Egypt - mrwilliamsworld

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Transcript Egypt - mrwilliamsworld

• Anything in red (STOP and pay close attention)
is critical information and should be copied
• Anything written in yellow (slow down and pay
attention) is useful information. You should
write it in your notes like a text message.
• Anything in green (go on to the next point) you
do not have to write.
• Any time you see a video with no text it is your
responsibility to write notes for it.
Land of the Pharaohs
• Civilization begins c. 3500 B.C.E.
– What does the “c.” mean?
– What about “B.C.E.”?
Circa or “about”
Before Common Era
• Nile River and Nile Delta in Africa
– A delta is where a river empties into a
larger body of water in a triangular pattern
• Cairo is the current capital
• Ancient capitals were
Memphis, Amarna, and
• The Nile Delta
was where the
Hebrews settled
during the time of
Joseph (aka land
of Goshen).
Ya, so what?
• Why settle along a river?
– Because it gave them a fresh water source
– It provided some protection
– It was good farmland.
Using the map provided,
locate and label the
following locations:
1. Thebes
2. Giza
3. Nile River
4. Nubia
5. Red Sea
6. Libyan Desert
7. Mediterranean Sea
8. Palestine
9. Memphis
10.Lower Egypt
Using the map
provided, locate and
label the following
1. Phoenicians
2. Egyptians
3. Palestinians
4. Assyrians
5. Persians
6. Nubians
7. Hittites
• People who were literate were held in a
special place of honor.
– What does “literate” mean?
• A person who could read or write
• In the Old Kingdom, fathers would teach
their sons
• In the Middle Kingdom, schools similar
to vocational schools today were set up.
• Egyptians were polytheistic
– Worshipped many gods
• They saw their gods as beneficial and good
– Contrast that to the Sumerian gods who were
cruel and harsh.
Religious Symbols
• Mummification
– Much of the religion was focused on the after-life
– Mummification was a process used to preserve
the body in preparation for the after-life.
Statuettes and canopic jars were for the mummy to use
in the after-life.
Egyptian Government
• Originally had 2 kingdoms
– Upper Egypt in the south and Lower Egypt in the
• United c. 3200 BC by King Menes
– Created a dynasty (hereditary family rule)
Egyptian Government
• 4 political periods in Egypt
– Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom,
and Late Period.
The Old Kingdom
• Old Kingdom was from c. 2650 – 2180 BCE
– Why are the dates backwards?
• Pharaoh (king) was now a god-king
– Stratification of society
• Kings, royal family, priests, nobles, and peasants
• Old Kingdom was destroyed by civil wars
– The nobles rose up against the Pharaoh.
Circle of Civilization
The Middle Kingdom
• c. 2040 – 1760 BCE
• This was a time of major contributions to art
and literature
• Dynasty fell due to civil wars again!
The New Kingdom
• c. 1570 – 1070 BCE
• Was the peak of
Egyptian power
• Pharaohs included
Ahmose, Hatshepsut,
Akhenaton, and
The Late Period
• c. 664 – 323 BCE
• During this time period, Egypt was ruled by
native Egyptians, Persians, and, finally, by
Alexander the Great
• Death of a once great empire.
• Technological advances were seen especially
in art and architecture during the Egyptian
• The Great Sphinx was constructed c. 2500
BCE, but no one knows for sure
– Nobody really knows what the purpose of the
Sphinx was either. Archaeologists speculate that
it may have been a temple or object of worship
to the sun god Ra or even the pharaoh.
The Great Sphinx
The Pyramids
• Supposedly, the first pyramids were called
“step pyramids”
• The architect that first designed them (as far
as we know) was Imhotep.
The Pyramids
• Imhotep
– Architect of the pyramids in Egypt
– Was deified after his death
• What does deified mean?
• Worshipped as a god
– You may remember him from The Mummy
The Pyramids
• Giza is where a
number of
pyramids and
other structures
are found.
The Pyramids
• Then the other pyramids were constructed as
the later architects improved the design
• The pyramids were designed to be tombs for
the pharaohs to protect their bodies in
preparation for the after-life
• In later years, the pyramids and other
buildings were constructed by Hebrew slaves.
The Pyramids
• Many of the pyramids have dead ends and
traps to protect the pharaohs from looters
• They also have star observatories for use by
the pharaoh in the after-life.
Temple of Ra
• Merchants would trade with other countries
including Israel, Sumer, Akkad, Phoenicia,
and Nubia
• Greater trade required more skilled workers
and specialization
– Means people work at only one job instead of
The Civilizations of the Levant
• Phoenicians
– They lived on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea
– Sailors and merchants
– Out of necessity, they developed an alphabet for
accounts and letters of credit.
The Civilizations of the Levant
• Israel
– People called Jews/Hebrews
– Were monotheistic
• This means?
– Their holy book was the Torah
Old Testament of Christianity.
• This is the ____________
The Civilizations of the Levant
• Abram (Abraham)
– Came from Ur of the Chaldees (along the
Euphrates River)
– Led his family and followers to the “Promised
– 2 sons – Isaac and Ishmael.
The Civilizations of the Levant
• Joseph
– Had brothers that didn’t like him
– Sold into slavery in Egypt
– Ended up being vice-pharaoh during the reign of
the Hyksos
– Helped family in Israel to settle in Goshen, Egypt.
The Civilizations of the Levant
• Moses
– Led Hebrews out of Egypt
– Delivered the Ten Commandments.
The Civilizations of the Levant
• Ark of the Covenant
– Stored manna and the 10 Commandments
– Was carried in front of the armies of Israel
– Was eventually lost…until…
The Civilizations of the Levant
• Samson
– One of the judges (before kings of Israel)
• Made their capital in Jerusalem
• Built Solomon’s Temple (c. 1000 BCE)
• All that is left is the Western (“Wailing”) Wall.
The Civilizations of the Levant
• After the time of the kings, Israel was
overrun by the Babylonians
– The “Diaspora” (scattering) of the people of
Israel spread Judaism to various parts of the
known world.
• Settled in the region of Upper Egypt
• What part of the Nile River is this?
A. North?
B. South?
C. East?
D. West?
B. South
– The answer is __________________.
1. River civilizations provided benefits for
settlers and cities
2. Writing evolved from pictographs to
3. Agriculture continued to grow
4. Most civilizations were polytheistic.
5. Written laws came into being
6. This is the region of the Old
7. Know the vocabulary from the
Word Wall online.