Transcript World War I

Based on the following slides, identify the impact (consequences) of the
Treaty of Versailles.
World War I
Technology /
arms race
alliance system
Political Changes
A new European map was created
what changed?
Which countries emerged? Which
countries disappeared?
bye bye empires…
the following empires were gone after the war
1. Germany: replaced by the Weimar Republic
2. Russia: eventually replaced by the USSR
3. Austria-Hungary: replaced by an
independent Austria and an independent
4. Ottoman Empire: replaced by Turkey after
the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922)
States that gained territory
United Kingdom [League
Yugoslavia as a successor
state of the Kingdom of
States that lost territory
China: forcibly ceded land to the Japanese Empire
United Kingdom: most of Ireland as the Irish Free State and
Egypt in 1922
The Impact of Total War
Environmental Devastation
Forests were ravaged
Towns were demolished
Impact on European Colonies
Over a million African troops participated in military
campaigns where they saw whites killing whites and
were themselves to kill enemy whites.
Even more African men served as support forces for the
war effort. Africans were recruited in various ways
including volunteerism, impressments and conscription.
In some instances African leaders were given a quota
and they could recruit any way they wished. More than
150,000 Africans were killed during the Great War.
Contributions of African troops in combination with
ideas of self-determination led Africans to believe that
they might be given greater political and social
African hopes of
autonomy were dashed as
the colonial system was
reinvigorated instead.
Ideas of African
nationalism persisted with
the development of a
European-educated elite
class – high ranking
bureaucrats and
professionals who spoke
and understood the
language of the colonizer.
Forming a
National Identity
The ANZACS / Gallipoli
just 14 years after the formation of the
Federation of Australia, the Gallipoli
campaign began
one of first international events that saw
Australians taking part as Australians
has been seen as a key event in forging
a sense of national identity.
Dr Frank Bongiorno, Senior Lecturer in
History at the University of New
“The Gallipoli campaign was the beginning of
true Australian nationhood. When Australia
went to war in 1914, many white Australians
believed that their Commonwealth had no
history, that it was not yet a true nation, that its
most glorious days still lay ahead of it. In this
sense the Gallipoli campaign was a defining
moment for Australia as a new nation.”
The Treaty of Versailles
 France, having been held to the letter of the 1871 Treaty
of Frankfurt [Franco-Prussian War], took the same
approach toward Germany in 1919. Obsessed by
security concerns, France insisted that Germany
observe the letter of the treaty.
 Britain, on the other hand, favored an approach that
would enable Germany to recover economically. Britain
also did not want German hegemony of continental
Europe to be replaced by that of France.
 This was in keeping with its long-standing policy of
preventing any one power from controlling the
European continent.
 The British saw in Germany a potential partner for trade
and investment.
The total sum of war reparations demanded from
Germany—around 226 billion marks [reduced to 132
billion in 1921 or $442 billion in 2013 dollars]
The Versailles Reparations came in a variety of
forms, including coal, steel, intellectual property (e.g.
the trademark for Aspirin) and agricultural products
Keynes, an economist with the British delegation to
Paris who had resigned in protest over the treaty
provisions for Germany, held that the Germans could
not pay the reparations demanded of them and that
the treaty would spell ruin not only for Germany but
for all nations involved in international trade.
The War to End all Wars
A New Era of International Diplomacy
The League of Nations was created!
 The League of Nations came
into being after the end of
World War I.
 Task was simple - ensure that
war never broke out again.
 After the turmoil caused by the
Versailles Treaty, many looked
to the League to bring stability
to the world.
 If a dispute did occur, the
League, under its Covenant,
could do three things - these
were known as its sanctions
It could call on the states in
dispute to sit down and discuss
the problem in an orderly and
peaceful manner.
 If one nation was seen to
be the offender, the
League could introduce
verbal sanctions warning an aggressor
nation that she would
need to leave another
nation's territory or face
the consequences.
 If the states in dispute
failed to listen to the
Assembly’s decision, the
League could introduce
economic sanctions.
The logic behind it was to
push an aggressor nation
towards bankruptcy, so that
the people in that state would
take out their anger on their
government forcing them to
accept the League’s decision.
the League could introduce
physical sanctions. This
meant that military force
would be used to put into
place the League’s decision.
The League did not have a
military force at its disposal