Inside the Human Brain

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Transcript Inside the Human Brain

Inside the Human Brain
Introduction to Anthropology, Sociology
& Psychology—HSP 3M
Inside the Teenage Brain
Adolescence is characterized by
extreme mood swings and
participation in risk-taking behaviour.
Many changes are occurring in the
frontal cortex which account for
these behaviours.
The frontal cortex, which is
responsible for reason and logic, is
not fully developed in adolescents.
Inside the Teenage Brain
Due to this, many adolescents
misinterpret emotions causing
conflict with parents, peers and
Example: Misinterpreting one’s
behaviour as anger.
The adolescent brain does not
interpret environmental information
in the same manner as adult do.
Inside the Teenage Brain
The cerebellum, responsible for
organizing thoughts and cognition,
changes the most during adolescence.
The cerebellum is not fully developed until
a person is 21 years old.
This lack of development can account for
adolescents not always hearing or
understanding what their parents or
teachers are trying to communicate and
their lack of organization.
So why do we treat adolescents like adults
if they are not cognitively the same?
Inside the Teenage Brain
Getting adequate sleep is one of the
best things adolescents can do to
enhance learning and brain
Adolescents need 9 ¼ hours sleep a
night to function properly.
Despite this, on average adolescents
get only 7 ½ hours sleep per night.
This continuous sleep deficit causes
significant gaps in learning.
Inside the Teenage Brain
Adolescents circadian clock keeps teens
up late at night, however as school starts
early they are forced to get up before they
have received enough sleep.
As a result most adolescents are not able
function properly in school as they are still
in a sleep like state.
Studies show that when teens get
adequate sleep they perform better on
cognitive tasks.
Teens that are sleep deficient show
significant gaps in their ability to retain
information and perform cognitive tasks.
Inside the Teenage Brain
So why does school start so early?
Later school start studies indicate
that when school starts later (10 am4:30 pm), teens perform better
academically and they are less
frequently absent.
However they are less likely to
participate in extra curricular
activities which are also beneficial to
healthy development.
Inside the Teenage Brain
The most important factor to
adolescent development is the
relationships, connections and
support systems formed with
family and peers.
The Human Brain--Functions
The human brain is
the center of the
human nervous
system and is the most
complex organ in any
creature on earth.
It has the same
general structure as
the brains of other
mammals, but is over
five times as large as
the "average brain" of
a mammal with the
same body size.
Human Brain
The brain is made of three main parts: the
forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain.
The forebrain consists of the cerebrum,
thalamus, and hypothalamus (part of the
limbic system).
The midbrain consists of the tectum and
The hindbrain is made of the cerebellum,
pons and medulla.
Often the midbrain, pons, and medulla are
referred to together as the brainstem.
Human Brain
The cerebrum or cortex is the
largest part of the human brain,
associated with higher brain function
such as thought and action.
The cerebral cortex is divided into
four sections, called "lobes": the
frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital
lobe, and temporal lobe.
Human Brain
Right Hemisphere
 The right
controls the left
side of the body
 Temporal and
 Analyzing
 Communicating
Left Hemisphere
 The left
controls the right
side of the body
 Produce and
Human Brain
Frontal Lobe- associated
with reasoning, planning,
parts of speech, movement,
emotions, and problem
Parietal Lobe- associated
with movement, orientation,
recognition, perception of
Occipital Lobe- associated
with visual processing
Temporal Lobe- associated
with perception and
recognition of auditory
stimuli, memory, and speech
Human Brain
The cerebellum, or "little brain",
is similar to the cerebrum in that
it has two hemispheres and has
a highly folded surface or cortex.
This structure is associated with
regulation and coordination of
movement, posture, and
The Human Brain
Thalamus is a large mass of gray
matter deeply situated in the
forebrain at the topmost portion of
the diencephalon.
The structure has sensory and
motor functions.
Almost all sensory information enters
this structure where neurons send
that information to the overlying
The Human Brain
Hypothalamus- The structure is
involved in functions including
homeostasis, emotion, thirst, hunger,
circadian rhythms, and control of the
autonomic nervous system.
 Moods and motivation
 Sexual maturation
 Temperature regulation
 Hormonal body processes
The Human Brain
Amygdala- involved in memory,
emotion, and fear.
The amygdala is both large and
just beneath the surface of the
front, medial part of the temporal
Human Brain
Hippocampus- This part of the
brain is important for learning
and memory. Specifically for
converting short term memory to
more permanent memory, and
for recalling spatial relationships
in the world about us.
Human Brain
Pons- It is involved in motor control
and sensory analysis... for example,
information from the ear first enters
the brain in the pons.
It has parts that are important for the
level of consciousness and for sleep.
Some structures within the pons are
linked to the cerebellum, thus are
involved in movement and posture.
Human Brain
Medulla- this structure is the
caudal-most part of the brain
stem, between the pons and
spinal cord.
It is responsible for maintaining
vital body functions, such as
breathing and heart rate.