Transcript The Crusades
6th Grade UBD - Unit 9- Medieval Society and Politics
How did power and
social class impact
life in Medieval
Feudalism and Manorialism- During the Middle Ages in
Europe, the military and political system of feudalism and
the economic system of manorialism developed.
Forming Stronger Kingdoms- The monarchs of England,
France, Spain, and Russia form strong kingdoms.
The Crusades and the Hundred Years’ War- The Crusades
and the Hundred Years’ War had a strong cultural and
political impact on Europe.
In today’s Europe, castles can be
seen rising above the landscape
of many towns. Why do you
think people built castles during
the Middle Ages? What do you
think the land around castles was
used for? Why do you think
people stopped building castles?
Feudalism was based on a system of a lord granting land
to a vassal in return for services.
Feudalism produced a social system divided into four
classes: kings, nobles and church officials, knights, and
Knights followed a code of behavior called chivalry.
Peasants worked the land for their lord and had few rights.
Video- Welcome to Medieval Europe
Middle Ages- A period
in Europe between the
fall of the Roman
Empire and the
beginning of the
this time, Europe was
divided into small
The Middle Ages in Europe lasted
from about year 400 to 1500.
This period can be divided into
three sections: the Early Middle
Ages, the High Middle Ages, and
the Late Middle Ages.
During the Middle
Ages, Europe was
divided into small
The fall of the Roman Empire in 476
CE had a great impact on Europe.
The Roman Empire had provided
unity throughout Europe as well as
protection against outside forces.
Without the empire, stability was
Many of the advances in
technology and culture
that occurred during the
Roman Empire halted
during the Middle Ages
and Europe divided into
During the 800s CE, the ruler
Charlemagne managed to
reunite many of these
kingdoms into an empire.
However, after his death,
the empire again
fragmented into smaller
Charlemagne- One of
who managed to
reunite much of Europe
after the fall of the
However, after his
death, the empire again
fragmented into smaller
Each of these kingdoms was
divided into smaller sections,
In the Early Middle Ages, most
kings did not have much control
over their kingdoms. Over time
granted by a
lord to a vassal
in exchange for
Soon after the death of Charlemagne a
political and military system called
Within this system, lords owned huge
amounts of land. A lord could be any
nobleman, member of a high-ranking class
that owned a fief and allowed a person to
use part of it.
Vassals received a portion of the
crops that these peasants
Vassal promised to be loyal to
and fight for his lord.
Because of this, vassals often
kept an army composed of
professional soldiers called
Individuals who agreed to use a
portion of a lord’s land were
known as vassals.
Ownership of the land remained
with the lord, but he allowed the
vassal to tax the peasants on the
land and keep the proceeds.
Feudalism gave rise to
a hierarchical social
system that consisted
of four classes: kings,
nobles and church
officials, knights, and
Feudalism- A political
system in which nobles
are granted the use of
lands that legally
belong to their king, in
exchange for their
loyalty, military service,
and protection of the
people who live on the
Within Medieval Europe
an economic system called
In this system, the central
focus of each fief was the
lord’s castle or (manors.)
The lands surrounding the castle
were used for farm buildings,
peasant houses, grain mills,
orchards, and gardens.
The peasants did most of the work
that was needed on the manor.
In return for their work, the lord
provided protection for the
peasants by maintaining an army.
Video- Feudalism: Life in a Castle
Many peasants who worked on manors
Serfs were not slaves, because they could
not be bought or sold.
However, serfs did not have the freedom
to leave the manor. So in this way, they
were bound to their lord’s estate.
based on the manor
and lands including a
administered by a
Serf- A person who
was allowed to
have a house and a
plot of land in
return for paying
rent to his or her
During the High Middle Ages, the
economy of Europe began to get
Farms grew more crops, more
people became prosperous, and
the population grew significantly.
Soon a merchant class began to
Trade routes developed along
rivers, and roads and towns sprang
up along these routes.
These towns were also populated
by peasants who, because of the
improved economic conditions,
were able to save money and leave
The movement of peasants from manors to
towns caused the system of manorialism to
break apart, and feudalism to weaken.
The economic recovery also made kings
wealthier. Kings hired powerful armies,
gained control over their lords, and
established control over large areas.
During the Late Middle Ages,
four powerful kingdoms
developed into nation-states:
England, France, Spain, and
Nation-State- A type of
political organization in
which a homogenous
group of people have
political sovereignty, or
authority. A nation-state
is an independent
country that is made up
of a single dominant
nationality rather than
During the High Middle Ages, many kings obtained more
money, enabling them to form a strong army, gain more power
over lords, and expand their kingdoms.
Kings gained power until nobles and church officials forced King
John to sign the Magna Carta. The Magna Carta has become of
model for people who want to establish a democratic
government. Also, the strong kingdoms established by
medieval monarchs developed into modern nations, such as
Great Britain, France, Spain, and Russia.
During the Early Middle Ages, two
tribes dominated the kingdom of
England—the Angles and the Saxons.
In 1066, William of Normandy and his
forces defeated the Angles and Saxons
at the Battle of Hastings.
William became King of England.
As king he set up a strong central
government and established an advisory
council to assist him with governing.
Later, Henry II set up the English system of
common law—laws that applied equally
throughout England, including to the nobles.
After the death of Henry II, Richard I,
called Richard the Lion-Hearted,
became King of England.
He proved to be an ineffective ruler
spending most of his time away from
England fighting in the Crusades.
After Richard’s death, his brother
John gained the throne.
King John angered the nobles
with a series of laws and decrees
that the nobles believed were
In 1215 CE John was forced to sign
a document called the Magna
The Magna Carta granted a list of rights to
the nobles, thereby limiting royal power.
