Transcript Autism

Reporter: Quennie Telen
Characteristics and
Albert Einstein
Temple Grandin
Satoshi Tajiri
Gabby Atienza
Thristan Mendoza
Autism SD
first described by Leo Kanner in
early infantile autism
(Simpson, 2005)
Autism SD
characterized by severe and pervasive
impairment in several areas of development:
reciprocal social interaction skills,
communication skills,
the presence of stereotyped behavior,
interests and activities.
(DSM-IV-TR of APA, 2000)
Autism SD
Studies on autism have led some researches to conclude that individuals with
autism lack theory of mind. In a series of publication, Baron-Cohen, Leslie,
U. Frith, and colleagues have argued that a defining feature of the autistic
syndrome is the failure of individuals with autism to develop what
Premack and Woodruff termed a theory of mind – a capacity of attribute
mental states (e.g. intentions, desires, thoughts, beliefs) to other persons
in order to make sense of their behavior.
The theory of mind hypothesis of autism holds that in children with autism,
this ability fails to develop in normal way, resulting in the observed social
and communication abnormalities in behavior.
(Hetherington, 2003) and (Baron-Cohen, 1993)
Autism SD
The fact that children with autism have difficulties
in understanding the perspective, intentions,
beliefs, and knowledge of others may explain
why they seem to understand so little of their of
their social environment.
(Schreibman, 2005).
Autism SD
In a recent study on autism, Mitchell and O’Keefe (2008) concluded
that individuals with autism seemed not to recognize themselves
as the authority on knowing themselves. There is a possibility that
the participants in their study have adopted a view expressed to
them by teachers and carers, who might, unwittingly or
otherwise, have conveyed that they lack self insight. They also
stated that if CWA have self-concept expressed through their
significant others, individuals would recognize that there is room
for improvement in their level of self insight. Mitchell and O’Keefe
believe that there is a need to seek or accept and try to do
something about improving CWA’s self-concept.
is a pervasive developmental disability
affecting verbal and nonverbal
communication, social interaction and
educational performance initially evident
between ages 2 and 3 and confirmable at
ages 3 to 3.6.
(Dizon, 2000)
Autism SD
Complex developmental disability that
typically appears during the first 3 years of
life and is a result of a neurological disorder
that affects the normal functioning of the
(Hourigan, 2009)
Asperger Syndrome
Rett Syndrome
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Pervasive Developmental Disorder
Autism/Autistic Disorder
this applies to individuals who have
social interaction impairments,
communication impairments, and
repetitive, stereotypic, and restricted
interests and activities prior to 36
months of age
DSM-IV-TR, 2000 (Simpson, 2005)
Asperger Syndrome
Impairments in social interaction
are the primary characteristic.
Hans Asperger, 1944 (identified a
group of high-functioning CWA)
(Smith, 2007)
Asperger Syndrome
They develop language and speech but other
aspects of communication affect the person
They understand language but have difficulty
conceptualizing ideas, understanding jokes, or
interpret behavior of others.
Unusual interest.
The majority of this group of individuals have
normal intelligence.
(Smith, 2007)
Rett Syndrome
Rare condition that occurs only in females.
Appears between 1 and 2.
Characterized by head growth deceleration, loss
of previously acquired hand movements and
other motor skills, stereotypic hand wringing or
hand washing, various motor impairments and
social and communicative impairments.
(Simpson, 2005)
Rett Syndrome
Different from autism because there
is loss of motor skills and they have
hand wringing.
They have better social skills than
May develop mental retardation and
results in cognitive disabilities
typically more severe than those
observed win people with autism.
(Smith, 2007)
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
They have behavior patterns similar to those of
The difference is the onset of age disability.
There is a period of normal growth. But may
decline after 2-5 years of apparent normal
development and after 10 years may have a
“clinically significant loss of previously acquired
social skills or adaptive behavior, bowel or
bladder control, play or motor skills.
Least well understood.
Pervasive Developmental Disorder PDD
NOS is a vaguely defined because the criteria
for other forms of pervasive developmental
disorder are not met and are not clearly
The symptoms do not match those of another
condition found in ASD umbrella, but share ASD
(Smith, 2007)
According to the Center for Disease Control
and Prevention in Atlanta, diagnoses
among children jumped 57% from 2002 to
Roughly 1 in 110 8-year-olds is on autism
(Gibson, 2010)
In the Philippines, it is estimated that for
every 10,000 births, 13 to 23 have autism.
Surveys show that 13 out of 10,000 families
will more likely misdiagnose the symptoms.
As a result, many CWA will grow
misunderstood, unaccepted and incapable
of taking care of their own needs.
(Dizon, 2000)
In US, the disorder already costs about $35
billion per year for special education,
medical care and assisted living. In federal
level, it is already a priority.
They have a budget of $60 million for
autism research pool until 2018.
(Gibson, 2010)
Causes of Autism
Neurological disorder that has a
genetic basis
Environmental factors such as
toxins, gastrointestinal anomalies,
vitamin deficiencies and vaccines.
(Smith, 2007)
• The new research team at Pfizer, is focusing
on genes that may affect synapses in the brain.
• These are the spaces where two nerve
endings meet. A tiny gap neurochemicals must
cross in order to transmit information.
• For PWA may process spoken language more
slowly than non-autistic, because the
connections in the brain have too many neural
connections and too little long-distance
(Gibson, 2010)
Because there is still have so much to
learn about the causes of autism,
prevention is not currently a realistic goal.
As researchers learn more about why
Autism occurs, the primary basis for
improving these symptoms are
educational interventions.
