Handout - Ministries of New Life

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Transcript Handout - Ministries of New Life

Lesson 16
Reformation Age
1517 – 1648
Dead Church
Present Day Turkey
He has all power and
authority over the
strengthen what is
about to die.”
Apostolic Age
30 – 100 A.D.
Persecution Age
100 – 313 A.D.
Imperial Age
313 – 606 A.D.
Papacy Age
606 - 1517 A.D.
“You have forsaken the love
you had at first.”
Ignatius of Antioch 40-115 A.D., Ante-Nicene
Church Father, wrote, “Now, if anyone preaches
Judaism to you, pay no attention to him.”
Alexander Roberts & James Donaldson, eds., The
Ante-Nicene Fathers; Translations of the Writings of
the 10 Vols Ignatius Philippians 14, 5,6,
Ante-Nicene Church Fathers
Writings 100 – 313 A.D.
Origen 185 - 254 A.D.
Origen is credited as the father of the
allegorical method of interpretation. He
made allegory the only way to truly
understand the Scriptures.
PERGAMUM – 313 – 606 A. D.
When Constantine in the fourth century,
made Christianity the official religion of the
Roman Empire, the Hebraic Ways were
treated with greater disdain and Jewish
persecutions intensified.
JOHN CHRYSOSTOM 347– 407, Nicene
Church Father. He initiated Adversus Judaeo
(anti-Judaic) sermon genre. “Jews must live in
servitude forever...God always hated Jews. It is
incumbent upon all Christians to hate Jews....Don’t
you realize if the Jewish rites are holy and veneable, our way of life must be false?”
“ST. AUGUSTINE held all Jews responsible
for killing Christ but unlike those before him
he held they should be treated like Cain, that
is, not murdered (though Catholics violated
this restriction time and again), but made to suffer as
living witnesses to their ‘crime.’ ” Cited in Robert
Michael, A History of Catholic Antisemitism P. 2
Anti-Hebraism Conceived At Ephesus / Smyrna
Breeds Anti-Judaism, Anti-Semitism At
Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis
The Inquisitions presented the Jews with an ultimatum,
Christian baptism or death. At the hands of Inquisitor
Tomas de Torquemada terror invaded the land. From
town to town he hunted down Conversos, Jews who
had accepted conversion but secretly practiced Judaism. The Jews faced mobs, massacres and martyrdom. In twelve years the Inquisition discovered and
consigned to death by fire more than 13,000 men and
women who had been converted to Roman Christianity
accused of practicing Judaism secretly. Cited in Chaim
Potok, Wanderings, History of the Jews, p. 415
Christianity’s Controversy with Judaism
Expressed in Anti-Semitic Diatribes and Atrocities
Potok relates, “The Inquisitions continued to seek out
those who practiced Judaism secretly....Their lives
were edged with the constant dread of exposure.”
Neighbors were encouraged to report any acquaitance who showed “a reluctance to eat pork, the
lighting of candles on Friday evening, the observance
of certain fast days, the absence of smoke from
chimney on the Sabbath—Jewish law forbids the
making of a fire on the day of rest—these were
telltale signs of possible secret Jews.” p. 416-417
Popes In Defense of the Jews
Pope Innocent IV appointed a committee to study
the issue in 1247. It was established that there was
no truth in the Blood Libel allegations and that Jewish
law strictly forbids the consumption of blood.
Pope Gregory X in 1275 published a letter ordering
that no Jew should be arrested under such silly pretexts. He further demanded that no Christian should
‘stir up anything against the Jews.’
Pope Nicholas IV 1291issued a papal bull that the
church would not tolerate Christian injury to Jews.
Four other popes denounced Blood Libel but others
were not as supportive. Cited in Walter Laqueur The
Changing Face of Antisemitism p.56
Christian Persecution of Jews
1505 Jews from Worms, Germany
wear the mandatory yellow badge. A
moneybag and garlic in the hands,
an antisemitic stereotype.
