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Transcript Perspective!

In the early Modern Era . . Illustrating some
of the key Acorn points
Starting with the ____________
a cultural movement that spanned the
period roughly from the 14th to the 17th
century, beginning in_______ in the Late
Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest
of Europe. The availability of paper and the
invention of the p_________ ________
(moveable type) sped the dissemination of
ideas from the later 15th century.
________A system of thought that centers on humans and
their values, capacities, and worth although that does NOT
mean non-reilgious
John Green:
the Renaissance
As merchants’ profits increased and
governments collected more taxes, funding
for the visual and performing arts, even for
popular audiences, increased. Innovations
in visual and performing arts were seen all
over the world. (such as Renaissance art in
Europe . . .)
Literacy expanded accompanied by the proliferation of
popular authors, literary forms and works of literature in
Afro-Eurasia. (such as Shakespeare, Cervantes
Realism & Expression
First nudes since
classical times.
Expulsion from
the Garden, Masaccio,
2. Perspective
 The Trinity
First use
of linear
What you are,
I once was;
what I am,
you will
3. Classicism
Individualism  free
standing figures.
The “Classical Pose”
Medici “Venus” (1c)
4. Geometrical Arrangement of Figures
 The Dreyfus
with the
 Leonardo da
 1469
 The figure as
6. Light & Shadowing/Softening Edges
Art and Patronage
the support and consumption
of art was used as a form of
competition for social &
political status
 Vitruvian Man
 Leonardo da
 1492
The Renaissance “Man”
• Broad knowledge about many things in
different fields.
• Deep knowledge/skill in one area.
• Able to link information from different
areas/disciplines and create new
• The Greek ideal of the “well-rounded
man” was at the heart of Renaissance
The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498
 David
 Michelangelo
 1504
 Marble
The Popes as Patrons of the
The Pieta
The Sistine
1508 - 1512
The School of Athens Raphael, 1510 -11
Da Vinci
The School of Athens – Raphael, details
looks to the
heavens [or
looks to this
earth [the
here and
1.The Virgin Mary. (n)
2.A picture, statue, or medallion of the Virgin Mary, typically depicted
seated and holding the infant Jesus.(d)
Why first in the Italian _____- _______?
• $$$$$ ------ You have to have it to be a
patron of art
• And why $$$$$$$? Because each city
state specialized in the production of a
good and
• G__________ and especially V_______
became stinking rich because of trade with
the O__________ empire.
And what centuries primarily?
Other ideas regarding theme 2
Development and interaction of
Belief systems, philosophies, and ideologies
Science and technology
The arts and architecture
Martin Luther and the
The practice of Christianity continued
to spread throughout the world and
was increasingly diversified by the
process of diffusion and the
1517; Germany
Luther Quotes
“We are saved by faith alone, but the
faith that saves is never alone.”
― Martin Luther
“If you want to change the world, pick up your pen and
― Martin Luther
The Council of Trent, the 19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic
Church, was held from 1545 to 1563 in the town of Trent in northern Italy.
The council responded to the Protestant Reformation and defined the dogmas
of the church. Italian Renaissance painter Titian attended the council in about
1555 and recorded his impressions in this painting.
Religious divisions in Europe, 1648
Where were Christian missionary efforts
the most successful in the 15th and 16th
century and what branch was it?
Prevailing world religions today . . . .
In the early years of the 16th century, to combat the rising tide
of religious unorthodoxy, the Pope gave Cardinal Ximinez of
Spain leave to move without let or hindrance throughout the
land, in a reign of violence, terror and torture that makes a
smashing film. This was the____________ _____________
History of the world
Monty Python:
Remarkable new transoceanic
maritime reconnaissance occurred
in this period.
European technological developments in cartography and navigation built
on previous knowledge developed in the classical, Islamic and Asian
worlds, and included the production of new tools, (such as astrolabe or
revised maps) innovations in ship designs (such as caravels) and an
improved understanding of global wind and currents patterns, all of which
made transoceanic travel and trade possible
re·con·nais·sance also re·con·nois·sance
(r -k n -s ns, -z ns )
An inspection or exploration of an area, especially one made to gather military
Reconnaissance . . . In the
15th century
Maritime Technologies
Better Maps
Hartman Astrolabe
Mariner’s Compass
Ferdinand Magellan & the First
Circumnavigation of the World:
early 16th Century
development of a school for
navigation led to increased travel to and
trade with West ________and resulted in
the construction of a global _________________ empire
Henry the Navigator leading
Vasco de Gama, Magellan,
and other Portuguese
Spanish sponsorship of the first Columbian and
subsequent voyages across the Atlantic and Pacific
dramatically increased European interest in
transoceanic travel and trade.
Northern Atlantic crossings for fishing and settlements continued and
spurred European searches for multiple routes to Asia.
The new connections between the Eastern and Western
hemispheres resulted in the Columbian Exchange.
