Austria - Mr. C at Hamilton

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Transcript Austria - Mr. C at Hamilton

1789 Europe
1810 Map
1815 Map
The Congress of Vienna
Lord Castlereagh of Great Britain
Czar Alexander I of Russia
Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria
Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand of France
• Distrusted democracy and political change - Restore order and stability
• Dominated the congress, wanted to restore the balance of power
Goals for Other Decision Makers
• Make sure France could not rise again to such power
• Put down revolution wherever it might appear
• Remove traces of French Revolution and Napoleon’s rule
Redrawing the Map
National borders
• Congress changed many borders
• Wanted to strengthen nations
surrounding France
New Countries
• Union of the Dutch Republic and
the Austrian Netherlands as the
Kingdom of the Netherlands
• Austria and 38 German states in
German Confederation
France’s loss
• Countries that aided France lost
• Was not allowed to keep any
conquered territory
• Countries that fought France
gained territory
• Boundaries back to 1792
• Forced to pay indemnity, or
compensation for damages
Restoring Monarchies
• Napoleon had eliminated royal control in many countries.
• Members of the old Bourbon royal family were returned to the thrones
of Spain and Sicily.
• Monarchies were restored in Portugal and Sardinia.
Metternich’s Influence
• His reactionary attitudes influenced politics and society.
• Wanting a return to absolute monarchy, he despised constitutions,
voting rights, and freedom of religion and the press.
• Liberal ideas were suppressed in Austria, the German states, and
northern Italy.
Events/Ideas to Remember
• End of Napoleon/Napoleonic Europe
• Congress of Vienna
– Metternich
• Conservatism vs. Liberalism
• Balance of Power
– Key Countries: GB, Ottoman Empire,
France, Piedmont-Sardinia . . . . and
soon, Russia
1848 Revolutions
• A universal upheaval that, with the exceptions of Russia
and England, affected the entire continent
• France—February 1848
– Revolution provoked by the government’s refusal to
grant voting rights to people below the wealthier
– Violence and rioting in the streets of Paris force the
abdication of Louis Philippe
• A largely conservative Constituent Assembly elected by
universal male suffrage
– Conflict between the government(liberals) and
Parisian radicals / socialists
Revolutions of 1848--France
Working class men of the
workshops attacked the
Constituent Assembly, declared its
dissolution, and established yet
another provisional government
– Assembly quickly restored by
the National Guard militia
– Workshops closed, class war
“June Days” of 1848
– Three days of violence and
bloodshed consume Paris
Emergence of Louis Napoleon
1848 Revolutions Elsewhere
• Austrian Empire in 1848
– Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, parts of Poland, Romania,
Yugoslavia, Italy
• Vienna’ s authority and political leadership
• The March Days of 1848
– Inspired by the February events in France, revolution swept
through the Austrian empire and through all Italy and Germany
• Metternich forced to step down
– Austria grants Hungary autonomy as war rages in Italy and
Germany prepared for unification
• Demands for liberal concessions and national freedom
1848 Revolutions Elsewhere
The German States
– German liberals longed for a unified German state under a constitution
– 30+ states of the German Confederation were the primary obstacle to
• Two largest states were the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Prussia
• Establishment of the Zollverein set the tone for greater union
Situation in Berlin
– Prussian liberals called for reform by petitioning King Frederick William
IV in 1848
• Frederick agreed to grant Prussians a constitution and to merge
Prussia into a German state
– Question of how democratic and socialist the new government should
– Middle class conservatives able to convince Frederick (Money)
1848 Revolutions Elsewhere
The National Assembly at Frankfurt
– Represented the liberal and nationalist aspirations of many Germans
but, unlike the French National Assembly of 1789, had no real political
authority, nor was it like many of the social revolutionaries occurring
elsewhere on the continent
• Its members consisted mostly of professional people who feared the
working classes as much as or more than they feared the political
powers of kings and Prussian aristocrats
– Questions of territory
• What constitutes “Germany”?
• ‘Great Germans’ versus ‘Little Germans’
– Reliance on Austrian and Prussian armies
Crimean War Begins
• Key Events: 1853-54
– Russia defeated Turkish fleet (fall 1853)
– Russia occupies Ottoman territories of Moldavia
and Wallachia
Key Events
• Britain, France, Sardinia (Allies) declare
war on Russia
• Austria neutral (but may enter war with
• 1856: Treaty of Paris
– Allies: Victory
Treaty of Paris 1856
– Made Black Sea neutral territory
• No more warships or forts allowed
– Reduced Russian influence in region
– Russian claim to protectorship in Palestine was
rejected. Russia retreats from Holy Land.
