World History Unit 1

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Transcript World History Unit 1

 Read
pages 16-19 to gain understanding
of European life at beginning of 20th
 Read
pages 20-27: focus on reasons for
 Industrialization
was on the rise creating
a feeling of optimism and confidence
about the century that lay ahead.
 There
was growing criticism of national
political goals, and the darkness that
results from new prosperity.
America presented new political views based on
liberalism, a philosophy based on the idea of
equality, individual rights, and the freedom of
choice... Which was gaining broad acceptance.
“The land of great opportunity!”
Invention of the light bulb by Edison, the invention of
the airplane by the Wright brothers.
• 11:03
Much of the world still operated through authoritarian
regimes, the absolute ruling by one person over an
entire nation.
It was of normal thinking “that rulers should rule and
the rest should obey.”
• In Russia, the Czar had absolute power.
• In Germany, the Kaiser ignored the weak Reichstag (parliament)
• In Britain, even though Queen Victoria had little political power the
royal family had substantial social influence
• Most people in Asia and Africa were under rule of monarchs, rulers or
European colonial powers.
The world’s most powerful and technologically
advanced nations were
United States
Great Britain
Tension existed in Europe where the main powers
Great Britain
War clouds were gathering over Europe.
 Imperialism
 Nationalism
 Colony
 Triple
 Triple Entente
 Ultimatum
 Domination
by a powerful nation over the
political, economic, and cultural affairs of
another state or region
 Policy
of forming and maintaining an
 The
urge to create empires was rooted in
the search for, “Gold, Glory and God”
(pg. 21 in text)
 Devotion
to and pride in one’s country. It
often develops when people share common
language, culture, history, etc.
 Factors contributing to nationalism
• common language, religion, culture, etc.
• military achievements
• size of empire
• economic power
• military power
• external threats ( real or perceived)
 Most often positive, but at the turn of the
20th century it meant hostility and feeling
of superiority.
• French region Alsace-Lorraine along Germany’s
western border.
• 1871 Franco - Prussian War
• Surrendered region to Germany
 Region
governed by a foreign country
The British Empire 1900
 Military
formed 1882 between
Germany, AustriaHungary, and Italy.
Otto von Bismarck of
Germany sought this
alliance to isolate
France in 1882.
 Military
formed by Britain,
France, and Russia
Italy joined 1915!
final proposal of terms that if and when
rejected may end negotiations and result
in war.
 Increased
 Political
power and prestige
rivalries and military strategies
 Acquiring
new raw material and markets
for finished material
Reasons for Imperialist
Spheres of Influence
• leading power in 1900
• colonial acquisition = abundance of raw
materials + markets
• supported by large navy
• 25% of Earth’s land surface (Incl. Canada,
Australia, parts of Africa and Asia)
• rivaled Britain as an imperial power
• no need for raw material BUT wanted
prestige and power
• competition with Britain lead to many
disputes and conflicts
•14% land surface
• German Empire emerging as an Imperial
• wanted to expand empire beyond Europe
to rival Britain & France
• need to access a warm water port for navy
• need to access warm water port for navy
• secure raw materials for developing
industrial base
• “innovate by imitation”
• keep Asia for Asians NOT E
United States
• opposed to Euro Imperialism in West H.
• expand commercial interests
•“vital interest” in Panama Canal
• “the sun never sets on the British Empire”
• 1/3 African continent, large part of SE
Asia, some islands in South Pacific
• challenged France for control of Morocco
• seized interests in Asia
• prepared to challenge Britain & France on
land and sea
• Trans- Siberia Railway est. Link to Pacific
and northern China
• occupied Korea, moved North to
• in Manchuria collided with Russians =
Russo – Japanese War 1904
• econ/ military power dominated Latin
• Purchase Alaska 1897
• Annexation of Hawaii
• obtained Cuba and Philippines from Spain in
major powers in 1900:
• Britain – 25% of the Earths surface
• France – 14%
• Germany - ~ 5%
= 44% of Earth’s surface
under the control of 3 countries!
Cause of WW1
After the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71), Europe and
the United States experienced a period of relative
There was rapid industrial and commercial progress.
The western powers expanded trade and colonies.
National rivalries gradually grew and alliance camps
Economic competition and arms race also became
The Balkans became a hotpot of western intervention,
as the Ottoman Empire declined. Finally war broke out
in 1914, a war which was unexpectedly disastrous and
destructive in scale. The war was caused by a number
of interwoven factors.
1. NATIONALISM - there were two kinds
of nationalism in 19th Century Europe:
1. The desire of subject peoples for
 It led to a series of national struggles for
independence among the Balkan peoples.
Other powers got involved and caused much
2. the desire of independent nations for
dominance and prestige
 As the powers try to dominate each other in
Europe, their rivalries may be regarded as one
of the causes of the First World War.
