#### Transcript ppt

MIPS Assembly Review • A computer has processor, memory, and IO devices. – – • The processor stores values in registers, and modifies values by sending them to the ALU. Memory is where the computer stores a large number of values. Every byte can be accessed by specifying a unique address. The address goes from 0 to 0xffffffff in MIPS. In MIPS we mainly work with word which is 4 bytes. MIPS instructions learned: – – add, sub. lw, sw. Constant or Immediate Operands Many times we use a constant in an operation For example, i++, i--, i += 4, and so on Since constant operands occur frequently, we should include constants inside arithmetic operations so that they are much faster MIPS has an add instruction that allows one operand to be a constant The constant must be in 16 bits, as a signed integer in 2’s complement format addi $s1, $s2, 100 3 # $s1 = $s2 + 100 CDA3100 4/10/2016 Logical Operations Often we need to operate on bit fields within a word. 4 Which allow us to pack and unpack bits into words and perform logical operations such as logical and, logical or, and logical negation CDA3100 4/10/2016 Bit-wise AND Apply AND bit by bit The resulting bit is 1 if both of the input bits are 1 and zero otherwise There is also a version of AND with an immediate 5 and $t2, $t0, $t1 andi $t2, $t1, 12 The immediate is treated as an unsigned 16-bit number CDA3100 4/10/2016 Bit-wise OR Apply OR bit by bit The resulting bit is 1 if at least one of the input bits is 1 and zero otherwise There is also a version of OR with an immediate 6 or $t2, $t0, $t1 ori $t2, $t1, 12 The immediate is treated as an unsigned 16-bit number CDA3100 4/10/2016 Bit-wise XOR Apply XOR bit by bit The resulting bit is 1 if two bits are different There is also a version of OR with an immediate 7 xor $t2, $t0, $t1 xori $t2, $t1, 12 The immediate is treated as an unsigned 16-bit number CDA3100 4/10/2016 NOR Since NOT takes one operand and results in one operand, it is not included in MIPS as an instruction Because in MIPS each arithmetic operation takes exactly three operands Instead, NOR is included How to implement NOT using NOR? 8 The resulting bit is 0 if at least one of the input bits is 1 nor $t2, $t0, $t1 Using $zero as one of the input operands It is included in MIPS as a pseudoinstruction CDA3100 4/10/2016 Exercise 1 After learnt these instructions, how can we load an integer value (like 100) into a register ($t0)? Exercise 1 After learnt these instructions, how can we load an integer value (like 100) into a register ($t0)? addi $t0, $zero, 100 ori $t0, $zero, 80 Which should we prefer? ori. Because it is simpler than add. Simpler means less time, less power consumption. Shifts Shift instructions move all the bits in a word to the left or to the right Shift left logical (sll) move all the bits to the left by the specified number of bits Shift right logical (srl) move all the bits to the right 11 sll $t2, $t0, 2 srl $t2, $t0, 2 Filling the emptied bits with 0’s CDA3100 4/10/2016 Example Suppose register $s0 ($16) is 9ten 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 12 What do we have in $t2 ($10) after CDA3100 4/10/2016 Example Suppose register $s0 ($16) is 9ten 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 31 30 We have in $t2 ($10) after 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 13 The value is 144ten = 9ten 24 In general, shifting left by i bits gives the same result as multiplying by 2i CDA3100 4/10/2016 Example Suppose register $s0 ($16) is 9ten 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 31 30 We have in $t2 ($10) after 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 The value is NOT 9ten 228 Note that overflow happens this time (for signed numbers) CDA3100 4/10/2016 Instructions for Making Decisions A distinctive feature of programs is that they can make different decisions based on the input data 15 CDA3100 4/10/2016 Instruction beq (branch if equal) To support decision making, MIPS has two conditional branch instructions, similar to an “if” statement with a goto In C, it is equivalent to Note that L1 is a label and we are comparing values in register1 and register2 Label is an address of an instruction 16 CDA3100 4/10/2016 Instruction bne Similarly, bne (branch not equal) means go to the statement labeled with L1 if the value in register1 does not equal to the value in regster2 17 Equivalent to CDA3100 4/10/2016 Instruction j (jump) MIPS has also an unconditional branch, equivalent to goto in C 18 Jump to the instruction labeled with L1 CDA3100 4/10/2016 Compiling if-then-else Suppose variables f, g, h, i, and j are in registers $s0 through $s4, how to implement the following in MIPS? 19 CDA3100 4/10/2016 Compiling if-then-else Suppose variables f, g, h, i, and j are in registers $s0 through $s4, how to implement the following in MIPS? 20 CDA3100 4/10/2016 Compiling if-then-else Suppose variables f, g, h, i, and j are in registers $s0 through $s4, how to implement the following in MIPS? 21 CDA3100 4/10/2016 MIPS Assembly for if-then-else Now it is straightforward to translate the C program into MIPS assembly 22 CDA3100 4/10/2016