– Russia loses influence over Serbia
Characteristics of the
Crimean War
First well publicized war
Railroads and telegraph to aid war effort
Battlefield nurses, ambulances
Florence Nightingale
• Divine calling
• Criticized Victorian ideal of
an educated, but helpless,
• Created a profession out of a
un-respected occupation
– Nurses were typically
cooks and even
prostitutes who followed
– No training
Italian Unification
• "Resurgence”
• Political and social protest
• Active between 1815 and Unification in 1860
Obstacles to Italian Unity
• Historically, battleground for foreign and local
– France (1494 – Charles VII)
– Austria (Peace of Utrecht 1713)
– Napoleon (1799-1815)
• Frequent warfare emphasized local allegiances
• Age of Napoleon, romanticism create desire for
national unity and security against foreigners
• But . . . Congress of Vienna
– Gives Austria N. Italy
– French prince given Napoli and Sicily
Secret Societies
• Carbonari formed about 1820
– Patriotic and liberal
– Key figures in early years of nationalism
• Young Italy: “One Italy, free and
– Organized by Mazzini
• Organization
– Scattered cells
– Initiation rituals – “Skulls”
Key Figures
• Count Emilio Cavour: “the
brain of unification”
– Mazzini: the “soul”
• Garibaldi the "sword"
Giuseppe Mazzini: Writer and
Believed revolution would lead to
1830: member of Carbonari
1831: organized a new political
society called Giovane Italia
(Young Italy)
No King. Italy must be a
democratic republic.
Kingdom of
• “Buffer state”
• Industrialization by
• But . . .Political
• 1848 – 1st Italian War for
Independence – Loss to
• Vittorio Emmanuel =
King in 1850
• Liberal prime minister,
Emilio Cavour
• S-P enters Crimean
War to gain status
Count Emilio di Cavour
•Hated the idea of a united Italy, but hated
Austrian control more.
•2nd Italian War for Independence
- 1859: Cavour persuaded Napoleon
III(Assassination attempt) to protect Sardinia
“if” Austria were to attack - Nice and Savoy
- Austria does attack
- France declares war against Austria.
- Austrians surrender to France. Napoleon
allows Sardinia to annex Lombardy.
1859/1860: all northern states voted to join the Kingdom of
After 1860, France controls only Rome (at the request of the Pope).
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
• Kingdom of
Naples and
Kingdom of
Giuseppe Garibaldi
1833: Joined Mazzini's
“Young Italy”
Fought for Sardinian
independence in 1854.
Fought in South America
Wanted independence for
the Kingdom of Two Sicilies.
Accepted help from Cavour.
Garibaldi’s Red Shirts
• 1860: defeated the
Bourbon king of
Garibaldi’s Gift to Italy
• “Dictator of Sicily”
– Died in 1882
– Garibaldi wrote to Lincoln: "Posterity will call you the
great emancipator, a more enviable title than any
crown could be, and greater than any merely
mundane treasure.”
• Only Venetia and Rome
remain independent
Map of the 19th Century Unification of Italy
Who Should Rule “Italy”?
With the revolutionary
climate of
Europe, Italy should be a
Vittorio Emmanuel is the
strongest ruler within
Benefits for Italy of the
Austro-Prussian War 1866
• 3rd Italian war for Independence
• Austria loses control of Venetia
• Venetia annexed to Italy
• Rome remained
• When France loses
the FrancoPrussian war in
1870, France must
withdraw troops
(protecting the Pope
in Rome)
• Rome is ceded to
The Right Leg in the Boot at Last!!
Garibaldi: “If it won't go on Sire, try a little powder . . as in GUNpowder”
Problems Facing Italy
• Legacy of independent states
• Regional differences
– North: cultural heritage, economic
prospects, more cities, educated
– South: agricultural, rural, illiterate
• Italy vs Catholic Church
– Church governs Vatican
– Non-cooperation with new leaders of Italy
German Unification
The era of Bismarck
Flag of Prussia. Otto von Bismarck,
a prince of Prussia, led the movement
to unite all Germans.
