing of the
Spanish city of Guernica in support of Francisco Franco's
Fascist forces.
It shows the tragedies of war and the suffering it inflicts
upon individuals, particularly innocent civilians.
*These theories, specifically Communism and
Fascism, are completely different theories that
are bitterly opposed; however they exhibit the
same behavior
I am Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet
Union from 1922-1953.
What is Communism?
• based on theory by Karl Marx
• revolutionary idea of a political,
economic and social system that
creates a “classless society”
• state ownership and control of the
means of production (no private
• Soviet Communism or
was more of a totalitarian and
military state combined with
elements of communism
I am Benito Mussolini the leader (Il Duce) of
Italy from 1922 to 1943.
What is Fascism?
• intense nationalism and elitism
• totalitarian control
• interests of the state more important than
individual rights
• maintain class system and private ownership
Interesting Fact: Fascism name was derived from
the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority
consisting of a bundle of rods and an ax
I am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or
dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945.
What is Nazism?
• extremely fascist , nationalistic and
• based on beliefs of the National Socialist
German Workers Party
• belief in the racial superiority of the
Aryan, the “master race”
• belief that all Germans should have
“lebensraum” or living space in Europe
•Violent hatred towards Jews and blamed
Germany’s problems on them