Chapter 14: Becoming a World Power

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Transcript Chapter 14: Becoming a World Power

Chapter 14: Becoming a World
Building Support for Imperialism
 Following the Civil War, Americans were not
interested in territory outside the United States.
 In the 1880s, economic and military competition
from Europe convinced Americans that they should
become a world power.
A Desire for New Markets
 Imperialism The economic and political domination of a strong nation over
weaker ones.
 Why?
 Europeans need to import raw materials for manufacturing.
 High tariffs reduced trade in Europe forcing Europeans to seek
new markets overseas.
 To protect their investments, European nations
began exerting control over territories and even
creating colonies.
 Protectorate The imperial power protected local rulers against rebellions
and invasion.
 In return, rulers usually had to accept Europeans’ advice on
how to govern their countries.
 Americans felt the United States should get involved
in overseas markets to keep its economy strong.
A Feeling of Superiority
 John Fiske American Historian
 He argued that English speaking nations had superior
character, ideas, and systems of government.
 Known as Anglo-Saxonism
These Americans believed the nation was destined to expand
overseas to spread its civilization to others.
Building a Modern Navy
 Some Americans believed that the USA would be
shut out of foreign markets if it did not build up its
navy and acquire bases overseas.
 Captain Alfred Mahan
U.S. Naval Officer
Helped build public support for a modern American fleet.
A bigger fleet would allow for the protection of American
interests overseas.
American Expansion in the Pacific
 New Manifest Destiny
 Japan
President Fillmore ordered Commodore Matthew C. Perry to
negotiate a trade treaty with Japan.
 1853- Perry entered Tokyo Bay
 Japan realized that the American navy was too powerful to resist.
 1854- Japan signed the Treaty of Kanagawa
 This gave the USA trading rights at two Japanese ports.
Annexing Samoa and Hawaii
 Why do we need ports in the Pacific?
 Ports for our ships to refuel and resupply
 Pago Pago
 Located in the Samoan Islands
 Had one of the finest harbors in the South Pacific
 1878 US got permission to build a base there.
 1899 An agreement divided Samoa between the USA and
 Hawaii Americans found that sugarcane grew well in Hawaii.
 In 1875 the US signed a treaty exempting Hawaiian sugar from
This led to economic growth in Hawaii keeping it out of the hands
of the British or French.
 When the treaty came up for renewal, the USA asked for exclusive
rights to build a naval base at Pearl Harbor.
In 1887 sugar planters forced Hawaii’s king to accept a
constitution limiting his power.
The planters wanted Hawaii to become part of the USA.
In 1891 Queen Liliuokalani takes the throne in Hawaii.
She tried to assert her power as monarch.
 The planters supported by US sailors, overthrew the monarchy in
1898 The United States annexed Hawaii.
Diplomacy in Latin America
 Secretary of State James G. Blaine
 Pan-Americanism
The idea that the US and Latin America nations should work
Two goals of Pan-Americanism
1) To create a customs union requiring all nations of the Western
Hemisphere to reduce tariffs against each other and treat each
other equally in trade.
 2) To create a system for nations of the Western Hemisphere to
work out disputes peacefully.
 Latin America rejected both.
 They did agree to create the Commercial Bureau of the American
 Today known as the Organization of American States (OAS).
Section 2: The SpanishAmerican War
The Coming of War
 The Cuban Rebellion Begins Cuba was one of Spain’s oldest colonies.
 Its sugarcane plantations generated wealth for Spain and 1/3
of the world’s sugar.
 Until 1886, 1/3 of the Cuban population was enslaved.
 Jose Marti
 Leader of the Cuban rebellion in 1868.
 The Rebellion lacked internal support and broke up a decade
 Marti and the rebels fled to the USA.
 By the early 1890s, Cuba and the US became closely
linked economically.
The US invested $50 million in Cuba’s sugar plantations,
mines, and railroads.
 In 1894, US tariffs on Cuban sugar resulted in an
economic disaster in Cuba.
February 1895, Marti and his followers launch another
Marti dies but the rebels seized control of eastern Cuba and
declared its independence in September 1895.
America Supports Cuba
 President Grover Cleveland declared the USA neutral
when the rebellion in Cuba began.
