Abraham is the patriarch (father) of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

Download Report

Transcript Abraham is the patriarch (father) of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Ancient Hebrews/Israelites
• The Hebrews were an ancient tribe who lived in
Canaan (area between the Jordan river and Red Sea)
Patriarch (next to Monotheism)
• Abraham is the patriarch (father) of Judaism,
Christianity, and Islam
▫ According to holy scripture G-d told Abraham to
move his people from Mesopotamia to Canaan
around 1800BC.
▫ Go from your country and your kindred and your
fathers house to the land I will show you. I will
make you a great nation, and I will bless you,
and make your name great.
Abram lived long ago in
the land of Canaan and
one day the Lord came to
Abram and said,
“Abram, get out of your
country, and out of your
father's house, and go to
the land that I will show
The Lord promised him,
“I will make of you a great
nation, and I will bless
you, and make your name
great; and you will be a
So Abram packed up all of
his belongings; took Sarai,
his wife, Lot, his nephew, all
of his servants and all of his
cattle and left for a new
Abraham and his family
traveled a long way passing
through towns and villages.
When they reached the land
the Lord appeared to Abram
again and said, “I will give
this land to your children.”
And Abram said, " God,
what will You give me?
I am childless..."
And the Lord said,
"Look now toward
heaven, and tell the
stars; if you are able to
number them: so your
children will be."
Abram didn’t really know
what G-d meant because
he had no children of his
own, but he trusted G-d
and knew G-d would give
him children.
Now, Sarai Abram's
wife did not have any
children. So Sarai
suggested Hagar give
him a child.
But as soon as Hagar
bore him a child, she
did not respect Sarai
• And just as the G-d had
said, Hagar had a son.
Abram called his son
Years passed quickly
and before long Abram
was ninety-nine years
The Lord appeared to
Abram again like so
many times before.
G-d said, “I am
almighty G-d ; I have
promised that you will
be the father of many
nations. From now on
you will be called
Abraham and your wife
Sarai will be called
Sarah. I will bless her
with a son.”
Later the Lord visited
Sarah as He said he
would, and Sarah had
a son.
They named their son
Sarah and Abraham
sent Hagar and Ishmael
away, and they allowed
Isaac to rule their land.
Isaac’s people were the
Hebrew tribes.
Ishmael had his own
land. His people were
the Arab tribes.
• Believing in only one G-d
• Hebrews call G-d Yahweh
▫ They do not believe he is a
“person” but something higher
▫ They do not create paintings or
other depictions of him
The Covenant – Wherever you have
• Jews believe that they have made a
covenant (or agreement) with G-d.
▫ As long as they remain faithful to G-d,
G-d will always protect them. This was
believed to be a deal that G-d made with
• Hebrews left Canaan because of a drought and went to
• The Egyptians did not welcome them and forced them
to work for many years as slaves.
• A man named Moses lead them out of Egypt and
claimed he was guided by G-d.
▫ This was called “The Exodus”
 Jews leaving Egypt, guided by
 This remembered in the Jewish
holiday of Passover.
The Ten Commandments – Sacred Text
• Moses was contacted by G-d on Mt. Sinai.
• Set of laws for the Israelites to follow.
• G-d gave Moses the Ten Commandments, the basis for
both Judaism and Christianity.
1. I am the Lord your G-d…You shall have no other G-d
but me.
2. You shall not make yourself a sculptured image.
3. You shall not swear falsely by the name of the Lord your
4. Remember the Sabbath day and keep it holy.
5. Honor your father and mother.
6. You shall not murder.
7. You shall not commit adultery.
8. You shall not steal.
9. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.
10. You shall not covet your neighbors wife.
Sacred Text
• Hebrew Bible
▫ Torah
 First five books of the Bible
 Origins of humanity
▫ Prophets
 Stories about and written by Jewish
 Explains Jewish history
▫ Writings
 A collection of various writings
• Jews believe that that you
serve G-d by studying the
Torah (first five books of the
Bible) and following its
• Jews worship G-d in Synagogue.
• Services are lead by Rabbi’ on Saturdays
• Jewish men are not supposed to leave their head
uncovered, so they wear a Yarmulke out of respect
for G-d.
