Chapter 18-1

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Transcript Chapter 18-1

Chapter 18-1
The Later Middle Ages
Popes and King
Put these in the Correct Order
Invaders attack much of
Towns and trade grow
Charlemagne creates a
huge Christian Empire
Missionaries spread
Christianity to Europe
Feudalism develops in
True of False: Choose the letters of
the True Statements
a. In England and France, kings
were elected to their thrones
b. In England and France, kings
inherited their thrones from their
c. People who committed minor
offences could be
d. People who committed serious
offenses could be
e. Popes and kings had the most
power in the later Middle Ages
f. Nobles and knights had the
most power in the later Middle
Chapter 18-1 Guided Questions
Whom might a pope choose to excommunicate?
Why did some popes eventually begin to live like royalty?
How did becoming king in England and France differ from
how it was done in the Holy Roman Empire?
In what region did many bishops not recognize the pope’s
Why did Pope Leo IX believe that all church officials should
answer to him?
What might have happened if Leo IX had not
excommunicated the bishop of Constantinople?
What compromise solved the conflict over who had the right
to choose bishops?
Why do you think a king would want to select bishops
Popes and Kings
The Big Idea
Popes and kings dominated European
society in the Middle Ages.
Main Ideas
• Popes and kings ruled Europe as spiritual and political
• Popes fought for power, leading to a permanent split
within the church.
• Kings and popes clashed over some issues.
Main Idea 1:
Popes and kings ruled Europe as
spiritual and political leaders.
In the early Middle Ages, nobles and knights held power. However, as
time passed, power shifted to popes and kings.
The Power of the Popes
• The pope was the head of the Christian church in western
• The pope had great power because so many people
belonged to the church.
• People saw the pope as God’s representative on Earth.
• The pope could cast from the church, or
excommunicate, his enemies.
• Popes had great political and spiritual power.
The Power of the Kings
• Europe had been divided into many small states.
• In three countries, England, France, and the Holy Roman
Empire, kings were the rulers.
• Kings inherited their titles from their fathers.
• Kings kept order through alliances and warfare.
• The leader of the Roman Empire was approved by the
pope, so the region was also known as the Holy Roman
Main Idea 2:
Popes fought for power, leading
to a permanent split within the
Although the people of western Europe considered the pope the head
of the church, eastern European people disagreed.
Pope Leo
• Pope Leo IX believed that all Christians should answer to
the pope, and that the pope should be the leader of the
whole Christian church.
• The bishop of Constantinople disagreed with Pope Leo and
wouldn’t recognize his authority, so Pope Leo
excommunicated him.
• This decision created a permanent split in the church. The
Eastern Orthodox Church was formed by Christians who
agreed with the bishop.
• The rest of the church became known as the Roman
Catholic Church. The pope became one of the most
powerful figures in western Europe.
Main Idea 3:
Kings and popes clashed over
some issues.
As popes continued to try to increase their power, they came into
conflict with kings.
Power Struggle
• Pope Gregory VII came to power in Rome.
• The pope disapproved of a bishop chosen by the Holy
Roman Emperor, Henry IV.
• Henry became angry and tried to have the pope removed;
however, the pope excommunicated Henry.
• Henry had to beg the pope for forgiveness to get back into
the church.
• This incident made the pope more powerful than the
emperor at that time.
Info to Know
The Great Schism of 1054 was the split between the
Eastern and Western Christian Churches. In 1054,
relations between the Greek speaking Eastern of the
Byzantine empire and the Latin speaking Western
traditions within the Christian Church reached a
terminal crisis. This crisis led to the separation
between the Eastern and Western churches and is
referred to as the Great Schism of 1054. The
Christian Church split along doctrinal, theological,
linguistic, political, and geographic lines. The split,
the Great Schism of 1054, led to the development of
the modern Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox
Info to Know
A person who was excommunicated was
denied the sacraments of the church,
including mass and confession. Because
rulers were believed to rule by the
authority of God, an excommunicated king
or emperor had no right to rule.
Popes vs. Kings
Gossip Column Assignment
What is gossip?
What is catchy?
Popes vs. Kings
Gossip Column Assignment
• You will pose as the “People of Western Europe” or the
“People of Eastern Europe.”
• Choose to write a column about the “Great Schism of
1054” with Pope Leo IX or “The Clash of 1073” with
Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV.
• Columns must explain the controversy completely and
must include some opinionated views from the writer.
• Can include slang such as lol, Omg, like, really, epic fail,
rotfl, etc; but you may find another way to make sarcasm
or opinions visible in your writing.
• Column must include a catchy title