 Yellow Journalism
The New York Journal and New York World report about
atrocities committed by the Spanish in Cuba.
Sway Americans to support the rebellion in Cuba.
Def- where writers exaggerated stories or made up stories to
attract readers.
Spanish Response
 The Spanish sent 200,000 troops to Cuba to put
down the rebellion.
General Valeriano Weyler was appointed governor of Cuba.
Known as the Butcher
Reconcentration CampsCreated by Weyler
 Designed to prevent villagers from helping the rebels.
 Results in the deaths of tens of thousands of civilian deaths.
Calls for War
 In March 1897, William McKinley became the 25th
 Spain removed Weyler from office and offered the
Cubans autonomy.
Only if Cuba remained apart of the Spanish Empire.
The rebels refused.
 January 1898 McKinley sent the USS Maine to
protect Americans in Cuba.
USS Maine
 On February 9, 1898 the New York Journal reported
that the Spanish ambassador in the US called President
McKinley weak.
 On February 15, 1898 the USS Maine exploded in
Havana Harbor.
Many Americans blamed Spain.
Remember the Maine became the rallying cry for the demand to
declare war on Spain.
On April 11, 1898, McKinley asked Congress to use military force.
On April 19, 1898 Congress declared
Cuba Independent
 Demanded Spain to withdraw from the island.
 Authorized the president to use armed force.
April 24, 1898 Spain declared war on the United States.
A War on Two Fronts
 The US Navy blockaded Cuba.
 Commodore George Dewey
 Took the US Fleet stationed in Hong Kong and attacked the
Spanish Fleet located in the Philippines.
This kept the Spanish fleet from sailing to attack the US.
The Battle of Manila Bay
 On May 1, 1898, Dewey’s squadron entered Manila
Bay and quickly defeated the Spanish fleet.
McKinley assembled 20,000 soldiers to leave from San
On the way to the Philippians, the soldiers took Guam.
 Emilio Aguinaldo
 A Filipino Revolutionary
 Was contacted by Dewey to fight the Spanish.
 Took control of most of the island.
 American soldiers however would capture the capital
American Forces in Cuba
 The Spanish in Cuba were not ready for war.
 Soldiers were weak and sick.
 Their warships were old with untrained crews.
 If the US could defeat the Spanish fleet, Spain could no longer
supply their troops in Cuba.
 The US army was also not prepared
 Army recruited volunteers but lacked the resources to train
and equip them.
Rough Riders
 Cavalry unit
 Mix of rough cowboys, miners, and law officers.
 2nd in command was Teddy Roosevelt.
 In July 1898, the Rough Riders assisted in the
capture of San Juan Hill.
Santiago Harbor
 The Spanish commander ordered the Spanish fleet to
flee the harbor.
 On July 3, 1898, the US fleet attacked destroying
every Spanish vessel.
 The Spanish at Santiago surrendered.
This allowed the US to take nearby Puerto Rico.
An American Empire
 The Debate over Annexation The Philippines
Benefits Provide the US with another Pacific naval base.
 A large market for American goods.
 America can help “less civilized” people.
 Costs Competition from cheap Filipino would drive down American
 Imperialism violated American principles.
• McKinley would decide to annex the island.
Treaty of Paris
 Signed December 10, 1898
 Results 1. Cuba becomes “independent”
 2. US acquired Puerto Rico and Guam.
 3. US paid $20 million to Spain for the Philippines.
 The Senate approved the Treaty in February of 1899.
Platt Amendment
 Submitted by Senator Oliver Platt
 Details 1. Cuba could not make another treaty with another country
that would weaken its independence.
 2. Cuba had to allow the US to buy or lease a naval stations in
 3. Cuba’s debt had to be kept low to prevent foreign countries
from landing troops to enforce payment.
 4. The US had the right to intervene to protect Cuban
independence and keep order.
Reluctantly Cuba added it to their Constitution.
 Stayed in place till it was repealed in 1934.
