Transcript WWI

WWI –The Great War
Ms. Dyck
Bellringer: 12/16/2013
• List the three different types of trenches used in
trench warfare.
• Describe trench warfare.
• What were American soldiers referred to as on the
Western Front?
• How long did World War I last?
Answers: 12/16/2013
• Frontline, support, and reserve trenches.
• Brutish, harsh, and nasty. Wet and muddy.
• Doughboys
• From 1914-1918
Agenda: 12/16/2013
CNN Student News
Finish notes on World War I
World War I Notebook Check
When you finish the notebook check, please make
sure you are working on completing your “Current
Events.” There should be “8” Current Events by
Wednesday. This is a test grade. If you do not have
“8” Current Events, please work on getting “8” by
Bellringer: 12/13/2013
• What were the four long term causes of World War
• What was the immediate cause for World War I?
• What countries were members of the Triple
• What countries were members of Allies at start of
World War I?
Answers: 12/13/2013
• M-militarism, A-alliances, I-imperialism, Nnationalism
• The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
• Triple Alliance members were Germany, Italy, and
• Great Britain, France, Russia
• Bellringer
• CNN Student News (Maybe????)
• World War I
Bellringer: 12/11/2013
• Who was Nelson Mandela?
• What country was he president of from 1994-1999?
• Nelson Mandela was a member of what political
organization in Africa?
Answers: 12/11/2013
• He was a politician, social activist, and lawyer who
fought to end the apartheid system (segregation
system) in South Africa from 1962 until 1991.
• South Africa
• ANC (African National Congress)
Agenda: 12/11/2013 (3rd and 4th Block)
CNN Student News
HWK Assignment: Review it
Current Event #7 (20 minutes)
Discuss beginning of World War I
• Students will be able identify the political and
military forces at work in Europe in the late
• List the countries that made up the Triple Alliance
and the and the Triple Entente.
• Summarize events that set World War I into
Long-term Causes- MAIN
• Militarism- aggressive preparation for war
• Alliances• Triple Alliance- GY, Au-Hu, Italy
• Triple Entente- GB, FR, RU
• Imperialism- competition over land &
• Nationalism- some ethnic groups didn’t have
their own nation or were being ruled by
another ethnic group (wanted independence)
Immediate cause“Spark that lit the fuse for WWI”
• By 1914, Serbia
(supported by Russia)
wanted to create a large
Slavic state in the
Balkans, which Au-Hu
wanted to prevent.
• A group of terroristsThe Black Hand, wanted
Serbia to be free of AuHu rule.
• June 28, 1914- Archduke
Franz Ferdinand & his
wife visited Sarajevo,
Princip shot
& killed the
Archduke &
his wife
Timeline of events leading to WWI-1914
AU-HU sent an ultimatum to Serbia
(after AU-HU received support from GY)
July 23, 1914
Serbia rejects the ultimatum
AU-HU declares war on Serbia
RU orders troops to the AU-HU & German border
GY warns RU to stop sending troops w/in 12 hours
RU ignores warning & GY declares war on RU (Aug.1)
GY declares war on FR & GY demands that Belgium allow
German troops to pass through to get to FR. (Aug. 3)
Belgium (ally of GB) refuses
GB declares war on GY (Aug. 4)
Starting the War- Alliances
• The Triple Alliance now became the
Central Powers- Germany & AustriaHungary, Ottoman Empire
(Italy dropped out of the TA and joined the Allies)
• The Triple Entente now became the
Allies- Great Britain, France, Russia,
and Italy
Germany’s Strategy
• Schlieffen Plan- two front
war w/ FR & RU
• Defeat FR quickly and
then go after RU
Count Alfred von Schlieffen
Govt. Propaganda- ideas spread to influence
public opinion for or against a cause
German propaganda
Many believed war would be over in weeks.
War Technology in WWI- “Total War”
Machine guns
Trench warfare
*poison gas
Problems with trench warfare
Exit Slip Questions: 12/13/2013
• What were the four causes for World War I? (hint:
• What was the immediate cause of World War I?
• List the countries part of the Triple Alliance before
the start of World War I.
• List the countries part of the Triple Entente before
the start of World War I.
• Which was the first European nation to declare
war and what country did the declare war on?
• At the start of the war, who are the nations part of
the Allies?
• What countries are part of the Central Power?
Bellringer: 12/12/2013
• Complete the handout on “Causes of World War I”
1. Nationalism, Imperialism, and the arms race.
2. Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary, and
Italy; Triple Entente_ great Britain, France, and
3. The assassination of the Archduke Franz
Ferdinand by Serbian national Garvilo Princip
The Fronts
• The Western Front
-First Battle of the Marne
(Sep. 6-10, 1914)–
French halted the
Germans and the battle
turned into a stalemate
(neither side
winning/losing) in the
-Schlieffen Plan ruined
• The Eastern Front
-RU defeated by GY at the
Battle of Tannenberg
(Aug. 30, 1914). (RU
slow to mobilize troops)
-AU-Hu defeated by RU
and kicked out of Serbia
-GY, Au-Hu, and Bulgaria
join forces & defeat the
Russians & push them
back (Serbia was
attacked & eliminated
from the war)
Battles near Verdun and
the Somme River-1916 (France)
• Trench warfare was deadly and neither side ever
gained much ground
• Verdun- French vs. Germans (over 300,000 killed)
• Somme- British/French vs. Germans (approx. 1
million killed), only a few miles gained by each
U.S. enters WWI
• U.S. tried to remain neutral at first
• England had set up a blockade on Germany (to
prevent supplies from getting through)
• GY started their own blockade against GB by
using unrestricted submarine warfare with
The RMS Lusitania
• May 7, 1915Lusitania
sunk by GY’s
• 1,100 killed
• U.S. very
• GY stops
• Resumes
April 1917
p.584-585 “Special Report”
Zimmermann Note/Telegram
• Telegram sent by the Foreign Secretary
of the German Empire- Arthur
Zimmermann (Jan. 16, 1917- which was
forwarded to the German ambassador in
Mexico- von Eckardt)
• Stated GY (when it won WWI) would help
Mexico regain land it had lost to the U.S.
if Mexico attacked the U.S.