The common person, though, gained few
rights from this document.
Even so, the Magna Carta later became a
model for people who demanded
democratic rights for all.
Magna Carta- A
granted a list of
rights to nobles and
limited royal power.
person, gained few
rights from this
Video- The Magna Carta
In the Early Middle Ages—specifically, the
early 900s—French nobles chose Hugh
Capet as their king.
This line of kings gradually expanded and
strengthened the French kingdom.
Large-scale warfare defined
Europe in two major wars: the
Crusades and the Hundred Years’
The Crusades involved land in the
Middle East. Both Christians and
Muslims consider the land as a
sacred place or Holy Land.
The Crusades themselves were a series of military
campaigns by Christian nations in Europe.
They were intended to stop the expansion of Islamic
nations and reclaim Muslim-controlled lands that
were considered holy by Christians in the Middle
Four major campaigns took place from 1095 to 1212
The High Middle Ages saw the beginnings
of the kingdom of Spain.
In 1469, Prince Ferdinand of Aragon and
Princess Isabella of Castile married, thereby
uniting the powerful kingdoms into one
Ferdinand and Isabella viewed Muslims
and Jews as a threat to their crown and,
as a result, welcomed the Inquisition in
The Inquisition, meant to stamp out nonChristian and nonorthodox practice and
beliefs, was carried out across Europe.
In the Spanish kingdom
the Inquisition was the
worst in Europe.
Muslims and Jews, as well
as ordinary Spanish
Christians, were accused,
tried, tortured, banished,
The InquisitionAn attempt by
Church to fight
Heresy - The
holding of beliefs
the teachings of
During the 900s,
Russia consisted of
a group of
by a prince.
Weakened by civil war, Russia
fell to Mongol invaders led by
Genghis Khan in the 1200s.
In the late 1400s, Ivan III drove
the Mongols out of Russia,
beginning the slow process of
unifying the country.
Genghis KhanLeader of the
Ivan IV, who became the first
monarch to rule all of Russia.
This ruler came to be called
The Crusades—a series of military expeditions by
European Christians to gain control of the Holy Land.
The Crusades failed to achieve their goal, but had a strong
impact on the society of Europe and relations between
Christians and Muslims.
The Hundred Years’ War—a series of conflicts between the
English and French for control of France—raged on and off
from 1337 to 1453.
The Crusades - A
series of military
campaigns by Christian
nations in Europe over
lands that were
considered holy by
During the First
Crusade, the European
Jerusalem and other
areas in the Holy Land,
In 1144, Seljuk Turks captured one of
these states, and the Second Crusade
was launched to recapture this state; it
was unsuccessful, with European forces
were defeated before they could even
reach the Holy Land.
The Third Crusade was
launched in response to
the Muslim conquest of
Jerusalem in 1187.
The Europeans won some
victories but were
outmaneuvered and they
failed to recapture
Later the Forth Crusades
would be launched and
would fail to drive the
Muslims from the Holy
Land, and the enterprise
was dropped once and
for all in 1212 CE.
Although the Crusaders
succeeded in controlling part of
the Holy Land for periods of
time, they failed in their goal of
permanently controlling the
Also, their efforts caused bitter
feelings between Muslims and
Christians for centuries.
Video- Legacy of the Crusades
From 1337 to 1453 CE, the
Hundred Years’ War raged
between the French and
English over control of
This conflict was not one long
war, but rather a series of
wars divided by various
New weapons like the
longbow and cannons
helped England win
the battles of Crecy
and Agincourt during
the Hundred Years’
Joan of Arc was a French
peasant girl who believed
she had religious visions.
These visions told her that
God had chosen the
French King, Charles VII, to
defeat the English and
drive them from France.
Joan went to the king of
France and eventually
convinced him of the
authenticity of these
visions through her
simplicity, passion, and
Joan soon gained
command of the French
Inspired by Joan’s
leadership, the French
troops broke the English
siege of Orleans, and the
Joan was wounded and
captured in a later battle,
and later sold to the
English, who convicted her
of heresy and witchcraft
and sentenced her to
She was burned at the
stake in 1431.
After Joan’s death,
French troops employed
the use of cannons to
fight the longbows of
the English and were
able to drive them out of
France by 1453, ending
the Hundred Years’ War.
Joan of Arc- A French
peasant girl who
believed she had
religious visions, during
which she heard the
voices of saints
instructing her to defeat
the English and drive
them from France.
Reading Handout- Joan of Arc
The Hundred Years’ War contributed to the
decline of feudalism, as castles were no
longer an effective defense against cannons.
The war strengthened the monarchs and
central governments in both England and
Video- The Middle Ages
What were the Crusades?
How did the Hundred Years’ War end?
What were the Crusades?
The Crusades—a series of military expeditions by European Christians to gain control of
the Holy Land. Although the Crusaders succeeded in controlling part of the Holy Land
for periods of time, they failed in their goal of permanently controlling the region. Also,
their efforts caused bitter feelings between Muslims and Christians for centuries.
How did the Hundred Years’ War end?
The Hundred Years’ War—a series of conflicts between the English and French for
control of France—raged on and off from 1337 to 1453. Towards the end of the war
French troops started to use cannons and longbows to fight the English and were able
to drive them out of France by 1453, ending the Hundred Years’ War. The Hundred Years’
War contributed to the decline of feudalism, as castles were no longer an effective
defense against cannons. The war strengthened the monarchs and central governments
in both England and France.
What has been the
“muddiest” point so far
in this lesson? That is,
what topic remains the
least clear to you?
Work with a neighbor
and compare your
muddiest point with
theirs. Compare what
things are the same
and what things are
different? (3 minutes)