All Quiet on the Western Front

Download Report

Transcript All Quiet on the Western Front

At the end of the first chapter, Paul says,
“Youth! We are none of us more than
twenty years old. But young? Youth? That
is long ago. We are old folk’ (Remarque
What does Paul mean by this? In what ways
might you consider yourself ‘old?’”
When you hear or think
about the word “WAR,”
what kinds of things
come to mind? If you
are having trouble
writing, talk about this
All Quiet on the Western
By Erich Maria Remarque
Erich Maria Remarque
Born in 1898
Served in World War One
Fought on the side of the
Sustained injuries and
spent time in the hospital
His German citizenship
was revoked in 1938 as a
result of his “anti-war”
Died in 1970
All Quiet on the Western Front
The novel is fictional, but it is based upon
Remarque’s personal experiences during
the war.
 It was first published in 1929. More than
one million copies were sold, and it was
translated into twenty-three languages.
 The Nazis banned and burned All Quiet on
the Western Front in 1933 because it was
considered an anti-war novel.
World War One
Lasted from 1914-1918
 The “war to end all wars”
 Allies: United States (joined in 1917),
Britain, France, and Russia
 Axis Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary,
and Turkey
 Total Number Killed: 8.5 – 10 million
The Western Front ran approximately 300 miles
across the face of Western Europe, from Belgium
to Switzerland.
 The front consisted of opposing trenches,
sometimes only yards apart. The trench warfare
of World War I lasted for three years and took
several million lives.
 The Battle of the Somme, an attack by the Allies
trying to break through the German lines, took
more than four months. The allies gained only six
miles. British and French casualties were 95,675
Britons killed and 60,729 Frenchmen killed. The
defense cost the Germans 164,055 soldiers killed.
Battle of the Somme, France, 1916,
7 day bombardment, 57, 000 dead.
• The trenches were muddy and often flooded
with water. The bodies of dead and wounded
men and animals fouled them.
• Corpses lay in the “no man's land” between
the trenches. Enemy snipers, rats, lice, and
stench from the decaying bodies contributed
to the misery of the trenches.
• Toward the end of the war the German
soldiers had little food.
Belgium, 1917
Before and After
• An attack was preceded by
bombardments, some lasting for days.
• In order to mount an attack, soldiers
carrying rifles and packs had to go "over
the top” of the trenches.
• Once in the no man's land, they faced
barbed wire entanglements, machine guns,
bombardment (often by their own
misdirected guns), grenades, poison gas,
and fire from the opposing trenches.
• For many historical scholars, WWI is
interesting to study because it a moment in
military technology when fire power doesn’t
match with mobility.
• At the beginning of the twentieth century,
automatic weapons and new modes of
transportation were combining with traditional
military routine.
• This, on top of the rural locations where many
soldiers fought, lead to a dangerous and difficult
life on the front.
• The Western Front was in stalemate until the
United States entered the war.
• Fresh troops, along with abundant hardware
and supplies, tipped the scales decisively in favor
of the Allies.
• An armistice was signed on November 11,
1918 and the Treaty of Versailles was imposed on
Germany in June 1919.
• The conflict was one of the bloodiest in history;
ten million soldiers were killed along with an
estimated ten million civilians.
Take five minutes to freewrite about
your impressions of an older generation
and your younger generation. In
general, do you respect the opinions of
persons older than you? Do you think
older people have the same
values or perspectives that younger
people do? Do you think all young
people have the same values and
points of view? Explain.
Chapter 1 Review
1. Why do the men receive double rations?
2. What makes the men happy and satisfied? (in the story)
3. How do Kropp, Paul and Muller enjoy the afternoon?
4. Why did the boys enlist in the army?
5. Who was Joseph Behm and what happened to him?
6. What do the men now think of Kantorek and others who hold his same
7. Describe Kemmerich.
8. What is shown in the scene with the orderly?
Chapter 1 Review
1. Why do the men receive double rations?
They receive double rations because there was 150 men the day before, so the
food guy made food for 150 men, but after the battle there was only 80 men
2. What makes the men happy and satisfied? (in the story)
When they all get letters, and they stroll over to the meadow, and food
3. How do Kropp, Paul and Muller enjoy the afternoon?
They play cards, read letters, and take a nap.
4. Why did the boys enlist in the army?
So they would not be called cowards, and there school master told them too.
Chapter 1 Review
5. Who was Joseph Behm and what happened to him?
During the first battle he got shot in the eye, and they thought he was dead so
they left him in the field, but he was only unconscious, so he was walking back
yelling, and he got shot again and died.
6. What do the men now think of Kantorek and others who hold his same
They think that they are stupid for calling them youth, and they hate them, and
him told them they would be heros, but there not.
7. Describe Kemmerich.
He is feverish, and dies from his leg getting amputated.
8. What is shown in the scene with the orderly?
It shows how the soldiers become desensitized to one another and their
surroundings, especially when it comes to death.