Great pride in its empire/Royal Navy (largest in
the world) which was seen as the greatest in the
Belief that its noble destiny was to maintain world
peace (e.g. Pax Britannia/peace of Britain)
Suspicious of German & Japanese desires for
territory & military/economic power
Followed policy of ‘Splendid Isolation’ from 18151914 as it tried to avoid any conflict in Europe &
instead concentrated on its empire
 Wanted
revenge for 1871 loss of
provinces of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany
& desire to regain control over coal/iron
ore in this region
 After
1871, created large overseas
empire with colonies in Africa & Asia in
order to emphasize national pride &
Desire to be a world empire like Britain
Growing economic nationalism & strength as strongest
economy in Europe (e.g. coal & iron ore, etc.)
Frustrated by inability to attain colonies in Africa/Asia
& believed Britain & France conspired to prevent
Germany from gaining colonies
Pride in strength & ability of its army (best in Europe
 Too
many nationalities & ethnic nationalism
‘tearing’ country apart as different nationalities
wanted independence
 Empire
was in decay as industrialization was
not widespread
 Feared
rise of Serbia & its nationalism & desire
to create ‘Greater’ Serbia that included
Austrian controlled Bosnia-Herzegovina
 Believed
in pan-Slavism - all Slavic
peoples (Bulgaria, Serbia, Romania, etc.)
should work together & be led by Russia
 Wanted
to increase its role in the Balkans
at expense of Austria-Hungary &
Ottoman Empire (e.g. desired control of
Constantinople & access to
Mediterranean Sea from Black Sea)
2. ECONOMIC RIVALRY – competition
between nations to produce the greatest
economic growth
 After
the Germany obtained AlsaceLorraine from France, it flourished!
 By
1900 many German industries
surpassed those in Britain and by 1914
was producing twice as much steel.
Because Germany became industrialized
later than Britain, its factories were newer
and more technologically advanced = more
 Also, Germany
had a strong education
system focusing on science and technology
= creating engineers and scientists to
continue developing technology,
maintaining German’s efficiency.
3. THE ARMS RACE – the competition
between two rival states to gain superior
military weapons and technology.
Germany wanted to increase its naval power
to equal Britain’s navy resulting in a naval
arms race
 In
1900 British navy was twice as large as
any other navy
In 1898, Germany started large scale naval
building program to create a navy equal in size
to that of Britain
Britain feared a large German navy as it would
threaten its sea communications & trade with its
In response, Britain built a larger & newer navy
around a new type of battleship –
• the dreadnought (‘06) which made all other warships
obsolete resulting in the Dreadnought Race with
 What
was the significance of the naval
• Until 1900 – Germany was Britain’s closest ally
and since the days of Napoleon France was
Britain's imperial rival.
• German’s naval expansion alarmed British
leaders, creating suspicions
• Therefore in stead of facing a potential enemy in
isolation, sought alliances with formal rivals
France and Russia (Triple Entente)
4. The system of Alliances
 Military alliances
• members would come to aid of other alliance
members if attacked by a state from outside that
 Germany’s
aim until 1890 was to isolate
France from having any other allies
Several alliances were created in the years leading
up to the war:
• Dual Alliance (1879): Germany & Austria-Hungary vs. Russia
• Triple Alliance (1882): Germany, Austria-Hungary & Italy:
 Germany – fear of France
 Austria-Hungary – fear of Russia
 Italy – fear of France
• Reinsurance Treaty (1887):
 Germany & Russia agree to remain neutral with each other if either
state attacked by another country
 Germany ensured France would not have Russia as an ally if France
attacked Germany.
 Kaiser Wilhelm II did not renew the treaty in 1890, thus motivating
Russia to look to France as an ally against future German attack
• Dual Entente (1894): France & Russia vs. Germany
• Triple Entente (1907): France, Russia & Britain:
 France: fear of attack from Germany
 Russia: fear of attack from Germany and/or Austria-Hungary
 Britain: fear of Germany (due to Naval Race)
Otto von Bismarck,
Chancellor of
Germany, negotiated
a Dual Alliance with
Austria-Hungary in
1879 and in 1882
drew Italy into it
making it the Triple
German Alliances Pre – WW1
1879 Bismarck and the Germans signed the Dual Alliance with
1882 he negotiated the Triple Alliance that drew Italy into the
pact. The members of this alliance promised that if any one of
them should be attacked, all three would wage warfare together
against the aggressor.
1887 Bismarck persuaded Russia to sign a secret Reinsurance
Treaty, whereby Germany pledged its support to the Balkans
while Russia assured Germany of its neutrality in the event of a
French attack on Germany.
Bismarck had achieved his goal of isolating France and securing
Some alliances began to dissolve however:
• Wilhelm II became the new Kaiser of Germany in
1888 and dismissed Bismarck to assume his role of
Chancellor as well.
• Wilhelm II embarked on very different policies and
let the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia lapse in
• Feeling betrayed by an ally Russia turned to France
and by 1894 they entered into a military alliance
(Duel Entente)
 Britain
became nervous having no allies
(Splendid Isolation) and in 1907 joined
France and Russia whom together
became the Triple Entente