Ten Czech Jews were tortured and executed after being accused of killing a Christian girl. On his death bed,
a shepherd confessed to fabricating the accusation.
1506 April 19 – Lisbon, Portugal. A marrano expresses his doubts about miracle visions at St. Dominics
Church. The crowd, led by Dominican monks, kills him,
then ransacks Jewish house, slaughtering any Jew
they could find. The countrymen hear about the
massacre and join in. Over 2,000 marranos killed in
three days.
Christian Persecution of Jews
1510 July 19 – Forty Jews are executed in Brandenburg, Germany for allegedly desecrating the host;
remaining Jews expelled. 23 November, 38 Jews
burned at the stake in Berlin.
1511 – June 6 - Eight Roman Catholic converts from
Judaism burned at the stake for allegedly reverting.
1516 – The Church initiated the ghetto in Venice, the
first in Christian Europe.
1519 – Martin Luther leads Protestant Reformation...
“deal kindly with the Jews that they come over to us.”
1528 – Three judaizers are burned at the stake in
Mexico City’s first auto da fe.
Christian Persecution of Jews
1535 – After Spanish troops capture Tunis, all the
local Jews are sold into slavery.
1543 – Martin Luther released his pamphlet On the
Jews and Their Lies, (convert or suffer expulsion).
1547 – Ivan the Terrible becomes ruler of Russia,
refuses to allow Jews to live or even enter his kingdom because they “bring about great evil.”
1553 – Pope Julius III forbids Talmud printing, burns
any found. Inquisitor Cardinal Carafa (later Pope Paul
IV) had Talmud publicly burnt in Rome on Rosh Hashanah, starting a wave of Talmud burning throughout Italy. About 12,000 copies were destroyed.
Martin Luther 1483 – 1546
Continues Christian Persecution of the Jews
The Jewish Virtual Library Addresses
Martin Luther’s Attitude and Actions:
“Luther used violent and vulgar language throughout
his career. While we do not expect religious figures to
use this sort of language in the modern world, but it
was not uncommon in the early 16th century.”
Martin Luther Wrote,
On The Jews and Their Lies (1543),
frequently reprinted during the Nazi era.
Martin Luther 1483 – 1546
Continues Christian Persecution of the Jews
Walter Laqueur The Changing Face of AntiSemitism writes, “Martin Luther at the beginning of his career had entertained hopes that the Jews
would be converted to his new creed and stressed in
particular that Jesus had been born a Jew—a fact
frequently ignored in church discourse. But he did not
win converts among the Jews and in later years turned
sharply against them. His views are of considerable
importance because they helped to shape the outlook
of the Protestant churches up to the twentieth century,
through his pamphlet entitled On The Jews and Their
Lies (1543).”
Martin Luther Continues Roman Church
Persecution of the Jews
Laqueur further states, “Luther was a highstrung man who felt persecuted all his life by
various kinds of demons; he believed in the power of
prayer to make Satan disappear. But to be quite safe,
he also threw inkpots at the satanic apparitions that
came to visit him. No wonder therefore that Luther
turned against the children of the devil, the Jews.
‘What shall we do,’ he asked, ‘with this damned, rerejected, blasphemous, accursed, evil, poisonous
race?’ He observed that the Jews had been punished
‘a thousand times more than we might wish them.’ but
all this seemed insufficient...” hence he wrote his 1543
pamphlet.” p. 63
Martin Luther 1543 Pamphlet “On the Jews...”
“Their synagogues should be burned....Their homes
should also be destroyed and they all be put under
one roof or stable...’that they realize that they are but
miserable captives.’ They should be deprived of their
prayer books and Talmud, and their rabbis should be
forbidden under threat of death to teach any more.
They should not be given travel permits for they had
no business to take them into the countryside. All
roads should be closed to them and they should be
forced to stay at home. Jews should not be protected
by the authorities and everything should be done to
free the world of this insufferable, devilish burden—
‘our plague, pestilence and misfortune.’ ” Walter
Laqueur p.64.
