Palace of Assembly.

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Transcript Palace of Assembly.

Dr. Yasir Sakr
Brutalism architecture is a style of architecture which flourished from
the 1950s to the mid 1970s, spawned from the modernist
architectural movement.
Initially the style came about for government buildings, and it’s often from
concrete construction.
And it used also to construct low cost
Housing, and shopping centers to create
functional structures at a low cost.
After that it adopted to create college
Buildings for universities.
The term “Brutalism” derived from the
French phrase “buton brute” which a phrase
Used by Le Corbusier.
J. Edgar Hoover Building in
Washington, D.C.
Brutalism grew out of the Bauhaus Movement and the
béton brut buildings by Le Corbusier and his
Brutalism buildings usually are formed with striking
repetitive angular geometries.
Brutalism as an architectural philosophy, rather than a
style, was often also associated with a
socialist utopian ideology, which tended to be
supported by its designers
The best known early Brutalism architecture
is the work of the Swiss architect
Le Corbusier, in particular his
Unité d'Habitation (1952) and the 1953
Secretariat Building in Chandigarh, India.
Form follow function.
Rough and unfinished surface.
Precast concrete construction.
Low cost construction.
Quickly and economically constructed.
Massive shapes and sculptures.
Location: Marseille, France
Architect: Le Corbusier
Year :between 1947 and 1952.
Type : modernist residential
housing design.
The term “Unité d'Habitation” means (Housing Units).
The concept formed the basis of several housing developments
designed by him throughout Europe with this name, and to create
a whole neighbourhood in one building.
Le Corbusier created his own modular inspired from the human
proportions and the golden section.
This building is derived carefully from his modular.
In Le Corbusier book ‘’ Toward A New Architecture’’
He put the five principles of modern architecture in his vision.
 free
standing supports – pilots
 the
roof garden
 the
free plan
 the
ribbon window
 the
freely composed façade
 In
Unité d'Habitation Le Corbusier used
from the principles:
1. free standing supports
2. The roof Garden
 On
the top floor there is roof garden with
fantastic landscape, includes:
1. gymnasium and running track.
2. a nursery school.
3. tunnels and caves for children play in.
4. a swimming pool.
5. seats, cantilevered balcony.
6. restaurant.
3. The freely composed façade’.
•It’s taken carefully from
his modular.
carefully taken from the Modulor.
337 split-level apartments in 23 different types.
Apartments entered from wide internal corridors or
There are 18 floors.
About third of the way up, the internal corridor like a
a two storey shopping mall
Interior Shot
and Knowles
USA, Boston
 it is an example of the brutalism style.
 City Hall is part of the Government Centre complex, a major urban
redesign effort in the 1960s.
The designers designed City Hall as divided into three sections
the City Hall was designed to create an open and accessible place for
the city's government, with the most heavily used public activities all
located on the lower levels directly connected to the plaza.
 the architects sought to create a bold statement of modern civic
democracy, placed within the historic city of Boston.
Many of the elements in the design have been seen as abstractions of
classical design elements.
The lowest portion of the building, the brick-faced base,
which is partially built into a hillside, consists of four levels
of the departments of city government where the public has
wide access
The intermediate portion of City Hall houses the public
officials: the Mayor, the City Council members, and the
Council Chamber. The oversize scale and the protrusion of
these interior spaces on the outside—instead of burying
them deep within the building—reveal these important
public functions to the passerby, and create a visual and
symbolic connection between the city and its government.
The upper stories contain the city’s office space, used by
civil servants not visited frequently by the public, such as
the administrative and planning departments.
The top of the brick
base was designed as
an elevated courtyard
melding the fourth
floor of the city hall
with the plaza.
Because of security
concerns, city officials
in recent years
blocked access to the
courtyard and to the
outdoor stairways
to Congress Street and
the plaza.
City Hall was constructed using mainly cast-in-place and
precast Portland cement concrete and some masonry. About half
of the concrete used in the building was precast.
Architect: Alison and Peter
Location: Poplar, London
Year: in the late 1960s.
Architectural School: Brutalism
It was intended as an example of the 'streets in the sky' concept:
social housing characterised by broad aerial walkways in long
concrete blocks, much like the Park Hill estate in Sheffield; it was
both informed by, and a reaction against Le Corbusier, 's Unite
. It covers about two hectares and consists of two long blocks, one
of ten storeys, the other of seven, built from precast concrete slabs
and containing 213 flats
It’s on Brutalist Architecture.
The campaign to save Robin Hood Gardens drew very little
support from those who actually had to live in the building, with
more than 75% of residents supporting its demolition when
consulted by the local authority
YEAR: 1964.