• No beef or pork.
• Any meat must be killed in accordance with Jewish
• All blood must be drained from meat and poultry or
broiled out of it before it is eaten.
• Certain parts of permitted animals may not be eaten.
• Fruits and vegetables are permitted, but must be
inspected for bugs (which cannot be eaten)
• Meat cannot be eaten with dairy.
• Utensils that have come into contact with meat may
not be used with dairy, and vice versa.
Ritually slaughtered beef, sheep,
Pork, camel, rabbit, rodents,
goats and deer with no flaws or reptiles, and any animal that died
of natural causes
Chicken, turkey, quail, geese
Eagle, hawk, vulture
Salmon, tuna, carp, herring, cod
Crab, lobster, octopus, clam,
swordfish, sturgeon
Meat eaten separately from dairy
Meat with dairy (e.g.,
cheeseburger, burger with
milkshake, chicken cordon bleu,
wiener schnitzel, etc.)
Wine or grape juice made under
Any other wine and grape juice
Jewish supervision
Soft cheese and kosher hard
Most hard cheese
Kosher Kitchen
Types of Judaism
Those who are the
most strict in
their practices.
Those who are the
less strict in their
• After Ishmael left Abraham he established his own
group of people, The Arab Tribes.
• They continued to worship the monotheistic G-d as
taught to him by his father Abraham.
▫ They call this G-d Allah
• Muhammad is the founder of Islam.
▫ He was a spiritual man who prayed and meditated
• One day-while praying-the Angel Gabriel came to
Muhammad and reaffirmed to him that he should
only worship the One G-d. Gabriel also had him
write down the revelation in the Quran.
▫ Gabriel wanted Muhammad to spread the word of Gd to the polytheistic Arabs.
• Those who followed the word of
Muhammad were called Muslims
 Islam=Someone who follows G-d (Allah)
 Muslims=Someone who practices Islam
Basic Beliefs: Five Pillars of Islam
(next to Hajj)
• Faith: Muslims begin prayer with the phrase
“There is no G-d but Allah, and Muhammad is
the Messenger of Allah”
• Prayer: Muslims pray five times a day
• Alms: Giving money to the less fortunate
• Fasting: During the holy month of Ramadan,
Muslims fast between dawn and sunset.
• Pilgrimage: All Muslims (who are able to)
must travel to Mecca once in their lives.
Way of Life
• Muslims do not eat pork or drink alcohol
• Friday afternoons are sacred and set aside for
• There are no priests or central religious authority
▫ Imam (the community religious leader)
• All Muslims are encouraged to communicate with
G-d directly through prayer and Faith
Sacred Text
• The Qur’an
▫ G-ds teachings and history of Muslims
• Jews always stated that
they believed that one
day G-d would send a
Messiah (savior) to
• When Jesus of Nazareth
was born, some Jews
believed he was the
Messiah (by Christians)
and some did not think
he was
Rise of Christianity – Next to Simon
Peter/New Testament
• Embracing all people
• Gave hope to the hopeless
• Appealed to those who were disgusted with the
wealth of Rome
• Offered a personal relationship with G-d
• Promised eternal life after death
• One of the last emperors
(Constantine) claimed that he had
a vision of a cross.
• Constantine made Christianity the
official religion of Rome
▫ Ended persecution of Christians
▫ Put crosses on the shields of
The EARLY Christian Church
Bishop Bishop
Divisions of Christianity
Write Catholic beside Clergy and Protestant beside laity
• Pope is the leader of the
church (for the world)
• Also pray to and recognize the
• Salvation by faith and
sacraments (holy rites of
• Church and bible tradition are
sources of truth
• Worship service is based on
• Priests interpret Bible and
Church for believers
• Ministers lead congregations
▫ No world leader
• Salvation is by faith alone
• Bible is the sole source of truth
• Worship services is focused on
preaching and ritual
• Believers interpret the Bible
for themselves.
Basic Beliefs – by New Testament
• Sacred Text: The Bible
• Jesus was the Messiah
• All can reach salvation through prayer and
• One should follow the teachings of the Bible
including the Ten Commandments