Governing Puerto Rico
 Foraker Act Passed in 1900
 Established a civil government for Puerto Rico
 Provided an elected
 2. Governor
 3. Executive Council
Supreme Court ruled that Puerto Ricans were not American
1917 Puerto Ricans were given citizenship .
 30 years later Puerto Ricans were allowed to elect their own
Rebellion in the Philippines
 In 1899, Emilio Aguinaldo ordered his rebels to
attack American soldiers.
The conflict lasted for 3 years.
Reconstruction campsEstablished by the US to fight rebels.
 Thousands of people died from starvation and diseases.
William Howard TaftGovernor of the Philippines
 Tried to win over the Filipino people by
 1. improving education.
 2. improving transportation on the island.
 3. providing better health care on the island.
 March 1901, Americans capture Emilio.
 July 1902, the US declared the war over.
 In 1946, the Philippines gained full independence
from the US.
Lesson 3: New American
American Diplomacy in Asia
 In 1898, The US was a major power in Asia, with
naval bases all across the Pacific.
The US Navy was 3rd largest in the world.
 The main US interest in Asia was not conquest but
 China
The vast Chinese markets excited American business leaders,
especially those in the textile, oil, and steel industries.
The Open Door Policy
 The European powers all began to demand
leaseholds in China.
Sphere of influence
An area where a foreign nation controlled economic development.
 US politicians and businessmen worried about these
 Open Door Policy
Allowed all countries to trade with China .
Sec. of State John Hay asked countries with leaseholds not to
discriminate against other nations wanting to do business in
their sphere.
Each nation responded by saying yes to the open door.
The Boxer Rebellion
 Boxer were a secret Chinese society organized to fight
foreign control and influence in China.
 In 1900, the group decided to destroy both the “foreign
devils” and their Chinese Christian converts.
They believed these people were corrupting Chinese society.
 The Boxer attacked foreign embassies in Peking (Beijing)
and Tientsin.
They killed more than 200 foreigners.
 8 nations responded by sending a multinational force
rescued the foreigners and ended the rebellion.
The European powers agreed not to break China up and the US
retained its access to China’s lucrative markets.
Roosevelt and Taft’s Diplomacy
 President McKinley was reelected in 1900 but was
killed by an assassin’s bullet.
Vice President Teddy Roosevelt became President.
TR favored increasing American power. He also accepted some of
Anglo-Saxionism’s ideas.
 He believed that the US had a duty to shape “less civilized”
corners of the Earth.
Balancing Power in East Asia
 TR supported the Open Door Policy.
 TR helped negotiate a resolution to war between
Japan and Russia in 1905.
Russia recognized Japan’s territorial gains and Japan
promised to stop seeking further territory.
The Panama Canal
 TR believed that displaying US power to the world would deter
nations from fighting.
 TR believed that by having a canal through Central America was
vital to US power in the world and would save time and money for
commercial and military shipping.
 In 1889, a French company abandoned its efforts to build a canal in
In 1902, Congress authorized the US purchase of the French company’s assets
and the construction of a canal.
 The problem was that Panama was owned by Colombia.
 Colombia turned down attempts made by the US to buy Panama.
 In responds TR sent warships to Panama and encouraged the Panamanian
people to rebel against Colombia.
 Within days the US recognized Panama’s independence.
 The two signed a treaty allowing the canal to be built as long as the canal
remained in Panama.
The Roosevelt Corollary
 It stated that the US would intervene in Latin
American affairs when necessary to maintain
economic and political stability in the Western
 The goal was to prevent European powers from using
the debt problems of LA as a reason to intervene in
the region.
1st applied in the Dominican Republic in 1905.
Dollar Diplomacy
 William Howard Taft placed less emphasis on
military force and more on economic development.
Taft believed that supporting LA industry would increase trade
and profits for American businesses and lift LA countries out
of poverty.
Became known as Dollar Diplomacy.
Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy in Mexico
 Woodrow Wilson opposed imperialism.
 He believed that democracy was essential to a nation’s stability
and prosperity.
 He wanted the US to promote democracy to create a world free
of revolution and war.
 In March 1916, Pancho Villa and a group of
guerrillas burned the town of Columbus, New
Killed 17 Americans.
Wilson responded by sending 5,800 soldiers under the
command of General John Pershing into Mexico.
the goal was to capture Villa but Pershing was unsuccessful.