The spate of college and university construction on both sides of
the Atlantic during the past few years has already produced a just
dividend of worthy buildings.
Architect :Goldfinger, Ernö
location : london,England
Year : 1972
Building Type:
Row house
Slab, gallery access
skip stop,Tower
Exterior Finish Materials:
concrete, wood, metal
Construction Type:
poured concrete cross walls, pre-cast
The original idea of prewar
architects was for apartment blocks
set in parkland and containing all the
facilities that people and their
families would need
•the sound-proofing (Goldfinger
wanted double glazing to help
control the noise from the trains
leading into Pancreas Station
•lighting, windows that pivoted for
•large rooms, individual fan-coil
units for heating and there were
spectacular views across London
Goldfinger used proportional systems in
his buildings applying a modular grid
and regulating lines to achieve more
harmonious results. Apparently, the
added 4 floors in Trellick and the
repositioning of the horizontal band of
maisonettes were done to improve the
overall proportions over Balfron. The
rendered axonometrics that were an
office trademark showcase the precise
proportions of these deep, gridded
The circulation element is rendered as a separate
small tower and, in addition to elevators and stairs,
contains mechanical equipment, including the
boiler, as well as shared community spaces. The
bridge elements between slab and tower are
insulated with neoprene pads to achieve sound
and vibration isolation. The opposite end of the
building is expressed as a vertical zone of walls
and different windows reflecting the presence of
the 2nd stair and a zone of different dwellings that
occupy the end of the building as compared to the
side. Goldfinger was critical of the shopping floors
in the Marseille block. But he included a zone of
marionettes with “pulpit” balconies at the twothirds point in Trellick--that is expressed as a
horizontal interruption to the vertical continuity of
the south façade. The gallery facades are
expressed as alternating horizontal bands of
gallery windows or fully glazed dwellings
The sectional organization features
an enclosed gallery at every 3rd
floor with entrance and stairs to
flats or maisonettes above and
below the access level. The
galleries connect to a detached
vertical circulation tower with
bridges at every 3rd floor. The
circulation element is rendered as
a separate small tower and, in
addition to elevators and stairs,
contains mechanical equipment,
including the boiler, as well as
shared community spaces
The Trellick tower is a SOCIAL CONDENSER
because, as these type of buildings do, it
-Residential buildings with a service
programme associated to the dwellings
-Public initiative
-Isolated location in the urban fabric
-Exclusive use of the service programme by
The Engineering Building comprises large ground-level
workshops (heavy machinery), covering most of the available site,
and a vertical ensemble consisting of office and laboratory towers,
lecture theaters and lift and staircase shafts
The work of James Stirling is permeated by a mannerist taste for
distortion and paradox, especially at the Engineering School in
Leicester (1960-3), where the diversity of forms, expressive of the
internal functions of the building, is a pretext for the liveliest
interplay of masses.
It has been cited in a new national list of famous structures.
The Engineering Building was the first
post-Modernist building in the UK.
The top storey of the tower, the 11th
floor, is a water tank .
The idea for the building came two
years after the university was granted its
Royal Charter in 1957.
 Aim: the university wanted a building
which reflected the confidence of a
newly independent university and an
eagerness to embrace the modern and
the innovative.
One of Le Corbusier‘s most
prominent buildings
from India, the Palace of the
Assembly in Chandigarh
boasts his major architectural
philosophies and style. Le
Corbusier‘s five points of
architecture can be found
within the design from its
open plan to the view of the
Himalayan landscape. The
program features a circular
assembly chamber, a forum
for conversation and
transactions, and stair-free
 The
first of Le Corbusier’s architectural ideals
is the use of pilotis to lift the structure off of
the ground. Reinforced concrete columns are
utilized in a grid throughout the Palace of the
Assembly and are slightly altered to raise a
large swooping concrete form high above the
This form represents
the second point of Le
Cobusier’s list– a free
facade. Pilotis allow the
form to express the
grandiose release of
space precisely as
Corbusier intended.
The other various
facades of the building
also bestow the free
facade via brise-soleil
formed from the
golden ratio.
 Le
Corbusier used
his own paints in the
interior design of the
 Inside, the
Palace of the Assembly houses an
open plan structured by the grid of reinforced
concrete columns. Again, this structural pattern
allows Le Corbusier to manipulated the
program freely and place offices and other
private programming along the outside of the
plan and leave the center open for public use
On top of the building
lies an accessible roof
supported by the pilotis.
Providing usable space
on the roof of a structure
complies with Le
Corbusier’s fifth ideal of
architecture by giving
occupants vertical means
of connecting to nature
and compensating for
the habitat removed by
the building.
 water
existed in the indian /
hindu mythology –
many of their
buildings were
floating over water
 The arches were
taken from bulls.