Boundaries within Europe after the Congress of Vienna (1815),
featuring a strong (and large) Prussia. The Austrian Empire is also
Key People
• Kaiser Wilhelm I
• Otto von Bismarck
– Iron Chancellor
– “Blood and Iron”
– Realpolitik
• 1830s: Trade union (Ended after unification)
• Removed tariff barriers between German states
• Austria purposefully excluded from beginning
– Bismarck continued penalties against Austria
Rivalry between Prussia and
• Rivals for German leadership
• Much in common:
– German language
– Traditions, customs similar
– But . . . Some differences
– Prussia: mostly Protestant, militaristic,
economically strong
– Austria: Catholic, weaker leadership, weakened
economy from fighting wars
Bismarck as Chancellor
• Bismarck Rap
• Appointed by King Wilhelm I in
– Not a Nationalist
– First loyalty was to ruling
• Enlarged the army to support
his plan
– Support of Junkers,
industrialists, landowners
Bismarck’s Philosophy:
• Politics based on practical (realistic) needs, not moral
• In other words, the ideals of the Enlightenment would
be ignored.
• Instead, Bismarck felt that people needed a strong
• The government will use whatever economic or military
methods necessary to increase its power.
How Bismarck created
"By blood and Iron"
OTTO VON BISMARCK used this phrase to
describe the method by which a unified German
state would be created.
Compromise and discussion had failed.
Bismarck knew that Germany could be created
only through war . . . and with a strong leader.
Bismarck orchestrated the unification of
Germany through three carefully
planned wars
1. War with Denmark -- 1864
Bismarck formed an alliance with Austria in 1864.
The purpose was to declare war with Denmark over
Schleswig-Holstein. Realpolitik
Agreement: Prussia and Austria would take one
province on victory.
They called it “liberation” because these provinces
were mostly occupied by German speaking people.
Bismarck creates tension with Austria over S-H,
which leads to war between Austria and Prussia in
2. War with Austria -- 1866
• Bismarck knows Prussia can defeat Austria 1 on 1 –
Give France Alsace/Lorraine
Give Italy Venetia
Give Russia aid vs. the Poles
• “7-Weeks War” - After victory, Prussia “allows”
Austria and 4 southern states to remain
independent (assassination attempt)
• Lenient toward Austria
– Bismarck did not want to completely alienate
• But, Austria was permanently excluded from
German affairs.
• Northern States join Prussia
3. Franco-Prussian War – 1870
• Victories by Prussia worry Napoleon
– Resources are getting stretched too thin
– Willing to let France go to war to reclaim his
– Bismarck - Keep France weak and isolate
– Spanish Succession
Ems Telegram
• Manipulated by Bismarck- Realpolitik
– Wants France to declare war against Prussia
– Telegram suggests that the French insulted the
Prussians (raises Prussian ire)
– Also suggests the Prussians insulted the French
(assuring retaliation, leading to war)
“His Majesty the King (of Prussia) thereupon refused to
receive the French envoy again and informed him through
an adjutant that His Majesty has nothing further to say to
the Ambassador.
Battle of Sedan
• Southern States join Prussia
• Napoleon III surrendered, captured
• French losses over 5x that of Prussia
– Second Republic overthrown
Treaty of Frankfurt
• May 1871
• France lost Alsace and
Lorraine and
• Napoleon III no match
for Bismarck
Birth of the German Empire
• 1871:
states (except
Austria) join
the new
• Prussian king
Kaiser of
Germany (Hall
of Mirrors)
The German Empire
• 1871
• Birth of the Second Reich
• Two House legislature
– Germany is an autocracy,
ruled by Bismarck and the
of Kaiser
Wilhelm I
Quotes by Bismarck
• “The less people know about how sausages and
laws are made, the better they'll sleep at
• “The great questions of the day will not be settled
by means of speeches and majority decisions but
by iron and blood.”
• “When you want to fool the world, tell the
• “When you say you agree to a thing in principle
you mean that you have not the slightest intention
of carrying it out in practice.”