Martin Luther continued
Robert Michael in A History of Catholic Antisemitism
writes, “The former Augustinian priest Martin Luther
was especially influential in regard to the Jews. His
enormous corpus of work...polemical fashion ‘was the
most popularly read man of his age’ --and perhaps the
most antisemitic. Luther held that by the mere fact of
their existence, Jews were a threat to Christians
everywhere; as active opponents of Christ, they did
not deserve tolerance. In his later writings, he devel
oped the medieval Catholic anti-Jewish defamations
and held that Jews were unconvertible and should be
slain. His program on how German leaders should
deal with the Jews—attack the rabbis, Talmud, and
synagogues...force them into labor; expel or murder
them was followed...by Adolf Hitler.” p. 102
Robert Michael continues on Martin Luther
“We must not consider the mouth of the Jews as
worthy of uttering the name of God within our hearing.
He who hears this name from a Jew must inform the
authorities, or else throw sow dung at him when he
sees him and chase him away. And may no one be
merciful and kind in this regard....Just as you see the
Jew praying...nevertheless, their prayers turn into sin.
We are even at fault in not avenging all this innocent
blood of our Lord and of the Christians which they
shed for 300 years after the destruction of Jerusalem,
and the blood of the children they have shed since
then (which still shines forth from their eyes and their
skin). We are at fault in not slaying them.” p.102-103
Sardis Age - John Calvin 1509 - 1564
Laqueur writes, “For the Calvinists, the seed of
Abraham was part of the body of Christ. The
Jews were God’s first-born, and the grace of divine
calling could not be made void. Calvin even expressed
‘great affection for the Jews;’ and said that ‘our
differences with them were purely theological’ ”
Robert Michael’s view, “Calvin observed that ‘the
degenerate and unlimited stubbornness [of the Jews]
has served to justify their unending accumulation of
misery without limit and without measure.” p.101-102
Conclusion: Calvin breaks with a long-standing tradition of Christian anti-Jewish exegesis of the Old
Testament. However, in the end Calvin does not
escape the anti-Judaism of his day.
Sardis Age - Christian Persecution of Jews
1555 – In a Papal Bull, Pope Paul IV writes: “It
appears utterly absurd and impermissible that the
Jews, whom God has condemned to eternal slavery
for their guilt, should enjoy our Christian love.” He
renews anti-Jewish legislation and installs a locked
nightly ghetto in Rome and forces Jewish males to
wear a yellow hat, females, yellow kerchief.
1563 February – Russian troops take Polotsk from
Lithuania; Jews are given ultimatum: embrace
Russian Orthodox Church or die. Around 300 Jewish
men, women and children were thrown into ice holes
of Dvina river.
Dark Age - Christian Persecution of Jews
1564 – Brest-Litovsk, the son of a wealthy Jewish tax
collector, is accused of killing the family’s Christian
servant for ritual purposes. He is tortured and executed in line with the law.
1590 – Jewish quarter of Nikolsburg burns; 15 (Jews)
die while Christians watch or pillage.
Seventeenth Century
1608 – Jesuit order forbids admission to anyone
descended from Jews to the fifth generation, was not
lifted until the 20th century.
1612 – Hamburg Senate allows Jews to live in Hamburg on condition there is no worship.
1614 –August 23 Frankfurt expelled Jews “1380 old
and young were counted at the exit of the gate.”
Letter to
Overcomers will be
~ Clothed in White
Garments and
~ Their names secure
in the Book of Life and
~ Messiah will confess
their names before His
Father (3:5)
“To the angel of
the church in
write: ‘The words
of the Holy One,
True One, Who has the Key of David,
opens the doors of witness and service that no
man can shut. The doors He shuts no man can
open.’ ” Rev 3:7
1664 – Jews of Lemberg (Lvov) ghetto organize selfdefense against impending assault by students of
Jesuit seminary. The militia sent to restore order,
instead they joined attackers. About 100 Jews killed.
