The Cold War - Ms. Churchill`s World History ​ Holly Springs High

Download Report

Transcript The Cold War - Ms. Churchill`s World History ​ Holly Springs High

The Cold War
World History
The Cold War
The Alliance Breaks Apart
• Two new powers would emerge from this
• The United States
• The Soviet Union
• These two countries would become
Super Powers with the economic
resources and military might that would
dominate the globe
• They would also become intense rivals
and would come to divide the world
Growing Differences
• Conflicting Ideologies and mutual
distrust soon led to the conflict know
as the Cold War
• It was a state of tensions and
hostilities among nations without
armed conflict between the major
Cause and Effect of the Cold War
System of Government
Soviet Union was a Communist
United States is a democratic republic
Post War Conflict:
Both sides disagreed over Eastern Europe
governments throughout Eastern Europe
United States resisted Soviet expansion
and aided countries seeking to resist
Arms race between Soviet Union and
United States led o the threat of nuclear
Confrontations took place around the
world including Germany, Cuba, Korea,
and many other locations
Both sides formed a variety of alliances
Soviet Union eventually collapsed and
United States became the worlds’ sloe
Origins of the Cold War
• Stalin’s goals in Eastern Europe:
• Spread of communism into the area
• Create a Buffer Zone of friendly governments as a defense against Germany
• As the Red Army (Soviets) pushed out the Germans from Eastern Europe it left
behind occupying forces
• The US and British did not approve of this
• Stalin pointed out that the US did not consult with the USSR about peace terms
for Italy or Japan both defeated and occupied by US/British forces, The same
was true for USSR. It would determine the fate of the Eastern European lands
overrun by the Red Army on the way to Berlin
• Truman and Churchill rejected this idea and made Stalin promised “Free
Elections” but Stalin ignored the pledge destroying rival government parties and
installing pro Soviet communist governments throughout Eastern Europe
A Divided Europe
• Churchill describes the Soviet control
of Eastern Europe as an Iron Curtain
dividing the continent
• The Iron Curtin became a symbol of
the Cold War along with fear
• Europe would be described as
Eastern and Western blocks
• East was Soviet dominated
communist countries and the West
were democracies led by the United
New Conflicts Develop
• Churchill and Truman both saw
communism as an evil force creeping
across Europe and threatening
countries around the world
• The US abandoned its traditional
Isolation (withdrawing from global
affairs) but instead taking a leading role
in the world
• Soviets soon began backing communist
rivals fighting in Greece
• Stalin was also menacing Turkey in the
Dead Sea linking the USSR to the
Russian Black Sea coast to the
Truman Doctrine
• Truman takes actions with the Truman Doctrine
• US would resist Soviet expansion in Europe or the world
• The military and economic aid and advisors were sent to Greece and
Turkey to help them withstand the communist threat
• It was rooted in the idea of containment or limiting communism to the
areas already under Soviet control
• Stalin saw it as being encircled by capitalist wanting to isolate the Soviet
The Marshal Plan
• To help strengthen democratic governments the US offered a massive aid
package called the
• The US would funnel food and economic assistance to Europe to help
• Truman also offered aid to the USSR and its satellites or dependent states
• Stalin saw it as a trick to win Eastern Europe over to capitalism and democracy
and he forbade the Eastern European countries to accept US aid promising it
from the USSR
Divisions in Germany
• Germany had been divided into 4 zones of occupation by the US, France,
Britain and USSR
• The US France, and Great Britain decided to join their zones and encouraged
Germans to rebuild
• The USSR dismantled factories and took other resources back to help rebuild
the USSR (Russia)
• Germany thus became a divided nation
• Western Germany was democratic and allowed the people to write their own
constitution and regain self government
• East Germany was communist and tied to Moscow
Looking Ahead
• After surrender the US occupied a
ruined Japan
• Germany had been divided into 4
zones of occupation
• Problem: how to build a
foundation for a stable peace
Berlin Airlift
• Stalin’s resentment a the west to rebuild Germany triggered a crisis
• The former capital of Berlin was also divided in to 4 zones and was
deep within the Soviet zone.