Ch 2 Review Questions:
1. What did Paul often do in the evenings before the war?
2. How do Paul and the other young men differ from the older
3. What did the men learn as new recruits?
4. What were they forced to do in the training camp?
5. What does death “look like” in Franz Kemmerich?
6. What is the doctor’s and the orderly’s attitude toward
Kemmerich’s death?
7. Why does Paul run away from the hospital?
Chapter 3 Review Questions
1. Kropp calls the new reinforcements __________.
2. What is Katczinsky’s talent?
3. What type of food does Kat find in this chapter?
4. What is Kropp’s idea of how wars should be fought?
5. Why does Tjaden hate Himmelstoss?
6. Describe the way that the soldiers "jump" Himmelstoss.
7. "________ is black pudding." (pg 49)
Or a “lost generation?”
Causes of World War One
Although it was the assassination of the
Austrian archduke, Franz Ferdinand that led
to the outbreak of World War I in August
1914, the actual causes of the war were
more complicated and not confined to a
single cause.
An alliance is an agreement made between
two or more countries to give each other help
if it is needed. When an alliance is signed,
those countries become known as allies.
These connections were important at the time
because they meant that some countries had
no choice but to declare war if one of their
allies declared war first.
Imperialism is when a country takes over new
lands or countries and makes them subject to
their rule. By 1900 the British Empire
extended over five continents and France had
control of large areas of Africa. The amount of
lands 'owned' by Britain and France increased
the rivalry with Germany who had entered the
scramble to acquire colonies late and only had
small areas of Africa.
Militarism means that the army and military
forces are given a high profile by the
government. The growing European divide had
led to an arms race between the main countries.
The armies of both France and Germany had
more than doubled between 1870 and 1914 and
there was fierce competition between Britain
and Germany for mastery of the seas.
Nationalism means being a strong supporter
of the rights and interests of one's country.
Large areas of both Austria-Hungary and
Serbia were home to differing nationalist
groups, all of whom wanted freedom from the
states in which they lived. This caused radical
tension that would lead to violence.
Information, possibly of a
misleading nature, used to
promote or publicize a particular
political cause or point of view.
Directions: As we review some of
these pieces of propaganda, write
down things you notice that make
them convincing.
Excerpt from the text (pp.87-88) for class analysis
We agree that it’s the same for everyone; not
only for us here, but everywhere, for everyone who is
of our age; to some more, and to others less. It is the
common fate of our generation.
Albert [Kropp] expresses it: “The war has ruined
us for everything.”
He is right. We are not youth any longer. We
don’t want to take the world by storm. We are
fleeing. We fly from ourselves. From our life. We
were eighteen and had begun to love life and the
world; and we had to shoot it to pieces. The first
bomb, the first explosion, burst in our hearts. We are
cut off from activity, from striving, from progress. We
believe in such things no longer, we believe in the war.
Where is the Love (song lyrics excerpt) by Black Eyed Peas, featuring Justin
What's wrong with the world, mama
People livin' like they ain't got no mamas
I think the whole world addicted to the drama
Only attracted to things that'll bring you trauma
Overseas, yeah, we try to stop terrorism
But we still got terrorists here livin'
In the USA, the big CIA
The Bloods and The Crips and the KKK
But if you only have love for your own race
Then you only leave space to discriminate
And to discriminate only generates hate
And when you hate then you're bound to get irate, yeah
Badness is what you demonstrate
And that's exactly how anger works and operates
You gotta have love just to set it straight
Take control of your mind and meditate
Let your soul gravitate to the love, y'all, y'all
Sig Bang Schmidt, “Trench Patrol”, 2002
By Steve Dalachinsky
Seattle Anti-War Protest Photos - 15 Feb 2003
Approximately 50,000 (estimates range from 30,000
to 80,000) Seattle protesters marched in opposition to
war with Iraq.
Propaganda is information or ideas used to promote
or injure a cause, movement, nation, etc…
Your assignment is to create a propaganda poster or
pamphlet related to World War I, the war against
terrorism, an aspect of life at Athens, or some other
(approved) topic. Think of an appropriate slogan or
quote. You will then need to create an illustration for
your slogan. Finally, write a paragraph that describes
the slogan/quote and the significance/purpose of your
poster or pamphlet. You may be asked to share these
with the class. Have fun and be creative!
Getting started:
Brainstorm your cause. Ask yourself, “What do I want
to convince people to see or do?”
Ex: Student Council elections for freshmen just
occurred. Imagine you’re trying to convince someone
to vote for you
Now think of a strategy to do so: What will your
slogan be? What images will you use to persuade
others? Are you going to try to appeal to people’s
emotions or their logic? What other strategies will you
use: colors, language, design?
Or…. Imagine you have been commissioned to
design a propaganda poster to help your country
enlist young men for World War I. Design a
poster that is appropriate for your country
(keeping in mind specific colors, symbols, slogans
and values), and that you feel will persuade young
men to join the war. You may choose which
country you want to represent, so long as that
country participated in WWI.