1670 – Jews expelled from Vienna.
Eighteenth Century
1711 – Johann Andreas Eisenmenger writes Judaism
Unmasked, a work denouncing Judaism which had a
formative influence on modern antisemitic polemics.
1742 – Elizabeth of Russia issued decree of expulsion
of all Jews out of Russian Empire. Her resolution to
the Senate’s appeal regarding harm to the trade: “I do
not desire any profits from the enemies of Christ.”
Philadelphia 1648 - 1900
Eighteenth Century
1744 – Archduchess of Austria Maria Theresa orders,
“...no Jew is to be tolerated in our inherited duchy of
Bohemia.” In December 1748 she reversed her position, on condition Jews pay for readmission every ten
years. In 1758 she introduced a law limiting each
Jewish family to one son.
1750 – Frederick II The Great (“heroic genius,” according to Hitler) issues a document on general privileges and regulation for Jews. They had an alternative to “either abstain from marriage or leave Berlin”
(Simon Dubnow).
1768 – Twenty thousand Jews, killed in Poland.
1782 – Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II abolishes most of persecutions against the Jews on condition that Yiddish and Hebrew are eliminated from
public records and judicial autonomy is annulled.
Judaism is branded, “quintessence of foolishness
and nonsense. Moses Mendelssohn wrote, “Such
a tolerance...is even more dangerous play in
tolerance than open persecution.”
Nineteenth Century
1805 – Massacre of Jews in Algeria.
1815 – Pope Pius VII re-establishes the ghetto in
Rome after the defeat of Napoleon.
1827 – Russia employs compulsory military service for Jewish boys under 18 years. The preparatory training lasted 25 years. They were encouraged and sometimes forced to be baptized.
1844 – Karl Marx published a degrading work, On the
Jewish Question; conclusion: “In the final analysis, the
emancipation of the Jews is the emancipation of
mankind from Judaism.” “...ultimately, it is mankind
(both Christians and Jews that needs to emancipate
itself from ("practical") Judaism.” Cited, Wikipedia
1858 – Edgardo Mortara, a six year Jewish boy
whom a maid baptized during an illness, is taken from
his parents in Bologna.
1862 – During the American Civil War General Grant
issues Order No. 11 commanding all Jews out of his
military district, suspecting them of pro-Confederate
sympathy. President Lincoln directed him to rescind
the order.
1871 – Pope Pius IX - speech regarding Jews, “of
these dogs, there are too many of them at present in
Rome, and we hear them howling in the streets, and
they are disturbing us in all places.”
1878 – Adolf Stoecker, German antisemitic preacher and politician, found the Christian Social Party,
which initially marked the political antisemitic movement in Germany.
1879 – Wilhelm Marr introduces the term AntiSemitism to distinguish himself from the religious
position Anti-Judaism.
1881 – Pogroms Begin. “The word is of Russian
origin. It designates attack, accompanied by destruction, looting of property, murder, rape. There were
three major outbreaks in Russia. The word designates more particularly the attacks carried out by the
Christian population. Each pogrom surpassed the
other in savagery.” Laureen Moe, Canadian, ICEJ
1881 – Kiev, Odessa, The murder of whole families
was a common occurrence. Partial data is available
for 530 communities in which 887 major pogroms and
349 minor pogroms occurred. There were 60,000
dead and several times that many were wounded.
1882, September 11-12, The First Anti-Jewish
Congress in Dresden, Germany. “Manifesto to the
Governments and Peoples of the Christian Nations
Threatened by Judaism.”
1893 – Karl Lueger established
antisemitic Christian Social Party.
He became mayor of Vienna in 1897.
1895 – Alfred Dreyfus Affair. Dreyfus
was a French Army Captain, the only Jew
serving France. He was framed by a fellow
officer for allegedly giving secrets to the
enemy. He was arrested and tried for treason and
sentenced to life imprisonment. Eventually Emile Zola
took up the fight, proclaiming Dreyfus innocent and
publishing an open letter to the President of France
titled “I ACCUSE.” Dreyfus was eventually declared
unjustly convicted by the Parliament of France.