• Britain intercepted the telegram
• U.S. declares war on GY- April 6, 1917
The End is Coming… the war that is!
• Entry of the U.S. in
1917 gave the
Allies a muchneeded
psychological boost,
along with fresh
men & material
An American “Doughboy”
The Home Front
• Total War- complete mobilization of resources
& people
• Govt's. expanded their powers & drafted tens of
millions of young men for military service
• Set up price, wage, & rent controls; rationed
food supplies & materials
• Women took over jobs now that the men had
gone to war
• When the men returned, the women were
out of a job
Post-Assignment-Homework (Read pg.
1. Why was the Industries Board established?
2. Describe the war time economy?
3. How did the average American and business
conserve food during this period?
4. How much did the federal government spend on
the war?
5. How did the federal government popularize the
6. What did the Esponiage and Sedition Acts
prohibit and what were the penalties under these
7. What was the Great Migration? Why did it occur?
Continued: Post-Assignment and
8. What roles did women take on during World War
9. What was the impact of the flu epidemic of 1918?
• SWBAT describe the Russian Revolution and the
causes for the movement.
• SWAT describe key figures of the Russian
Revolution and their role in transforming Russia
to a communist country.
• SWBAT identify new countries formed as a result
of World War I and the outcomes of World War I.
Russian Revolution
• 1914- Czar Nicholas
made the decision for
Russia to go to war
(Russia was
• 1915- Nicholas moved
his headquarters to
the war front
The Romanov Family
• Back at the palace,
Czarina Alexandra ran
the govt., with the
help/advice of
Rasputin- “The Mad Monk”
• Self-described holy man
• Convinced the Czarina he
had “powers” to heal her
son (Alexis) who had
• Given power to make key
decisions at court (which
most didn’t like)
• Dec. 1916- murdered
March Revolution-1917
• Women textile workers led a
strike & later riots started over
shortages of bread & fuel
• Czar Nicholas forced to abdicate
• Provisional Govt.- temporary
govt. was set up in Russia.
• Soviets- local councils of
workers, peasants, and soldiers
Vladimir Lenin
• Leader of the Bolshevik
• Early 1900s- fled Russia to
avoid arrest by the czarist
• GY arranged for Lenin’s
return during WWI (to stir
up trouble). Arrived in
• Slogan- “Peace, Land,
• Nov. 1917Lenin/Bolsheviks take over
• Romanovs assassinatedJuly 1918
Bolshevik Reforms
1. All farmland distributed among the peasants
2. Gave control of factories to the workers
3. 1918- Signed a truce with Germany (Treaty of
Brest-Litovsk)- stopped war b/w GY & RU
Boris Kustodiev’s 1920 painting
Soviet Union/USSR
• 1922- Russia becomes the
USSR (Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics or the
Soviet Union)
• Capital- Moscow
• Bolsheviks renamed the
Communist Party
• Lenin dies in 1924 & is
replaced by Joseph Stalin
*sickle- the peasants/farmers
*hammer- the workers
*red- blood spilt by the workers who
fought for freedom
*yellow star- life and energy of the
sun; five points of the star symbolize
the single unity and international
representation of the government — 5
recognized continents.
Second Battle of the Marne
• By April 1918German troops were
within 50 miles of
• July 1918- GY stopped
by French, Moroccan,
& U.S. troops in the
Second Battle of the
• GY pushed back & the
Allies moved towards
The End of WWI
• By Sep. 1918- the war is lost for GY
• Nov. 11, 1918- GY signed an armistice (truce, an
agreement to stop fighting)
Peace Treaty
• Jan. 1919- Paris Peace Conference
• The Big Four- U.S., FR, GB, IT
• Lloyd George, Orlando, Clemenceau, Wilson
• GY & RU not invited (????)
• Wilson’s plan for peace- “Fourteen Points”
• League of Nations- organization of countries, to prevent
war (formed Jan. 25, 1919)
Treaty of Versailles (June 28, 1919)
• Article 231- “War Guilt
Clause”- GY & AU-HU
started the war
• GY forced to reduce its
army to 100,000 men
• Cut back its navy
• Eliminate its air force
• GY had to pay reparations
(war damages)
• $32-33 billion
• 2010- GY finished paying the
• 2020- the rest of the world
• The Rhineland was
established (neutral, demilitarized zone) between
FR and GY
Aftermath of the First World War
New Countries Established
• New Countries had many ethnic groups within
them, which will lead to later conflicts.
• Make sure you have copied all
notes for notebook check on
• Read about the court case—
Schenck v. United States (1919)
•Explain the major difference or
similarity in the two opinion.