(Smith, 2007)
•Healthy child, good-looking, picky-eater,
smells food/objects and put things in
mouth, does not seek attention when hurt.
(Dizon, 2000)
• Walks on tiptoe esp. during early years,
hyperactive, not inhibited, fast and strong
and does not tire easily, well-balanced,
generally coordinated but lacks impulse
control. Exhibits repetitive movements:
body rocking, hand wiggling, whirling,
“ritual” of walking to and fro, etc.
(Dizon, 2000)
• May have good or poor perceptual-motor
skills depending on level of attention span,
is absorbed by objects with tendency to get
attracted to spin around/whirling objects,
self-stimulates by touching surfaces/edges,
arranging/aligning objects
(Dizon, 2000)
• exhibits limited/fleeting eye contact, aloof,
passive, prefers solitary activities,
manifests inappropriate emotional
responses, demonstrates unusual fear
(Mexican hat), is socially immature, is
maladaptive to changes in routine, clothes,
arrangements, tends to be self-injurious
(Dizon, 2000)
• Shows deficit in the use of language,
underreacts to language and visuals or
overreacts to sounds, demonstrate rote
learning, exhibits pronoun reversals, is
echolalic, exhibits inapprpriate recall of
experieces, delayed in laguage, delayed in
overall intellectual response
(Dizon, 2000)
• Delayed in performing eating, dressing
and grooming tasks, is unable to assume
age-appropriate responsibilities, lags
behind in discriminating and avoiding
(Dizon, 2000)
(Dizon, 2000)
Strategies in Teaching
Children with Autism
A. Reducing and Eliminating Self-Biting
• Instruct and say “No Biting” immediately
• sit and perform hand exercise: “hands on the
lap, hands on head/desk, hands folded
• Apply overstimulation (pushing fingers)
• Hold the hands in 30 sec firmly while saying
“No Biting”
A. Reducing Head Banging
• Place the table and chair away from the child
for 10-15 sec.
• Ignore the child
• Pull away materials for 10-15 sec and give
back the materials and praise when he begins
to work
•Seat a child on a chair in front of a table and
hold down his head on the table for 30 seconds
Strategies for BMT
• Positive reinforcement. (Use reinforcements
such as rewards to motivate the child. Ex. Food,
toys, books, tokens, stickers, hug, praises,
touching favorite object)
• Shaping (Done if the child has no desired skill
in his repertoire of behavior. Define beh, find
beginning beh, break the beh, perform each
step, continue the procedure)
Strategies for BMT
• Modeling
• Physical/Verbal Prompting
• Over-stimulation
• Aversive Conditioning (Ex. Lemon juice)
• Contracting (the teacher and the child specify
and agree on expected behaviors for selfimprovement, and also with rewards
• Token System (Colored chips or other
objects) with corresponding points)
Strategies for BMT
• Stimulus Control (Representation of objects
like belt, chair, clothespin or aural cues like
• Time Out (Pulling the child out of the group for
an unacceptable behavior. Placing him back
when he is ready.
• Ignoring the child (when he resorts to
attention-getting behavior/tantrum)
with its roots in the Behavior Theory
proven to be scientifically valid
Skill-based treatment
Picture Exchange Communication System
Frost and Bondy developed this program
This may be used in classroom, home,
community settings
Ideally integrate with functional routines
and activities (meals, hygiene)
Skill-based treatment
Treatment and Education of Autistic and
related Communication handicapped
Developed by Eric Schopler in 1970
the Principle is modifying the
environment to accommodate the needs
of individuals with ASD.
Four main components: Physical Org,
Visual schedules, work systems, task
Floor time
Best for Interpersonal Relationship
is a play-based interactive intervention
approach that emphasizes individual
differences, child-centered interests, and
affective interactions btw child and
Developed by Stanley I. Greenspan.
Son-Rise Program
best for Interpersonal relationship
interventions and treatments
Developed by Barry Neil Kaufman in mid1970
The teacher makes no judgment, good or
bad, regarding a child’s behaviors, but
rather is a facilitator of learning by
allowing the child to self-direct his or her
own learning.
Art Therapy
Designed to foster creativity and
individual expression through the use of
various art modalities.
(Simpson, 2005)
Other lists of Interventions and
treatments for Interpersonal
Relationship, Skill-Based,
Cognitive Interventions,
Physiological or Biological/
Neurological Treatments will be
posted also in y group 
Simpson, Richard L. 2005. Autism Spectrum Disorder. Corwin Press, California, USA
Smith, Deborah. 2007. Introduction to Special Education Making a Difference. 6th ed.
Pearson Education, Inc. USA.
Dizon, Edilberto. 2000. Teaching Filipino Children with Autism. UP, Dilman, QC.
Gibson, Ellen. 2010. “The Hunt for Autism Drug”. Retrieved Feb. 2, 2010. Database:
Baron-Cohen, Simon, Alan M. Leslie and Uta Frith. 1985. Does the Autistic Child have
a “Theory of Mind”? Journal Article on Cognition. Retrieved on August. 31, 2009.
Hourigan, Ryan and Amy Hourigan. 2009. Teaching Music to Children with Autism:
Understandings and Perspectives. Retrieved Feb. 2, 2010. Database: Ebscohost
Mitchell, Peter and Kelly O’Keefe. 2008. Brief Report: Do Individuals with Autism
Spectrum Disorder Think They Know Their Own Minds? Journal of Autism
Developmental Disorders. Retrieved on September 1, 2009.
Schreibman, Laura. 2005. The Science and Fiction of Autism. Harvard University
Press. USA.
Hetherington, E. Mavis and Parke, Ross D. 1993. Child Psychology: A Contemporary
Viewpoint. 4th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc. USA.