• In 1948 Stalin tried to force western Allies out of Berlin and sealed
off every part of the city
• Western powers responded to the blockade by mounting around the
clock airlift
• For more than a year cargo planes supplied West Berliners with food
and fuel forcing the Soviets to end the blockade
• Although the West won a victory it only deepened hostilities
Berlin Wall
Military Alliances
• As tensions grew in 1949 the US Canada, and Nine other nations formed
a new military alliance called the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or
• Members pledged to help one another if any one of them was attacked
• In 1955 the USSR responded by forming its own military alliance called
the Warsaw Pact and included the USSR and Seven satellites in Eastern
• Soviets used the military alliance to keep its satellites in order
NATO – Warsaw pact
• North Atlantic Treaty Org. Members
• Warsaw Pact Member Nations
• Belgium
• Canada
• Denmark
• France
• Iceland
• Italy
• Luxembourg
• Netherlands
• Norway
• Portugal
• United Kingdom
• United States
• Greece
• Turkey
• West Germany
• Spain
East Germany
Soviet Union
The Propaganda War
• Both sides participated in a propaganda
• US defending capitalism and democracy
against communism and totalitarianism
• The USSR clamed to struggle against
western imperialism
Cold War Propaganda/ Duck and Cover
The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union
• After WWII, the USSR emerges as a superpower.
• Stalin created a sphere of influence from the Baltic to the Balkans
but dies in 195
• Nikita Khrushchev emerges as the new Soviet leader
• He pursues a policy of de-Stalinization by freeing political prisoners
and easing censorship[
• Sought a peaceful coexistence with the West
• But when Hungarians revolted against communist rule in 1956
Khrushchev sent tanks in
• Khrushchev’s successor was Brezhnev who held power from the
60’s to 80;s
• He rigorously suppressed dissidents or people who spoke out
against the government
The Cold War
Some Successes
• After WWII the USSR had to rebuild its industry with priority given
to industries such as steel, coal and heavy machinery
• The government also poured resources into weapons, science
and technology
• In 1957 they launched Sputnik which was the first artificial
satellite to orbit the Earth
• This was used to demonstrate the Soviet’s technological
superiority to the USA
• Citizens enjoyed benefits such as low rents, cheap bread, and day
care for children, and low wages
The Space Race: Soviets had the first satellite
(Sputnik and man in space (Yuri Gagarin: First Man in Space 1961)
US puts first man on the moon 1969
Failure of a Command Economy
• Command Economy is one in which the government makes
decisions on production / economy
• It was plagued with severe problems
• Collectivized agriculture was so unproductive that the USSR had to
frequently import grain to feed its people
• Consumer goods were far inferior to these made the West and
luxuries were rare
• A lifetime job security caused little incentive to produce better
quality goods
Cuban Missile Crisis
Rivalry with the US
• USSR and USA relations swung back and forth between
confrontations and détente.