Ooh ahh the CE illustrates which
between humans and the environment
theme? Interaction
• Demography
• Disease
• Migration
• technology
And on to another theme: __________-building,
expansion and conflict
Political structures and forms of governance
Nations and nationalism
Revolts and revolution
Regional, transregional, and global structures and organizations
as an institutional structure charged with exercising authority within a definable
jurisdictional purview (which is often territorial in nature
generally used to refer to the political power
exercised over a defined geographic territory through a set of public institutions
European states, including Portugal,
Spain, the Netherlands, France and
Britain, established new
empires in the
By the way . . .
Russia is creating a
_______ based
empire . . .. Using in
part tax farming
Rulers used tribute collection and tax
farming to generate revenue for
territorial expansion.
Tax farming: assigning the responsibility for tax revenue collection to private
citizens or groups
historical examples in the early modern era: Ottoman, Mughal, Qing, France,
Spain, Holland, England and Russia
an important step in the development of state revenues and economic growth by
providing a method for collecting taxes across a large area without the need for
a tax-collecting b______________
Competition over ________ routes (such as Omani-European
rivalry in the Indian Ocean and ________in the Caribbean), state
rivalries (such as the Thirty Years War or the Ottoman-Safavid
conflict), and local resistance (such as bread riots) all provided
significant challenges to state consolidation and expansion.
The Ya'ruba and the expulsion of the Portuguese
In the early 16th century the Portuguese trading empire
sought to extend its influence and reduce Oman’s
control over the thriving Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean
routes. Portuguese troops invaded Oman and captured
some of the coastal areas, occupying them for up to 150
years before being defeated by Sultan bin Saif Al
During the Ya’ruba period (1624 – 1744) Oman entered
an era of prosperity at home and abroad, and many of
the Sultanate’s historic buildings and forts date from
this time.
significant challenges to
state consolidation and
The Thirty Years War
describes a massive continental conflict between European states
motivated by both political and economic reasons but complicated
by ___________ differences
Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
• Ended 30 Years War; Dissolution of Holy Roman Empire
• Set foundation for sovereign competing nation states (NOT imperial or
papal) and principle of Balance of Power
• Principle of religious determination for each state
• Europeans perfect military (b/c of competition)
whereas China, India and Islamic lands had no
such incentives to improve military
• Europe is a land of many sovereign states not
a land based empire
• Balance of Power as a principle in inter-state
Seven Year War
See John Green on 7 year war
more on Political Developments
Increasing c_________ of government in W Europe as
monarchs in Spain, England and France curb power of nobility
(NOT Italy and Germany) and develop REGIONAL land based
states and start on some maritime empires
Europe in 1600
The power of existing political and economic elites (such as the zamindars in the Mughal
Empire, nobility in Europe or daimyo in Japan) fluctuated as they confronted new
challenges to their ability to affect the policies of the increasingly powerful monarchs and
Absolutism vs Constitutionalism
________-: no room for any one
else in making law and policy
legitimized by “divine right”
deriving his right to rule directly
from the will of God.
The king is not subject to the will of
his people, the aristocracy, or any
other estate of the realm; to rebel is
France, Spain, Austria, Prussia and
Louis XIV
L’ etat c’est moi!
A visual display
of political
How does this help the sun king control the nobles?
Hall of Mirrors
More Absolute Rulers
Controlling the nobles
Nobles gain absolute power over serfs in Russia
Vs . . . .
________ States
England and the Netherlands
•Puts limits on governments)
•Allows merchants freedom from govt
•Recognized individual rights
•Representative institutions
(goes back to Magna
Carta in 1215 England)
Theme 4: Creation, expansion, and interaction of
____________ systems
Agricultural and pastoral production
Trade and commerce
Labor Systems
Capitalism and socialism
Share of the World's GDP, 1AD - 2008
Historically, the
world's balance of
wealth undertook
two major shifts, one
triggered by the
industrial revolution
(early 19th century)
and the other,
unfolding, triggered
by globalization (late
20th century).
Source: Data compiled by A. Maddison,
University of Groningen
Prior to the industrial revolution, the economic size of a nation was directly proportional to
its population, which was dominantly rural. Agricultural surpluses permitted an initial division
of labor and was used to support various crafts, administrative and service activities. The capacity
to grow food was therefore the foundation of wealth of nations, since the greater the food surplus
the larger the potential base for non-agricultural activities. Since China and India were mostly
relying on rice cultivation (the most productive form of agriculture) supported by extensive
irrigation systems, they achieved early in history the world's largest populations and
correspondingly the largest GDP. They jointly accounted for 50% of the world's GDP up to the
early 19th century. This situation would endure until the industrial revolution. The mechanization
of production brought by the industrial revolution broke the relationship between population and
economic output.
Europe in the world economy
•far more important role than earlier -but did not dominate—no
•established settler colonies in the__________, but most of the
western hemisphere was beyond their control until 19th century;
•established a series of __________ posts and the colony of
Angola in Africa BUT with rarely had direct influence beyond the
•In SE Asia, Spain conquers the ____________ and the
_________ control Indonesian islands,
•but posed no threat at all to the powerful imperial states that
ruled China, India, southwest Asia; and Anatolia or Japan
European merchants’ role in Asian trade was characterized mostly by
transporting goods from one Asian country to another market in Asia
or the Indian Ocean region.