• “If there is ever another war in Europe, it will
come out of some damned silly thing in the
Bismarck’s Policies
Against Socialists
• Bismarck feared socialists would undermine loyalty
of workers – possible revolution
• Laws forbid socialist meetings, newspapers
• Failed: workers unified in demands
• Bismarck adapts
– Entice workers away from Socialism by passing
laws to protect them
– Health insurance, pensions, accident insurance
– Socialism never disappears
The Center Party – anti-nationalists
Catholics must be loyal to state before church
State can supervise church education
State can approve appointment of priests
Jesuits expelled from Germany
Marriages must be performed by Civil – not
religious – ceremony
• Too rigid
– Bismarck ends up making peace with The
Kaiser Wilhelm II
• 1888: succeeds his grandfather
• 1890: asked Bismarck to resign
• “There is only one master and
that is I”
• “Those who oppose me, I
shall crush”
• Resisted democratic reform, but
continued social welfare
• Continued support of German
• Imperialistic
Bismarck Fired
His legacy:
1891-1913 – coal output doubled
1888-1910 – iron output tripled
1914 – only G.B. produced more
finished goods
Eastern Europe (after 1850)
Hapsburg Empire
• Challenges
– Conservative ruler in liberal age
– Industrialization brings social problems, unrest,
• Emigration to US begins about 1870
– Mostly Jews and Slavs (non Germanspeaking)
Hapsburgs: Ethnic Diversity
– Less than 25% speak German
– 50% belong to Slavic groups
– Hungarians, Italians want independence
– “Peoples! What does that mean? I know
only subjects!” – Emperor Francis I (1830)
Hapsburgs: Franz Joseph
• Franz Joseph becomes
emperor in 1848 (lasts until
• After defeats against France,
and Sardinia in 1859, reform
– Constitution with
– Dominated by German
speaking Austrians
– Hungary in rebellion
Compromise with Hungary
• 1866 - Francis Deak (moderate from Hungary)
proposes the Dual Monarchy
• Austria and Hungary remain separate states
– Each has constitution and parliament
– Franz Joseph ruled both
• Resentment by Slavic groups (especially Czechs)
• Nationalism leads to Slavic unity, political and
social unrest
The Balkans
Powder Keg
– Many ethnic groups that want independence
– Russia and Serbia
– Britain and France want Ottoman land in the
Middle East and N. Africa
– Stage is set for a war in the Balkans
• “If there is ever another war in Europe, it
will come out of some damned silly thing
in the Balkans” -- Bismarck
2nd Industrial Revolution
Russian Expansion
Nicholas I
• 1825-1855
• Modernization
– Limited power of
– Did not really change the
– Feared angering the nobles
– Rigid social structure
Alexander II
• Defeated in Crimean
– Reveals lack of
progress in Russia
• Lack of railroads,
Alexander II: Reforms
• Reforms the result of liberal reaction after the war
• Emancipation of serfs
• Other Reform
– Trial by jury
– Eased censorship
– Soldier term of service reduced from 25 years to 15
– Encouraged industry
Revolutionary Currents
Reform satisfied few Russians
Peasants: freedom, but no land
Liberals: want constitution, elected legislature
Radicals: want socialism
– Lived amongst peasants, preaching rebellion
– Radicals turn to violence to get their message
– People’s Will: plot to assassinate the Tsar
• Tsar becomes more conservative
• 1881: Assassination of Tsar Alexander II
Alexander III
• Reactionary
– Revived harsh
policies (Nicholas I)
– Increased secret
police, censorship
– Exiled critics
– Democracy is
nothing but “lies
of hollow people”
Russification: One
language, one
Russian Industrialization
• 1890s: Focus on development
• Foreign capital
• Loans from France built Trans-Siberian
• Increase in political
and social problems
• Radicals saw industrial
workers as allies
– Pamphlets preached
revolutionary ideas
of Karl Marx
Nicholas II
• 1894-1917
• Last Tsar
• Ineffective
War between Russia and
• 1904
• Nicholas II: “Fight for Faith, the Czar, the
• Russia loses
• Discontent erupts
– Workers strike (better hours, wages)
– Starts chain of events that lead to the Russian
Revolutions of 1905, 1917
Russo-Japanese War
Origins & Causes
• Aggressive Policies began in 1870's
- Economic
- Industrial Europe needed colonies to act
as distributors
- Foreign Investment offered a high risk,
but high return
- Additional source for raw materials
• Political
- Strategic Colonies
- Protection and support of Missionaries
- France & England
- Spreading Nationalism
• Social and Cultural
- Population Growth
- People needed/wanted to move
- "Imperial Power Movement”
- The future of European Power would be
based on Imperial Holdings
- Charles Darwin
- Social Darwinism
- National Pride in spreading your culture
Europe in 1914