Presentation (artwork and text)
Content (School/WWI related)
Written analysis
Chapter 4 Review Questions
1. How does the arrival at the front affect the soldier’s physical appearance?
2. What does Paul say about the Earth? What does it offer the soldiers and why
is this ironic?
3. An _________ instinct allows the men to survive on the front.
4. What must be done on a wiring fatigue?
5. Why do you think Remarque includes the scene with the horses?
6. What is ironic about using the cemetery for cover?
7. What do Kat and Paul nearly do to the recruit with the hip wound? Why?
8. Why does Paul say the rain falls in their hearts? The men have become like
what at the end of the chapter?
Chapter 5 Review Questions
1. How do the men kill lice?
2. Who is rumored to arrive and what does he expect from the group of
3. Why does Himmelstoss want to have Tjaden court-martialed?
4. What does Kropp say has happened to Paul’s classmates so far?
5. What does school have to do with the boys’ lives now?
6. How does Muller’s questioning show how the men’s lives be like when
they return to society?
7. What happens during the goose escapade? What do Paul and Kat decide
to do with the extras?
Chapter 6 Review Questions
1. What are the soldiers astonished about as they go towards the trenches to
begin the offensive?
2. What does Paul sah “hovers over” their lives? (p 101)
3. What animal do the soldiers have trouble with? What do they do about it?
4. What happens to one of the new recruits? Why are the veterans so worried
about it?
5. What does Paul daydream about while they are waiting to attack? How does he
feel about these daydreams?
6. What happens to one of the soldiers that bothers Paul and his comrades? (p
7. What occurs between Paul and Himmelstoss during battle?
8. How many men in Paul’s company survived the offensive?
Close Reading Practice
“The air becomes acrid with the smoke of the
guns and the fog. The fumes of powder taste
bitter on the tongue. The roar of the guns
makes our lorry stagger, the reverberation rolls
raging away to the rear, everything quakes. Our
faces change imperceptibly. We are not,
indeed, in the front-line, but only in the
reserves, yet in every face can be read: this is
the front, now we are within its embrace.” (p
What is TONE?
The writer's attitude toward the material and/or readers.
1. What would you say the overall tone of this paragraph
is? (Remember: tone is how the author feels about his/
her subject).
2. What three words in the passage are most important
to leading you to that tone?
3. Which word would change the paragraph the most if
you took it out?
4. What images do you see? How does the diction
contribute to this imagery?
5. Find another passage that you think shows a very clear
tone. Write down a paragraph that explains how it uses
diction, details and imagery to create this tone. Be
ready to share if asked.
Jump in Reading “Summer of 1918”
Directions: On your own, read the passage silently. Once you
are finished, look for words/phrases/sentences that you
believe express Remarque’s tone, portray a vivid image,
and/or serve as powerful diction in this passage.
Choose one word/phrase/sentence you find powerful, is
important to the meaning, that stands out, or that you think
doesn’t fit and write it at the top of a sheet of paper. Free
write using that word/phrase/sentence as a jumping off
Now I will read the passage aloud. Whenever I come
across the word/phrase/sentence you chose, READ WITH
ME. The effect is what they call a choral reading.
Jump in Reading “Summer of 1918”
What was the effect of the Jump-In reading? What
things were highlighted by the class?
Are there examples of any of the terms below in the
passage? Evaluate each of the terms and write down
any specific lines that show the term.
•Figurative language
“The Idea of Authority”
They write.
We saw the wounded and
They talk.
We knew the death-throes.
They teach.
We saw there was nothing
We trusted them.
We went courageously,
Then we learned to see.
We learned false from true.
Lads of eighteen,
A shattered generation,
All at once terribly alone.
They let us down so badly.
We trusted them.
No mutineers, no deserters, no
We trusted them.
The first death,
The first bombardment.
We trusted them—Our mistake.
Found Poetry
•Use only the words in the specified passage.
•You may use whole phrases or single words.
•You may change word order—so long as the words
remain the same.
•There is no set form—you may decide to make your
poem rhyme, have a certain rhythm, repeat words or
phrases, etc.
•There is no length requirement (but keep in mind that
short poems must be powerful!)
•Be creative!
Found Poetry
Group 1: page 26 beginning with “So we were put
through…” through “…comradeship” on 27.
Group 2: page 33 – “Outside the door…” through “…belly
Group 1: pg 286 beginning with “There are so many
airmen here” through “Must Paul.”
Group 2: pg 293 through pg 295 (Ch 12)
Found Poetry
•Read your poems aloud in your group and note differences and
similarities. Write these down!
•As a group, review which phrases or words were most
commonly used. Why do these terms seem significant? Be
prepared to share.
•What message or theme does your group think is represented by
your passage? Remember: a theme is generally not just one word!
•How does your poem relate to the novel or the larger issue of
war? Do you think poetry is better able to express abstract ideas
more so than fiction? Why or why not?