• 1961 USSR builds the Atomic Bomb increasing Cold War tensions
• 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis when Khrushchev tries to build nuclear
missile bases in Cuba bring the two nations to the brink of war
• Brezhnev invests in a huge military build stating the USSR had the
right to intervene militarily in any Warsaw Pact nation while
pursing detente (easing tensions) with the US
• Détente ends when USSR invades Afghanistan to ensure Soviet
influence in the neighboring nation which ended up draining the
economy and causing a moral problem at home
• Keith Hughes Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
The Other Fellow Blinked
The Gorbachev Revolution
• In 1985 a new leader Mikhail Gorbachev comes into power wanting to bring
about reforms
• He wanted to end Cold War tensions
• Signed arms control treaties with the USA
• In USSR he called for a new glasnost or openness, ending censorship and
encouraged open discussions
• He urged perestroika which meant the restructuring of the government (by
reducing its size and complexity) and the economy (allow some free market
enterprises and produce more and higher quality consumer goods)
• Mr. Gorbachev tear down this wall:
Contrasting Economic Systems
• The government makes all economic
• The government decides what goods
and products to make and how much
to produce
• The government decides what wages
to pay and what prices to charge for
• The government owns most property
• The government has minimal
involvement in the economy
• Market forces such as supply and
deman determine the type and
quantity of oods and products
• Wages and prices are set largely by
market forces
• Private citizens and businesses own
most property
Unexpected Results
Economic turmoil
High prices
Some factories could not survive without government help and closed
leading to high unemployment
Old line Communists criticized the reforms as did Boris Yeltsin who
wanted more radical changes
Baltic republics such as Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania regained
independence in 1991
Eastern European countries from Poland, East Germany, to Romania
and Bulgaria broke out of Soviet orbit
In 1991Gorbachev was able to rebuff a coup from the hardliners
1991 Gorbachev resigned and he replaced by Boris Yeltsin
After 74 years the Soviet Union cased to exist
Fall of the Berlin Wall 1989
Gorbachev and Yeltsin
Economic Problems
• Yeltsin privatized more state run industries and collective farms
• The change over to a market economy was painful
• unemployment so ared.Prices skyrocketed, banks closed
• To avoid financial collapse Russia defaulted or failed to make
payments on much of its foreign debt
• In Yeltsin resigns and Vladimir Putin becomes president and then is
elected in 2000 in the first free presidential election in Russia’s
history. He is a veteran of the secret service
• Not strongly committed to democracy
• Critics worry about his censorship of some journalists and his
treatment of minority nationalists
Russian President Putin
The Collapse of the Soviet Union
• Long Term Causes of the Collapse
of the Soviet Union
• Low output of corps and consumer
• Cold War led to high military
• Ethnic & nationalist movements
• Denial of rights and freedoms
• Immediate Causes of the
Collapse of the Soviet Union
• War with Afghanistan
• Food and fuel shortages
• Demonstrations in the Baltic
• Gorbachev’s rise to power
The Effects of the Collapse of the USSR
1. Soviet Union breaks into 15 republics
2. Russian republic approves new constitution
3. Change over to market economy in Russia
4. War in Chechnya
Following long resistance during the 1817−1864, Russia defeated the Chechens and annexed their
lands in the 1870s. The Chechens' subsequent attempts at gaining independence after the fall of the
Russian Empire failed and in 1922 Chechnya was incorporated into the USSR.
Chechen’s continue want their freedom from Russia
The Cold War: Freeze to Thaw
• NATO and Warsaw Pact
• Berlin Wall built
• Arms buildup
• Cuban Missile Crisis
• Vietnam War
• Détente
• Strategic Arms Limitations Talks
• United States improves relations
with China
• Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
• US withdrawal from Vietnam
USSR From Freeze to Thaw
• Economic decline of Soviet Union
• Gorbachev’s glasnost and
• Berlin Wall town down
• Soviet withdrawal from
• Move toward democracy in
Eastern Europe
• Collapse of Soviet Union
• German reunification
• China accelerates reform
• Vietnam opens itself to the
• Communism declines around
the globe
Japan Becomes an Economic Superpower
• In 1945 Japan lay in ruin suffering the most devastating property damage of
any nation in WWII with thousands homeless and hungry
• Under Gen, MacArthur, the US military government set 2 main objectives
• to destroy militarism, with its military disbanded
• ensure a democratic gov’t with the emperor losing all political power and a
constitutional government being set up with the people electing a Diet or
parliament and with protections of basic rights
• Japan will successfully industrialize and build efficient, modern factories that
out produce older industries in the West
• They adapted the latest technology to create high quality products
From Revolution to Reform in China