Theodore Herzl (1860 – 1904) During the
trumped-up trial, a Jewish journalist took
notice. He was the man that was to lead
the Jews back to their Homeland. Herzl called European Jewry together in Basle, Switzerland in 1897.
Historical Overlay of the Epistle to Philadelphia
Herzl predicted the Jews would be back in
“the Land” of Palestine “within 50 years.” In
1947, exactly fifty years later, the United
Nations passed the “Resolution for The
Partition of Palestine.” This led to the Declaration of Israel’s Statehood on May 14, 1948.
At the Dreyfus Trial, hearing shouts of “death to the
Jews,” Herzl became convinced that the only solution
was the exodus of Jews from the lands where they
were disbursed back to their Homeland. Out of the
suffering of the Dreyfus family came the State of
Israel. Herzl became the father of Political Zionism
and founder of the World Zionist organization.
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion or The
Protocols of the Meetings of the Learned Elders of
Zion were privately published in Russia in 1887 at the
time of the Dreyfus Affair. They were known to be an
antisemitic forgery purporting a Jewish plan for global
domination. They went public in 1905 and were used
by anti-Semites throughout the nations. The spread of
the publications brought untold suffering for the Jewish
people worldwide. Cited, Jewish Virtual Library
Johann Bengel (1687-1752) was a Lutheran
clergyman and Greek scholar. He diligently
pursued the treasures of the Apocalypse. He
wrote, “The whole structure of Revelation
breathes the art of God...” Dr. Bengel stressed ministers should unlock the first three chapters of Revelation
before going further into the Apocalypse.
John Nelson Darby (1800-1882) was a
gifted Bible teacher and highly esteemed
among the Plymouth Brethren. Some consider him to be the father of modern Dispensationalism
and Futurism. His teaching began to awaken believers
to the prominent role of Israel in Scripture. He was one
of the first to recognize certain passages were for Israel
while others were to the Church, the Body of Christ.
Jonathan Edwards 1703-1758
John Wesley 1703-1791
George Whitefield (1714-1770)
William Carey 1761-1834
David Livingston 1813-1899
D.L. Moody 1837-1899
Some of the servants the Spirit called nationally
and internationally to be preachers, missionaries,
evangelists declaring the “Good News.”
Joseph Seiss 1823-1904 was a Lutheran
minister and pulpit orator known for his
writings on Dispensationalism. He stressed
Israel in Biblical prophecy. His book on
Revelation continues to be in demand.
Cyrus Ingerson Scofield 1834 – 1921
was a theologian and minister. His annotated Bible popularized Futurism and
Dispensationalism among fundamentalist Christians. Futurism and Dispensational theology
was systematized in the early nineteenth century with
contributions from John Nelson Darby. The theology
embraces a literal interpretation of Biblical text unless
otherwise indicated, such as apocalyptic passages, i.e.,
Ezekiel and Revelation. Biblical covenants are viewed
as everlasting. Prophecy secures Israel’s future restoration with their Messiah to reign over the twelve tribes
from the City of Jerusalem.
Returning to our first Love, Messiah/Word.
The just shall
live by faith
Literal Interpretation
Church / Israel Restored
In the beginning was the Messiah/the Word, and the
Messiah/the Word was with the Father/God, and the
Messiah/the Word was the Father/God. John 1:1
Christ the
Messiah is the
Head of the
Church, His
Body , and is
Himself its
Savior. Eph 5:23
Will we walk with
Him through the
seven epistles?
Will we hear
what His Spirit is
saying to His
Body / Church?
Will be kept from
the Great Tribulation
that is coming upon
the whole earth.
Rev 3:10
The Father’s Name,
Name of His City,
Christ Messiah’s
New Name Rev 3:12