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Transcript Tourette-handout

• Movement Tics
– Involve head, torso, and
upper or lower limb
movements that the
patient is unable to
• Verbal Tics
– Coprolalia
• Uttering obscenities
• Occurs in only about
10% of people
– Various words or
sounds including
• Clicks, grunts, yelps,
barks, sniffs, snorts, and
Regions of the brain that may be involved in Tourettes:
Basal Ganglia, Striate, Thalamus
 Basal Ganglia
 Is involved with the control of movement
 Has three parts, two of which are thought to be involved with
 Caudate and Putamen
 Striate (Primary Visual Cortex)
 Sensitive to orientation and movement
 The ventral Striate is related to habits and patterns of movement
 Thalamus
 Receives sensory information from sensory systems
 Relay sensory information to specific areas in the cerebral cortex
 The ventrolateral nucleus of the Thalamus is thought to be
important in Tourette
 It projects information from the cerebellum to the primary motor cortex
Motor Cortex, Broca’s Area
• Motor Cortex
– Made of the Motor Association Cortex and
the Primary Motor Cortex
– Involved in planning and executing movements
(Association Cortex)
– Neurons are connected to various parts of the
body (Motor Cortex)
• Broca’s Area
– Contains motor memories needed to articulate
 Dopamine is a neurotransmitter involved in many activities
including movement
 Some studies suggest there is a higher pre-synaptic dopamine
function in the caudate nucleus, putamen, and frontal cortex
 Other studies suggest there are more Dopamine binding sites in
the caudate nucleus
 Dopamine is synthesized in four pathways
 Nigrostriatal: pathway involved with control of movements and localized in
caudate and putamen
 Mesocortical: innervates regions of frontal cortex (motor cortex and motor
association cortex)
 Mesolimbic: deals with the ventral striatum, olfactory tubercle and parts of
the limbic system
 Tuberinfundibular: involved in parts of the brain that deal with stress
(Collins, J & McCabe, P.)
Implications for School
 Approximately 40% of students with
Tourette also have a learning disability
 Detailed records of behavior is needed to
diagnose Tourette because there is no known
test to determine it
 Stress, excitement and fatigue may make tics worse
 Provide information to parents, teachers and
the child with Tourette
 Provide a support system for children with
Tourette, as they may have significant social
(Collins, J. & McCabe, P.)
Works Cited
Black, Kevein, J., , , . Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. (2007, March 30).
Retrieved May 19, 2007, from
Collins, J. &McCabe, P. (2004, Nov.) Neurochemical bases of tourette syndrome and
implications for school psychologists. NASPCommunique. Retrieved May 20, 2007
Retrieved May 2, 2007, from
Retrieved May 2, 2007, from
Frey, Kirk, A., Albin, Roger, L. (2006). Neuroimaging of tourette syndrome. Journal of
Child Neurology, 21, 672-677.
Gerard, Elizabeth, & Pererson, Bradley, S. (2003). Developmental processes and brain
imaging studies in tourette syndrome. Journal of Psychomatic Research, 55, 13-22.
Harris, Kendra, & Singer, Harvey, S. (2006). Tic disorders: neural circuits, neurochemistry,
and neuroimmunology. Journal of Child Neurology, 21, 678-689.
Marshall, Ed, Paul. Retrieved May 2, 2007, from