European trade patterns, 1740
The new global circulation of goods was facilitated by
royal chartered European ___________companies who
took _________from S_________ colonies in the
______________ to purchase Asian goods for the Atlantic
markets, but regional markets continued to flourish in
Afro-Eurasia using established commercial practices and
new transoceanic shipping services developed by
European merchants.
and the creation of
a global economy
were intimately
connected to new
global circulation
of silver from the
A. Influenced by mercantilism, joint-stock companies were new methods
used by European r________ to control their domestic and colonial
economies and by European m____________ compete against each
other in global trade
Each nation must try to achieve economic self-sufficiency.
•Emphasizes the importance of gold and silver
holdings as a sign of a nation's wealth and power
• led to policies designed to obtain precious metals
•Es want colonies so they can control exports from
colonies and force colonies to import mfg good from
•Calls for government regulation
•influential in Europe from the 16th to the 18th century
Important New Form of Commercial
Organization; _________Stock Co
The shipyard of the Dutch East India
Company in Amsterdam, circa 1750.
Dutch Batavia in the 17th Century, built in
what is now North Jakarta
Since merchants were influential in E and D states, not
surprising most favorable to capitalists—but note GOVT
grants _________ so NOT total free trade
Watch John Green: Spanish Empire
Early Capitalism
Key to capitalism is _____________ own the means of production
They operate in a ____________ market—competition and laws of supply and
demand reign
Individual rights .. . are protected by the govt
It is NOT Mercantilism
It IS Adam Smith . . .
The “Putting-Out” System: 17th
and 18th centuries
“Proto industrialization”
done by capitalist entrepreneurs to avoid to avoid ___________ which were inflexible
and did NOT maximize individual profit making
Supplemental Income 
Cottage Industries: “Putting-Out”
Emancipation of the Peasantry to 1812
Population Growth
• Am food crops b/c of CE, esp the:
• Better nourishment, means less susceptible to
• Birth rates not really up but decreasing mortality
leads to pop growth
• Pop growth leads to urbanization
American foods (such as potatoes, maize or manioc) became staple
crops in various parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa . . . Populations in
Afro-Eurasia benefitted nutritionally from the increased diversity of
American food crops.
Custom of young men and women choosing their own
spouses starts . . . and affection between
_______ and _________
Also get the emergence of the ________
FAMILY mom, dad and the kids
The concept of the nuclear family was first noticed in
Western Europe in the 17th century. With the emergence
of proto-industrialization and early capitalism, the nuclear
family became a financially viable social unit
Some notable gender and family restructuring occurred including the demographic changes in
Africa that resulted from the slave trades. (as well as . . . the smaller size of European families )
European Urbanization
Still . . . Most people live in rural areas
Where do we
This artistic representation
of the geocentric model
shows signs of the zodiac
and the solar system with
world at centre.
A Map of the Known World, pre- 1492
1633 trial of Galileo Galilei
The Spread of the Printing Press
Scientific Revolution
“prove it or lose it” . . . .
reason plus proof
“16th and 17th century: period of empirical
advances associated with the development
of theoretical generalizations; resulted in
change in traditional beliefs of Middle Ages
The Royal Academy of Sciences, Paris
Effects of the Scientific Revolution
“Science: The New Authority”
• Created an interest in exploring
• most affected formal intellectual life, but also led to
changes in popular outlook
• New Attitudes: skepticism about beliefs held on old
authority; new confidence in the powers of reason;
“Can do” positive approach about tackling problems
• Not anti-religious; deism develops
“Enlightenment: Intellectual movement centered
in France during the 18th century: was an cultural movement of
intellectuals in 18th century Europe that applied methods to scientific
revolution to reform society
& Logic
Positive view of progress
Not anti-religious
Hobbes, Thomas The Leviathan
Life in a state of nature is nasty,
brutish and short:
John Locke (1632-1704)
Two Treatises of Government, 1690
Social Contract; consent of the governed
Natural rights
Govt is to protect property
Enlightenment—good government—
Philosophers asked:
• what is life like for humans in the state of
• What is the purpose of government,
• Then they defined the “social contract”
What do people give up under the social
What does the government give in return?
• Under what conditions can someone rebel
(if ever)?
A Parisian Salon
The Salonnieres
Madame Geoffrin
Julie de
Suzanne Necker
A Parisian Salon
• Gutenberg:
• Henry the 8th:
Developments Which Spur European interest in exploring
1. Crusades  wow cool stuff but we want it
directly--by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia
2. Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and
3. Reformation  refugees & missionaries.
4. Consolidation of nation states: Monarchs seeking
new sources of revenue—land for cash crops
5. Scientific Revolution: Technological advances,
new interests.
The Commercial Revolution a period of European economic
expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism from the 16th century until the early
18th century.
increase in the buying and selling of goods, a surge in overseas trade, the appearance
of the chartered company, acceptance of the principles of mercantilism, the creation of a
money economy, increased economic specialization, and the establishment of such new
institutions as the state bank, and the futures market.
This is not not not the IR