• After WWII civil war resumes in China between Mao Zedong’s communist forces and Jiang
Jieshi’s nationalists until Mao’s forces won and set up the People’s Republic of China
• China was now united and under communist control
• Reasons for victory:
1. Mao won the support of the peasant population with pledges to
redistribute land and to end oppression of landlords
2. Women backed Mao because communists rejected the inequalities of
the old Confucian order
3. Mao’s armies outfought Jiang’s army
4. Many educated Chinese say Jiang’s government was morally and
politically bankrupt
5. Mao collectivized the land to increase agriculture production, set up a
one party gov’t, honored the workers of China and set up schools for
6. He launched a Cultural Revolution to purge China of is nonrevolutionary or non-communist tendencies
China: Mao Zedong’s
Tiananmen Square Massacre
• By the late 1980’s some Chinese were demanding greater political freedom as
well as economic reforms
• In Beijing, and other cities, students, workers, and others supported a
democracy movement
• In May 1989 tens of thousands of demonstrators occupied Tiananmen Square
calling for democracy when they wouldn’t disperse the gov’t sent troops and
• Thousands were killed or wounded and many were arrested and tortured and
even put to death
• The crackdown showed that China’s communist leaders were determined to
maintain control, To them order was more important that Political freedom
China 1989: Tiananmen Square
Tank Man
The Asian Tigers
• The Asian tigers are known for
their aggressive economic
growth, they followed similar
roads to modernization and were
influenced by China and
Confucian traditions
• The Asian Tigers are
1. Taiwan
3. Singapore
2. Hong Kong 4. S. Korea
• Was ruled by China until 1895 when
it fell to Japan
• In 1945 Taiwan reverted back to
China after WWII
• Jian’g set up a nationalist gov’t and
the country experienced rapid
economic growth and US support
• Its economic success has slowly
gained it’s people more political
• Recently Beijing has reasserted its
insistence that Taiwan must be
reincorporated into China
Hong Kong
• Britain gained the island after the
Opium Wars and it stayed under
British rule1997
• Hong Kong became very prosperous
• Trade and light industry such as
textiles and electronics
• Became a world financial center
• Wealth from profitable industries
help it to modernize
• Location of China’s doorstep
• Britain returned Hong Kong to China
in 1997 but Beijing had to agree to
not change Hong Kong’s social or
economic system for 50 years and
allow its people self government
The Two Koreas
• In 1910 Japan occupied the Korean peninsula
• After WWII the USSE and US agreed to a temporary
division of Korea along the 38th parallel of Latitude
• North Korea was ruled by Kim Song and he became a
communist ally
• South Korea was non communists led by Rhee and
backed by the US
• Both leaders wanted to end the division and North
Korea attacking and almost overrunning South Korea
• US forces made up mostly of US and South Koreans
were led by Gen. Douglas MacArthur He was able to
push troops northward to near China
• Alarmed by MacArthur’s success, China sent troops to
help the North Koreans
Korean Peninsula
Two Koreas
• The Korean War turned into a stalemate
• Finally in 1953 the two counties signed an armistices to
end fighting but no peace treaty has been signed.
• The country remains divided along the 38th parallel
• North Korea is a communist with it’s state owned
industries and collective farms and attempts to develop
nuclear power for electricity and weapons. It did agree to
end its nuclear weapons program in exchange for oil and
other assistance from the US
• South Korea has emerged as an economic powerhouse with
its workers winning better pay and higher standards of
living. While early dictators were backed by the military it
did begin holding direct elections and moved toward a
• Inside North Korea nat Geo 46 min:
Night Sky Over Korean Peninsula
Anti American North Korean Propaganda
Anti American Propaganda
Children’s games in school
Kim Jong-un The Supreme Leader of
Korea since 2011
Vietnam War
Vietnam Map
War in Vietnam
• In 1945 the French set out to regain Indochina, which Japan had
seized during WWII but was met with fierce resistance form
guerrilla forces led by Ho Chi Minh, a nationalist and communist
• He was able to wear the French down and forced them to leave
• The struggle for Vietnam became part of the Cold War at an
international conference I n1954 western and communist powers
agreed to a temporary division of Vietnam with Ho’s communists
ruling North Vietnam and Ngo King Diem’s noncommunist
supported by the US ruling in South Vietnam with elections being
held to reunited the country, these never happened because the
US feared Diem would lose and communists might win
The Domino Theory
Vietnam War
• American officials believed in the Domino Theory in which a
communist victory in S. Vietnam would cause
noncommunist gov’ts across Southeast Asia to fall to
communism like a row of dominoes
• Cambodia and Laos gained independence
• Ho Chi Minh wanted a united Vietnam under his rule and
aided the National Liberation Front or Vietcong who were
communist rebels trying to overthrow Diem in S. Vietnam
• As the war continued the US became increasingly involved.
