Skeletal System Disorders - Hicksville Public Schools

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Transcript Skeletal System Disorders - Hicksville Public Schools

Skeletal System
 Joint inflammation
 2 most common forms:
 Osteoarthritis
 Rheumatoid arthritis
 “wear and tear” arthritis; OA
 Most common form of
arthritis in United States
 Cartilage in joints breaks
down over time
 Commonly found in: knees,
hips, hands and fingers,
Osteoarthritis Symptoms
 First signs are joints that ache after physical work or
 As disease progresses: pain in joints, swelling or
tenderness, stiffness after periods of inactivity
 Periods of pain and inflammation (Flare-ups) and
periods of no pain or inflammation (remission)
 Crunching feeling or sound of bone rubbing on bone
when joint is used
Where does it occur?
 Knees: primarily weightbearing joints
 Hips: severe disability,
may also feel in inner
thigh, groin, knees
 Fingers/hands: base of
thumb joint is commonly
Where does it occur?
 Heberden’s nodes: small
bony knobs that appear on
the end joints of fingers
 Bouchard’s nodes: small
bony knobs that appear on
the middle joints of fingers
Osteoarthritis Causes
 Exact cause is unknown
 Joint damage can be due to
repetitive movement or result of
an injury
 Erosion of cartilage
 Damaged joint tissue can cause
release of prostaglandins, which
also contribute to pain and
Factors that increase risk
 Age and gender
 More common in men if under 45; more common in
women if over 45
 Joint injury or overuse
 Obesity: changes increase with the amount of weight
the body’s joints have to bear (knee)
 Heredity
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
 Autoimmune disease where the body’s immune system
attacks normal joint tissues, causing inflammation of
joint lining
 Affected joint may lose its shape
RA Symptoms
 Pain and stiffness lasting more than 1 hour in morning
or after rest
 Joint inflammation
 Symmetrical pattern of inflammation
 Fatigue, malaise
 About 25% of people with disease develop small lumps
of tissue under skin (rheumatoid nodules)
Causes of RA
 Exact causes unknown
 Genetic!
 Environmental – for those with
genetic tendency, RA can be
triggered by infection
Effects of disease
 Joint inflammation
 Tendons become inflamed and may rupture
 Swelling can damage and destroy ligaments
 Can damage joint cartilage and bone
Treatment Options
 Medications
 Exercise
 Diet
 Alternative therapies
 Surgery
Fractures (broken bones)
 Bones can be completely fractured or partially fractured
in any number of ways (crosswise, lengthwise, in
multiple pieces)
Types of Fractures
 “open” fracture – if bone breaks
in such a way that bone
fragments stick out through skin
 Stable fracture – the broken
ends of the bone line up and are
barely out of place
Types of Fractures
 Transverse fracture: horizontal fracture line
 Oblique fracture: angled pattern
 Comminuted fracture: the bone shatters into 3 or more
Causes of fractures
 Trauma: a fall, motor vehicle accident, tackle, etc.
 Osteoporosis: weakened bones are more likely to
 Overuse: repetitive motion can tire muscles and stress
bones (stress fractures)
Symptoms of fractures
 Swelling and tenderness around injury
 Bruising
 deformity
 Put broken pieces back together and prevent
 Casts, traction, external fixation, internal fixation
 Causes bone to become weak and brittle
Symptoms of Osteoporosis
 Back pain
 Loss of height over time
 A stooped posture
 Bone fractures
Causes of Osteoporosis
 Creation of new bone doesn’t keep up with the
removal of old bone
 Most people reach peak bone mass in early
 The higher your peak bone mass, the more
bone you have “in the bank” and the less likely
you are to develop osteoporosis
Risk Factors
 Unchangeable risks:
 Sex: women are at higher risk
 Age: older people are at higher
 Race: greater risk for white or
Asian descent
 Family history
 Body frame size: small body
frames at higher risk
Risk Factors
 Hormone levels:
 Lowered sex hormones tend to weaken bone
 Thyroid problems: too much thyroid hormone can cause
bone loss
 Overactive parathyroid and adrenal glands
 Low calcium intake
 Eating disorders
 Steroids/medications
 Sedentary lifestyle
 Alcohol/tobacco