At first Eisenhower it only sent military advisers and
supplies to Diem, later, Kennedy sending troops, turning a
local struggle into a major Cold War conflict
• In 1964 the US began bombing targets in N. Vietnam and
Eventually more than 500,000 troops were committed
• 6 min overview:
• * Cartoon version 5 min:
Vietnam: Tet Offensive
• Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolutions authorizing the
president to take all necessary measures to repel any armed
attack against the forces of the US and to prevent further
• At the same time both the USSR and China sent aid but no troops
to help North Vietnam
• Despite massive US aid, S. Vietnam could not defeat the
communists guerrillas and N. Vietnamese allies
• In 1968 the guerrilla forces launched a massive unexpected attack
on US/S. V. forces at Tet, the Vietnamese New Year (The Tet
Offensive) . While they did not capture cities is showed that the
N.V. would fight at any cost and it marked the turning point in
public opinion in the US
Tunnels of Cu Chi
Hawks and Doves
• Credibility Gap: while the gov’t
kept saying US forces were
winning people could see on TV
that that was not true plus
casualties kept raising, there
were Hawks: those who
wanted to stay and fight and
Doves who wanted to
withdraw from Vietnam
• With casualties growing and
antiwar opinions growing
President Nixon finally
arranged a cease fire or halt to
the fighting and began
withdrawing US forces in 1973.
• Over 58,000 US soldiers died
with more that 300,00 injured
and around one million N & S
Vietnamese dead and cost our
nation over $170 billion
Vietnam War
Agent Orange
Execution of Viet Gong /
Village attacked by napalm
My Lai Massacre / Calley
My Lai Memorial
Kent State
/ DC Anti War Protest
(Naitonal Guard killing four students and wounding nine others)
Protesting the Vietnam War
The Fall of Saigon
• War Powers Act: Congress passed
this to reestablish some limits on
executive power. It required the
pre4sident to inform Congress of
any commitment of troops
abroad within 48 hours and to
withdraw them in 60-90 days
unless Congress explicitly
approves the troop commitment
• Two years later the North
Vietnamese captured Saigon, the
capital of the south and the
country was reunited.
Ho Chi Minh
• Why the Communist won?
• Diem was an unpopular leader with
a corrupt gov’t
• Ho Chi Minh was an admired hero
who had fought the Japanese and
the French
• Many Vietnamese saw the US as
another foreign power seeking to
dominate their land
• Guerrillas fought well in the jungle
• The communist victors imposed
harsh rule and thousands of
Vietnamese fled in small boats with
many drowning but others landed in
refugee camps with some accepted
into US or other countries
• During the Vietnam War fighting spilled over into
• N. Vietnam sent supplies along the Ho Chi Minh Trail
through Cambodia to guerrilla forces in S.V.
• In 1970 the US bombed that route and then invaded
• After the US left, Cambodian communist guerrillas called
the Khmer Rouge overthrew the gov’t led by Pol Pot
• They destroyed all western influence and slaughtered
• In 1979 Vietnam invaded and occupied Cambodia and Pol
Pot and his forces retreated
• In the 1990’s UN helped Cambodia hold elections
• Crash Course Cold War:
The Khmer Rouge
The Killing Fields under Pol Pot
Vietnam Memorial: D.C.
Vietnam Memorial
• Czar Bomba 8 min:
• Nuclear detonations time line 10 min:
• Cold war crash course 10 min :
• Cold War animation 9 min :
• Cold War Keith Hughes 12 min: